- Ukrainian Military Organization
The Ukrainian Military Organization ( _uk. Українська Військова Організація, UVO) was a Ukrainian resistance and sabotage movement active in
Poland's Eastern Lesser Polandduring the years between the world wars. Initially headed by Yevhen Konovalets, it promoted the idea of armed struggle for the independence of Ukraine.
Created by former members of the
Sich Riflemenin August 1920 in Prague, the UVO was a secret military and political movement. Initially operating in all countries with Ukrainian minorities (that is Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bolshevik Russiaand Romania), with time it concentrated on actions in Poland only. It was also active among the Ukrainian diaspora abroad, most notably in Germany, Lithuania, Austriaand the Free City of Danzig.
Apart from military education of the Ukrainian youth, the UVO tried to prevent all kinds of cooperation between Ukrainians and Polish authorities. The UVO was involved in a bitter struggle with the Poles in the twenties. The group was treated harshly and retaliated with some acts of violence. It was, however, rather a military protective group rather than a terrorist underground. [John Armstrong. "Ukrainian Nationalism". second edition Libraries Unlimited, 1963. p 21] It organized a number of
assassinationattempts on some of the most renown Polish and Ukrainian politicians, some of which were successful. Among such attempts were failed assault on Józef Piłsudskiand Voivod of Lwów Kazimierz Grabowskion September 25, 1921, a successful murder of a Ukrainian poet Sydir Tverdohlibin 1922 , failed attack on president of Poland Stanisław Wojciechowskiin 1924 and deputy chairman of the BBWR party Tadeusz Hołówka. It also organized an assault on the Eastern Trade Fairorganized in Lwów in 1929 . The terrorist actions of the UVO became one of the reasons for creation of the Polish Border Defence Corps.
Although formally it existed until
World War II, between 1929 and 1934 it became part of the newly-formed Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. Apart from Yevhen Konovalets, notable leaders of the UVO included Andrii Melnykand Y. Indyshevskyi.
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