- Principality of Karvuna
The Principality of Karvuna ( _bg. Добруджанско деспотство or Карвунско деспотство, _ro. Ţara Cărvunei) was a 14th-century quasi-independent state in the region of modern
Dobruja. It emerged as a polity under the influence of the Byzantine Empire, and probably had a population composed of Bulgarians, Gagauz, Greeks, Tatars, and Vlachs.The principality's name is derived from the fortress of Karvuna(modern Kavarna, Italian: Carbona, ancient Greek: "Bizone"), mentioned in Bulgarian and Byzantine documents and Italian portolans of the 14th century as its first capital,Fact|date=April 2007 and located between Varnaand Cape Kaliakra.
The principality was spun off from the
Second Bulgarian Empire(followed by other frontier regions of Bulgaria such as Vidin and Velbuzhd) around 1320 under Balik (member of the Bulgarian-Cuman dynasty of Terter according to some authors [Г. Бакалов, "История на българите", Том 1, 2003, с. 457] ) and placed itself ecclesiastically under the Patriarchate of Constantinople. A "Metropolitan of Varna and Carbona" was mentioned in 1325. Under Balik's son Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici (1347–1386; ruling with the title of "despot" after 1357) the principality came to its greatest power and extension and the capital was moved to Kaliakra.
In 1358, the principality was plagued by the
Black Death, transmitted by Genoese boats from Caffabefore they finally brought it to Sicily, Genoa and the whole of Western Europe. The principality had its own navy, which also engaged in piracy forcing the Genoese to complain, and possibly took part in an operation off Trebizond. In 1453, the Ottoman navy at the siege of Constantinople was initially lead by one admiral Baltoglu, a Bulgarian convert from the former principality.
In 1366, Ivan Alexander refused to give conduct to the
John V Palaiologoswho was returning home from Hungary. In order to force the Bulgarians to comply, John V ordered his relative Count Amadeus VI of Savoy to attack the Bulgarian coastal towns. In the fall of the same year, Amadeus' navy took Pomorie, Nessebar, Emona, and Kozyak, and on 25 Octoberbesieged the strong fortress of Varna, where it was repulsed. As a result, Ivan Alexander gave the Byzantines safe conduct across Bulgaria and they kept the conquered towns; [ Fine, "Late Medieval Balkans", p. 367] Varna was ceded to Dobrotitsa for his help against Amadeus.
As a traditional breadbasket, Dobruja supplied wheat to Constantonople mostly via the major ports of Varna and Kaliakra frequented by the Genoese and Venetian fleets. The republics held their consulates at Varna and kept trading colonies at Castritsi and Galata outside that city.Fact|date=April 2007
Between 1370 and 1375, allied with
Venice, Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici challenged Genoese power in the Black Sea. In 1376, he tried to impose his son-in law, Michael, as Emperor of Trebizond, but achieved no success. Dobrotitsa supported John V Palaeologus against his son Andronicus IV Palaeologus. In 1379, the Bulgarian fleetFact|date=June 2007 participated in the blockade of Constantinople, fighting with the Genoese fleet.
In 1386, Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici died and was succeeded by Ivanko, who in the same year made peace with
Murad I, moved his capital from Kaliakra to Varna, and in 1387 signed a commercial treaty with Genoa at Pera. This same year, Ivan Shishman attacked him, defeating and killing his former vassal Dan I of Wallachia, an ally of Ivanko's, but didn't manage to bring Dobruja back under his rule. Varna fell to the Ottomans in 1389, Ivanko himself dying in battle in 1388. The same year, parts Dobrudja with Drastar citadel was put under the rule of Mircea cel Bătrân, until 1420 (with short interruptions). [İnalcık, Halil. (1998). "Dobrudja". "Encyclopaedia of Islam II". Leiden: E. J. Brill. 611 a-b] In 1414, the area was devastated by Tatars. In 1413, Varna was turned over to Manuel II Palaiologosuntil 1444, when the Ottomans secured it after the Battle of Varna.
In the very end of the 14th century, German traveller
Johann Schiltbergerdescribed these lands as follows: [cite book | title = Istorija i civilizacija za 11. klas | last = Delev | first = Petǎr | coauthors = Valeri Kacunov, Plamen Mitev, Evgenija Kalinova, Iskra Baeva, Bojan Dobrev | chapter = 19. Bǎlgarija pri Car Ivan Aleksandǎr | year = 2006 | language = Bulgarian | publisher = Trud, Sirma ]
Venetian sources from the late 14th century refer to Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici as a "despot of Bulgarians" ("DESPOTUM BULGARORUM DOBROTICAM") and to his realm as "parts of Zagora (Bulgaria) subordinate to Dobrotitsa" ("PARTES ZAGORAE (BULGARIAE) SUBDITAS DOBROTICAE"). [cite book |title=Венециански документи за историята на България и българите от XII–XV в. |publisher=Главно управление на архивите при Министерския съвет |date=2001 |location=София |editor=Васил Гюзелев |language=Bulgarian |isbn=954-0800-22-9 |pages=p. 108, p. 136 ]
*Васил Н. Златарски, История на българската държава през средните векове, Част I, II изд., Наука и изкуство, София 1970.
History of Bulgaria
Medieval Bulgarian Navy
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