- Peacock Throne
The Peacock Throne, called "Takht-e-Tâvus" ( _fa. تخت طاووس) in Persian, is the name originally of a Mughal
throneof India, later used to describe the thrones of the Persian emperors from Nader Shah Afsharito Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. The Mughal throne is called Mayûr Singhâsan in Hindi translation.
The name comes from the shape of a throne, having the figures of two
peacocksstanding behind it, their tails being expanded and the whole so inlaid with sapphires, rubies, emeralds, pearls and other precious stones of appropriate colors as to represent life, created for the Mughal Badshah Shah Jahanof India in the 17th century, which was in his imperial capital Delhi's Public audience hall, the Diwan-i-Am. Shah Jahan had the famous Koh-i-noordiamond placed in this throne.
The French jeweller Tavernier, who saw Delhi in 1665, described the throne as of the shape of a bed (a "takhta" or platform), 6 ft. by 4 ft., supported by four golden feet, 20 to 25 in. high, from the bars above which rose twelve columns to support the canopy; the bars were decorated with crosses of
rubiesand emeralds, and also with diamondsand pearls. In all there were 108 large rubies on the throne, and 116 emeralds, but many of the latter had flaws. The twelve columns supporting the canopy were decorated with rows of splendid pearls, and Tavernier considered these to be the most valuable part of the throne. Estimates of its value varied: Rs. 4 crore(Bernier) and Rs. 10 crore (Tavernier). According to The History Channel, the thronewould be worth $1 billion today. [ [http://www.infinityfoundation.com/mandala/h_es/h_es_shah_m_gems.html] Dead link|date=July 2008] . Shahanshah Nader Shahinvaded the Mughal Empirein 1738, and returned to Persiain 1739 with the original Peacock Throne as well as many other treasures taken from the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah.
According to an article by the Sunday Tribune, "It was, accordingly, ordered that, in addition to the jewels in the imperial jewel house, rubies, garnets, diamonds, rich pearls and emeralds in all weighing 230 kg should be brought for the inspection of the Emperor and they should be handed over to Bebadal Khan, the superintendent of the goldsmith’s department. There was also to be given to him 1150 kg of pure gold... The throne was to be three yards in length, two-and-a-half in breadth and five in height and was to be set with the above mentioned jewels. The outside of the canopy was to be of enamel work with occasional gems, the inside was to be thickly set with rubies, garnets and other jewels, and it was to be supported by 12 emerald columns. On the top of each pillar there were to be two peacocks, thick-set with gems and between each two peacocks a tree set with rubies and diamonds, emeralds and pearls. The ascent was to consist of three steps set with jewels of fine water". Of the 11 jewelled recesses formed around it for cushions, the middle one was intended for the seat it for Emperor. Among the historical diamonds decorating it were the famous Kohinoor (186 carats), the Akbar Shah (95 carats), the Shah (88.77 carats), the Jehangir (83 carats) and the second largest spinel ruby in the world — the Timur ruby (283 carats). A-20 couplet poem by the Mughal poet-laureate Qudsi, praising the Emperor in emerald letters was embedded in the throne. On March 12, 1635, Emperor Shah Jahan ascended for the first time the newly completed Peacock Throne. The French jeweller and traveller, Jean Baptiste Tavennier, who had the opportunity to examine the throne at close quarters, confirms the court chronicler’s description... Its place in the two fortress-palaces of Delhi and Agra was usually at the Hall of Private Audience known as Diwan-I-Khas, although it was kept at the Hall of Public Audience known as the Diwan-I-Am when larger audience were expected."http://www.tribuneindia.com/2000/20000130/spectrum/main7.htm]
Nader Shahwas assassinated in 1747, the original Peacock Throne was destroyed in the chaos that ensued. However, later Iranian thrones were referred to as Peacock Thrones, although they resemble a chair rather than a platform. An example of such a throne is the Naderi throne, built in 1812for Fath Ali Shah Qajar. Another Iranian throne, built in 1836for Mohammad Shah Qajar, is also called the Peacock Throne. Since then, the term Peacock Throne has come to refer not only to the actual throne, but to the Iranian monarchy itself. Fact|date=May 2008
Hindutva revisionist theory
Hindutva (Hindu fundamentalist) groups have claimed that the Peacock Throne was originally some kind of Hindu throne, usurped by Islamic Mughal dynasty later. They claim that since Islam prohibits any depiction of living creatures, including peacocks, the throne could not have been of Islamic origin. Hindutva groups have made similar claims, opposing the views of mainstream historians, upon other Mughal and Muslim Indian things like the
This claim for the Peacock Throne is dubious because the Mughal Emperors of India did not follow a puritan, Wahhabi Islam, except Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb. Most other sects and denominations of Islam are lenient about depictions of plants, birds, animals and humans, except of course Allah and Muhammad. Indeed almost all Mughal Emperors had their face portraits made by Court painters.
Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia
Darya-ye Noor Diamond
ources and external links
* [http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Base/1406/jewel/imperialjewels.html The Imperial Jewels of Iran]
* [http://www.geocities.com/Pentagon/Base/1406/jewel/18.html The Peacock Throne] Includes pictures of the actual Peacock Throne in Golestan Palace
* [http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Ext/cradle_20.html Nadir Shah throne] History
* [http://www.insecula.com/us/oeuvre/O0024647.html Nadir Shah throne]
* [http://www.angelfire.com/empire/imperialiran/golestan.html The Peacock Throne]
* [http://www.iranchamber.com/museum/royal_jewels/national_iranian_jewels08.php The Naderi Throne] A later throne based on the Peacock Throne
* [http://www.artandarchitecture.org.uk/images/conway/1943a956.html The Naderi Throne]
* [http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page3202.asp KN Diamond With the UK ]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Peacock Throne — Pea cock Throne A famous throne formerly of the kings of Delhi, India, but since 1739, when it was carried off by Nadir Shah, held by the shahs of Persia; so called from its bearing a fully expanded peacock s tail done in gems. [Webster 1913… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Peacock Throne — noun The throne of the kings of Delhi, carried off to Persia in 1739 • • • Main Entry: ↑peacock … Useful english dictionary
Peacock Throne — famous golden throne stolen from India by the Persians in 1739. Thereafter lost, it (and its reproductions) remained the symbol of the Persian, or Iranian, monarchy. The original throne, built for the Mughal emperor Shāh Jahān in the… … Universalium
peacock-throne — noun the golden throne of former kings of Delhi; stolen by the Persians in 1739 and subsequently lost; symbol of the former Shah of Iran • Hypernyms: ↑throne … Useful english dictionary
Peacock Throne — noun a) A golden Mughal throne, once used in Persia b) The former Persian monarchy … Wiktionary
Peacock (disambiguation) — Peacock may be one of the following:Biological*A male Peafowl, or sometimes any peafowl *Peacock (butterfly), several unrelated butterflies with ocelli resembling those of a peacock *Red sandalwood tree sometimes called peacock flower fence… … Wikipedia
Throne — This article is about royal thrones; for other meanings see Throne (disambiguation). The thrones for Elizabeth II as Queen of Canada, and the Duke of Edinburgh (back) in the Canadian Senate, Ottawa are usually occupied by the Queen s… … Wikipedia
throne — throneless, adj. /throhn/, n., v., throned, throning. n. 1. the chair or seat occupied by a sovereign, bishop, or other exalted personage on ceremonial occasions, usually raised on a dais and covered with a canopy. 2. the office or dignity of a… … Universalium
throne — Synonyms and related words: Peacock throne, aggrandize, anoint, apotheose, apotheosize, beatify, bedpan, can, canonize, chair, chamber, chamber pot, chemical closet, chemical toilet, commode, crapper, crown, deify, elevate, ennoble, enshrine,… … Moby Thesaurus
Naderi Throne — The Naderi Throne in Golestan Palace, Tehran, Iran The Naderi Throne of Iran is a gemmed and enameled throne made during Qajar era, now kept in the national treasure of the Central Bank of Iran. The throne has no relation to Nader Shah (1688… … Wikipedia