- Structural engineer
Structural engineers analyze, design, plan, and research structural components and
structural systems. Their work takes account mainly of technical, economic and environmental concerns, but they may also consider aesthetic and social factors.
Structural engineering is usually considered a specialty discipline within
civil engineering, but it can also be studied in its own right. In the US, most practising structural engineers are currently licensed as civil engineers, but the situation varies from state to state. In the UK, most structural engineers in the building industry are members of the Institution of Structural Engineersrather than the Institution of Civil Engineers.
Typical structures designed by a structural engineer include
buildings, towers, stadia and bridges. Other structures such as oil rigs, space satellites, aircraftand shipsmay also be designed by a structural engineer. [Institution of Structural Engineer, [http://www.istructe.org/structuralengineers/db/35.asp What do they do?] , viewed on 22 May 2007] Most structural engineers are employed in the construction industry, however there are also structural engineers in the aerospace, automobile and shipbuilding industries. In the construction industry, they work closely with architects, civil engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, quantity surveyors, and construction managers.
Structural engineers ensure that buildings and bridges are built to be strong enough and stable enough to resist all appropriate
structural loads (e.g., gravity, wind, snow, rain, seismic ( earthquake), earth pressure, temperature, and traffic). They also design structures to be stiff enough to not deflect or vibrate beyond acceptable limits. Fatigue may be an important consideration for bridges and for aircraft design, or for other structures which experience a large number of stress cycles over their lifetime. Consideration is also given to durability of materials against possible deterioration which may impair performance over the design lifetime.
The education of structural engineers is usually through a
civil engineeringbachelor's degree, and often a master's degree specializing in structural engineering. The fundamental core subjects for structural engineering are strength of materialsor solid mechanics, statics, dynamics, material science, numerical analysisand conceptual structural design. Reinforced concrete, composite structure, timber, masonryand structural steeldesigns are the general structural designcourses that will be introduced in the next level of the education of structural engineering. The structural analysiscourses which include structural mechanics, structural dynamics and structural failureanalyses are designed to build up the fundamental analysis skills and theories for structural engineering students. At the senior year level or in graduate programs, prestressed concretedesign, space framedesign for building and aircraft, bridge engineering, civil and aerospace structure rehabilitation and other advanced structural engineering specializations are usually introduced.
Recently in the United States, there have been discussions in the structural engineering community about the knowledge base of structural engineering graduates. Some have called for a master's degree to be the minimum standard for professional licensing as a civil engineer [http://www.asce.org/pressroom/news/policy_details.cfm?hdlid=15] . There is a separate structural engineering undergraduate degree at the
University of California, San Diego. Many students who later become structural engineers major in civil, mechanical, or aerospace engineering degree programs, with emphasis in structural engineering. Architectural engineeringprograms do offer structural emphases, and are often in combined academic departments with civil engineering.
Licensing or chartered status
In the United States, persons practicing structural engineering must be licensed in the state(s) in which they practice as a Civil Engineer. The qualifications for licensure typically include a specified minimum level of practicing experience, as well as the successful completion of a nationally administered exam, and possibly a state-specific exam. For instance, California requires that candidates pass a national exam, written by the National Council of Examiners for Engineers and Surveyors (NCEES) [ [http://www.ncees.org National Council of Examiners for Engineers and Surveyors] ] , as well as a state-specific exam which includes a
seismicportion and a surveyingportion. Most states do not have a separate structural engineering license. In California, Washington, Nevada and a few other states, there is an additional license or authority for Structural Engineering, obtained after the engineer has obtained a Civil Engineering license and practiced an additional amount of time with the Civil Engineering license. The scope of what may be designed by a Structural Engineer but not by a Civil Engineer without the S.E. license is very limited.
United Kingdomhas one of the oldest professional institutions for structural engineers [ [http://www.istructe.org/centenary/ IstructE Centenary 1908-2008)] ] . Originally founded as the Concrete Institute in 1908, it was renamed the Institution of Structural Engineers (IStructE) in 1922. It now has 22,000 members with branches in 32 countries.
The IStructE is one of several UK professional bodies empowered to grant the title of
Chartered Engineer; its members are granted the title of Chartered Structural Engineer. The overall process to become chartered begins after graduation from a UK MEngdegree, or a BEngwith an MScdegree. To qualify as a chartered structural engineer, a graduate needs to go through four years of Initial Professional Developmentfollowed by a professional review interview. After passing the interview, the candidate sits an eight hour professional review examination. The election to chartered membership (MIStructE) depends on the examination result. The candidate can register at the Engineering Council UKas a Chartered Structural Engineer once he or she has been elected as a Chartered Member. Legally it is not necessary to be a member of the IStructE when working on structures in the UK, however industry practice, insurance and liabilities dictate that an appropriately qualified engineer be responsible for such work.
International Building Code
List of structural engineers
* [http://www.ncsea.com/downloads/8_23_05_A_Day_in_the_Life.pdf A day in the life of a structural engineer]
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Look at other dictionaries:
structural engineer — UK US noun [countable] [singular structural engineer plural structural engineers] someone whose job is to plan large building projects such as roads, bridges, or factories Thesaurus: people who design thingshypo … Useful english dictionary
structural engineer — UK US noun [C] PRODUCTION, PROPERTY ► a trained person whose job is to examine structures such as buildings and bridges to check their condition: »The tower will be able to withstand winds of well over 140 mph, a structural engineer said … Financial and business terms
structural engineer — structural engineers N COUNT A structural engineer is an engineer who works on large structures such as roads, bridges, and large buildings … English dictionary
structural engineer — UK / US noun [countable] Word forms structural engineer : singular structural engineer plural structural engineers someone whose job is to plan large building projects such as roads, bridges, or factories Derived word: structural engineering noun … English dictionary
structural engineer — statybinių konstrukcijų inžinierius statusas T sritis profesijos apibrėžtis Inžinierius, kuris specializuojasi įvairių statybinių konstrukcijų (pvz., kolonų, perdangų, santvarų, atitvarinių, gelžbetoninių, surenkamųjų ar kitokių konstrukcijų),… … Inžinieriai, technikai ir technologai. Trikalbis aiškinamasis žodynėlis
structural engineer — statinių konstrukcijų skaičiavimo inžinierius statusas T sritis profesijos apibrėžtis Statybos inžinierius, kuris specializuojasi konstrukcijų parametrų ir jų stabilumo skaičiavimo srityje. atitikmenys: angl. civil structural engineer; structural … Inžinieriai, technikai ir technologai. Trikalbis aiškinamasis žodynėlis
structural engineer — structural engi neer n an engineer skilled in planning the building of large structures such as bridges >structural engineering n [U] … Dictionary of contemporary English
structural engineer — structural engi neer noun count someone whose job is to plan large building projects such as roads, bridges, or factories ╾ ,structural engi neering noun uncount … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
structural engineer — noun (C) an engineer skilled in planning the building of large structures such as bridges structural engineering noun (U) … Longman dictionary of contemporary English
civil structural engineer — statinių konstrukcijų skaičiavimo inžinierius statusas T sritis profesijos apibrėžtis Statybos inžinierius, kuris specializuojasi konstrukcijų parametrų ir jų stabilumo skaičiavimo srityje. atitikmenys: angl. civil structural engineer; structural … Inžinieriai, technikai ir technologai. Trikalbis aiškinamasis žodynėlis