- Empress dowager
Empress Dowager (Chinese: 皇太后; Chinese pinyin: Húang Tài Hòu, Korean pronunciation: Hwang Tae Hu, Japanese pronunciation: Kōtaigō, Vietnamese pronunciation: Hoàng Thái Hậu) was the title given to the mother of a Chinese, Korean, Japanese or Vietnamese emperor.
The title was also given occasionally to another woman of the same generation, while a woman from the previous generation was sometimes given the title of Grand empress dowager. Numerous empress dowagers held regency during the reign of an underage emperor. Many of the most prominent empress dowagers also extended their control for long periods after the emperor was old enough to govern. This was a source of political turmoil according to the traditional view of Chinese history.
The title Dowager Empress was given to the wife of a deceased Emperor of Russia, or of the Holy Roman Emperor.
Chinese empress dowager
- Empress Dowager Lü
- Empress Dowager Dou
- Empress Dowager Wang
- Empress Dowager Deng
- Empress Dowager Liang
- Empress Dowager He
- Empress Dowager Feng
- Empress Dowager Hu
- Empress Dowager Wenming
- Empress Dowager Wu, more commonly known as Wu Zetian
- Empress Dowager Wei, daughter-in-law of Wu Zetian.
- Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang
- Empress Dowager Ci'an
- Empress Dowager Cixi, de facto ruler of the Qing Dynasty for 40 years
- Empress Dowager Longyu, abdicated on behalf of Puyi
Indian empress dowager
Queen-Empress Victoria was widowed in 1861, before her accession as Queen-Empress of India. Her son, her grandson and her great-grandson all died before their wives, and their widows were known as empresses dowager in this Indian context. Had George VI, the last Emperor of India, died before the independence of India was proclaimed in 1947, his widow would have been known as the dowager empress of India. However, George VI did not die until 1952, some years after India's formal independence and the renunciation of the title Emperor of India by the British monarch (which took place formally in 1948).
- Queen-Empress Alexandra (d. 20 Nov. 1925), widow of King-Emperor Edward VII (r. 1901-1910)
- Queen-Empress Mary (d. 24 Mar. 1953), widow of King-Emperor George V (r. 1910-1936)
- Queen-Empress Elizabeth (d. 30 Mar. 2002), widow of King-Emperor George VI (r. 1936-1947)
Japanese empress dowager
In the complex organization of the Japanese Imperial Court, the title "dowager empress" does not automatically devolve to the principal consort of an emperor who has died. The title kōtaigō is bestowed or granted by the monarch who will have acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne. The following were granted this Imperial title:
- HIM Dowager Empress Kōjun (香淳皇太后 Kōjun kōtaigō , 1903 - 2000), widow of Emperor Shōwa
- HIM Dowager Empress Teimei (貞明皇太后 Teimei kōtaigō , 1884–1951), widow of Emperor Taishō
- HIM Dowger Empress Shōken (昭憲皇太后 Shōken kōtaigō , 1849 - 1914), widow of Emperor Meiji
- HIM Dowager Empress Eishō (英照皇太后 Eishō kōtaigō , 1834 - 1898), widow of Emperor Kōmei
- HIM Empress Dowager Yoshikō (欣子内皇太后 Yoshikō kōtaigō , 1779-1846), widow of Emperor Kōkaku
Korean empress dowager
- Empress Cheonchu (997-1009), wife and widow of Emperor Gyeongjong of Goryeo and sister of Emperor Seongjong of Goryeo, mother of Emperor Mokjong of Goryeo and daughter of Emperor Gwangjong of Goryeo.
Russian dowager empress
Dowager Empresses of Russia held precedence over the Empress-Consort. This was occasionally a source of tension. For example, when Emperor Alexander III died, the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark) held precedence over Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna (Alix of Hesse) which put an enormous strain on their already tense relationship. The power struggle culminated when the Dowager Empress refused to hand over certain jewels which were traditionally associated with the Empress Consort.
There have been three Dowager Empresses of Russia. They are:
- HIM Empress Maria Feodorovna (Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg) Empress Consort of Paul I of Russia
- HIM Empress Alexandra Feodorovna (Charlotte of Prussia) Empress Consort of Nicholas I of Russia
- HIM Empress Maria Feodorovna (Dagmar of Denmark) Empress Consort of Alexander III of Russia
- Consort clan
- Queen Mother, Queen Dowager and Grand Empress Dowager
- Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
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Empress Dowager Ci'an — 孝贞显皇后（慈安太后） Regent of the Qing Dynasty Regency 11 November 1861 – 8 April 1881 ( 1 … Wikipedia
Empress Dowager Hu — (胡太后, personal name unknown) (d. May 17, 528 [ [http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2 dyna=%A5 %C3Q king=%A7%B5%B2%F8%AB%D2 reign=%AB%D8%B8q yy=1 ycanzi= mm=4 dd= dcanzi=%A9%B0%A4l 兩千年中西曆轉換 ] ] ), formally Empress Ling (靈皇后,… … Wikipedia
Empress Dowager He — may refer to:*Empress He (Ling), empress and empress dowager of Han Dynasty *Empress Dowager He (Sun Hao), empress dowager of the Eastern Wu of the Three Kingdoms … Wikipedia
Empress Dowager Bo — Consort Bo Empress Dowager of China Reign 180 BC 157 BC Grand Empress Dowager of China Reign 157 BC 155 BC Predecessor Empress Lü Zhi Successor Empress Dou … Wikipedia
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Empress Dowager Dong — (董太后, personal name unknown), formally Empress Xiaocheng (孝成皇后) (died 189) was an empress dowager during Han Dynasty even though she was never empress, because she became mother to an emperor (Emperor Ling). She was blamed for contributing to her … Wikipedia
Empress Dowager Lu Huinan — (路惠男) (412 February 24, 466 [ [http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2 dyna=%ABe%A7%BA king=%A9%FA%AB%D2 reign=%AE%F5%A9l yy=2 ycanzi= mm=1 dd= dcanzi=%A4%D0%A4l 兩千年中西曆轉換 ] ] ), formally Empress Dowager Zhao (昭太后, literally… … Wikipedia
Empress Dowager Wang Baoming — (王寶明) (455 512), formally Empress An (安皇后, literally the peaceful empress ), semi formally Empress Dowager Xuande (宣德太后), was an empress dowager of the Chinese dynasty Southern Qi. She was never empress, but as she was the wife of Xiao Zhangmao,… … Wikipedia
Empress Dowager Bian — ( zh. 卞太后; Pinyin: Biàn Tài Hòu personal name unknown) (d. July 9, 230 [ [http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2 dyna=%ABe%C3Q king=%A9%FA%AB%D2 reign=%A4%D3%A9M yy=4 ycanzi= mm=6 dd= dcanzi=%A5%B3%A4l 兩千年中西曆轉換 ] ] ), formally… … Wikipedia