Chloroethane Identifiers CAS number PubChem ChemSpider UNII KEGG ChEBI ChEMBL RTECS number KH7525000 Jmol-3D images Image 1 Properties Molecular formula C2H5Cl Molar mass 64.51 g/mol Appearance colourless gas Density 0.92 g/cm3, liquid Melting point
−139 °C (134 K)
12.3 °C (285.4 K)
Solubility in water 0.6 g/100 ml (?°C) Structure Dipole moment 2.06 D Hazards R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , , , Main hazards Flammable NFPA 704 Flash point −50°C (closed cup) Related compounds Related haloalkanes 1,1-dichloroethane
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Chloroethane or monochloroethane, commonly known by its old name ethyl chloride, is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H5Cl, once widely used in producing tetraethyllead, a gasoline additive. It is a colorless, flammable gas or refrigerated liquid with a faintly sweet odor.
Ethyl chloride is produced by hydrochlorination of ethylene:
- C2H4 + HCl → C2H5Cl
At various times in the past, ethyl chloride has also been produced from ethanol and hydrochloric acid, or from ethane and chlorine, but these routes are no longer economical. Some ethyl chloride is generated as a byproduct of polyvinyl chloride production. Should demand for ethyl chloride continue to fall to the point where making it for its own sake is not economical, this may become the leading source of the chemical.
Beginning in 1922 and continuing through most of the 20th century, the major use of ethyl chloride was to produce tetraethyllead (TEL), an anti-knock additive for gasoline. TEL has been or is being phased out in most of the industrialized world, and the demand for ethyl chloride has fallen sharply. It also reacts with aluminium metal to give ethylaluminium sesquichloride, a precursor to polymers and other useful organoaluminium compounds.
Like other chlorinated hydrocarbons, ethyl chloride has been used as a refrigerant, an aerosol spray propellant, an anesthetic, and a blowing agent for foam packaging. For a time it was used as a promoter chemical in the aluminium chloride catalyzed process to produce ethylbenzene, the precursor for styrene monomer. At present though, it is not widely used in any of these roles.
Ethyl chloride is supplied as a liquid in a spray bottle propelled by its own vapor pressure. It acts as a mild topical anesthetic by its chilling effect when sprayed on skin, such as when removing splinters in a clinical setting. The heat absorbed by the boiling liquid on tissues produces a deep and rapid chill, but since the boiling point is well above the freezing point of water, it presents no danger of frostbite. The vapor is flammable and narcotic, which requires care.
Ethyl chloride is a recreational inhalant drug, sometimes referred to as "Duster". Similar to poppers, ethyl chloride is used as an inhalant (huffed) during sexual activity. In Brazil, it is a traditional (though illegal) drug taken during Carnaval parades, known as "lança-perfume".
Ethyl chloride is the least toxic of the chloroethanes. Like other chlorinated hydrocarbons, it is a central nervous system depressant, albeit a less potent one than many similar compounds. People breathing its vapors at less than 1% concentration in air usually experience no symptoms. At higher concentrations, victims usually exhibit symptoms similar to those of alcohol intoxication. Breathing its vapors at 15% or higher is often fatal.
Studies on the effects of chronic ethyl chloride exposure in animals have given inconsistent results, and there exist no data for its long-term effects on humans. Some studies have reported that prolonged exposure can produce liver or kidney damage, or uterine cancer in mice, but these data have been difficult to reproduce.
Chloroethane is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
Recent information suggests carcinogenic potential; it has been designated as ACGIH category A3, Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans. As a result, the State of California has incorporated it into Proposition 65 as a known carcinogen. Nonetheless, it is still used in medicine as a local anesthetic.
- International Chemical Safety Card 0132
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards 0267
- IARC Monograph "Chloroethane."
- Ethyl chloride in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. http://webbook.nist.gov
- National Pollutant Inventory - Chloroethane
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Chloroéthane — Général Nom IUPAC Chloroéthane Synonymes Chlorure d éthyle Mono … Wikipédia en Français
chloroethane — chloretanas statusas T sritis chemija formulė CH₃CH₂Cl atitikmenys: angl. chloroethane; ethyl chloride rus. хлористый этил; хлорэтан ryšiai: sinonimas – etilchloridas … Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas
chloroethane — /klawr oh eth ayn, klohr /, n. See ethyl chloride. [CHLORO 2 + ETHANE] * * * … Universalium
chloroethane — noun The halogenated hydrocarbon CH CHCl, one used as an anesthetic; it has many industrial applications Syn: ethyl chloride … Wiktionary
chloroethane — SYN: ethyl chloride. * * * chlo·ro·eth·ane (klor″o ethґān) ethyl chloride … Medical dictionary
chloroethane — chlo·ro·ethane … English syllables
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