- United States Colored Troops
The United States Colored Troops (USCT) were regiments of the
United States Armyduring the American Civil Warthat were composed of African-Americansoldiers. The men of the USCT were the forerunners of the famous Buffalo Soldiers.
U.S. Congresspassed a confiscation act in July 1862 that freed slaves of owners in rebellion against the United States, and a militia act that empowered the President to use freed slaves in any capacity in the army. President Abraham Lincoln, however, was concerned with public opinion in the four border states that remained in the Union, as well as with northern Democrats who supported the war. Lincoln opposed early efforts to recruit black soldiers, even though he accepted their use as laborers. Union Armysetbacks in battles over the summer of 1862 forced Lincoln into the more drastic response of emancipating all slaves in states at war with the Union. In September 1862 Lincoln issued his preliminary proclamation that all slaves in rebellious states would be free as of January 1. Recruitment of colored regiments began in full force following the Emancipation Proclamationof January 1863. [Cornish, "The Sable Arm", pp. 29-111.]
United States War Departmentissued General Order Number 143 on May 22, 1863, establishing a " Bureau of Colored Troops" to facilitate the recruitment of African-Americansoldiers to fight for the Union Army. [Cornish, "The Sable Arm", p. 130.] Regiments, including infantry, cavalry, light artillery, and heavy artillery units, were recruited from all states of the Union and became known as the United States Colored Troops (USCT). Approximately 175 regiments of over 178,000 free blacks and freed slaves served during the last two years of the war, and bolstered the Union war effort at a critical time. By war's end, the USCT were approximately a tenth of all Union troops. There were 2,751 USCT combat casualties during the war, and 68,178 losses from all causes. [Cornish, "The Sable Arm", p. 288; McPherson, "The Negro's Civil War", p. 237.]
USCT regiments were led by white officers and rank advancement was limited for black soldiers. The Supervisory Committee for Recruiting Colored Regiments in Philadelphia opened a Free Military Academy for Applicants for the Command of Colored Troops at the end of 1863. [Cornish, "The Sable Arm", p. 218.] For a time, black soldiers received less pay than their white counterparts. [McPherson, "The Negro's Civil War", Chapter XIV, "The Struggle for Equal Pay," pp. 193-203.] Famous members of USCT regiments were Martin Robinson Delany, and the sons of
Frederick Douglass. Soldiers who fought in the Army of the Jameswere eligible for the Butler Medal, commissioned by that army's commander, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler.
USCT regiments fought in all theaters of the war, but mainly served as garrison troops in rear areas. The most famous USCT action took place at the
Battle of the Craterduring the Siege of Petersburg, where regiments of USCT troops suffered heavy casualties attempting to break through Confederate lines. Other notable engagements include Battery Wagnerand the Battle of Nashville. USCT soldiers often became victims of battlefield atrocities, most notably at Fort Pillow. [Cornish, "The Sable Arm", pp. 173-180.] The prisoner exchange cartel broke down over the Confederacy's position on black prisoners of war. Confederate law stated that blacks captured in uniform be tried as slave insurrectionists in civil courts—a capital offense. Although this rarely, if ever, happened, it became a stumbling block for prisoner exchange. USCT soldiers were among the first Union forces to enter Richmond, Virginia, after its fall in April 1865. The 41st USCT regiment was present at the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginiaat Appomattox. Following the war, USCT regiments served as occupation troops in former Confederate states.
Christian Fleetwoodwas awarded the Medal of Honorfor his actions with the 4th USCT in the Battle of Chaffin's Farmin Virginia. Fleetwood took up the regimental colors after 11 other USCT soldiers had been shot down while carrying them forward. Many USCT soldiers won some of the nation's highest awards.
Postbellum and legacy
After the war many of the USCT veterans struggled for recognition and had difficulty obtaining the pensions due them. The Federal government did not address the inequality until 1890 and many of the veterans did not receive service and disability pensions until the early 1900s. The history of the USCT's wartime contribution was kept alive within the black community by historians such as W.E.B. Dubois and the subject enjoys a recent surge in literature.
The motion picture "Glory", starring
Denzel Washingtonand Morgan Freeman, depicted actions of the African-American soldiers of the 54th Massachusetts Regimentduring the assault on Battery Wagneron July 18, 1863. [See the film review by historian James M. McPherson, “The ‘Glory’ Story,” "The New Republic", January 8 & 15, 1990, pp. 22-27.]
A national celebration in commemoration of the service of the United States Colored Troops was held in September 1996. A national museum is located in the Historic U street Corridor in
Washington, D.C., at 1200 U Street, NW. The African American Civil War Memorial, featuring "Spirit of Freedom" by sculptor Ed Hamilton, is located at the corner of Vermont Avenue and U Street, NW.
Numbers of "Colored Troops" by state, North and South
*Dudley Taylor Cornish, "The Sable Arm: Negro Troops in the Union Army, 1861-1865" (1956; New York: W.W. Norton, 1965).
*James M. McPherson, "The Negro's Civil War: How American Negroes Felt and Acted During the War for the Union" (New York: Pantheon Books, 1965).
List of United States Colored Troops Civil War Units
Marching Song of the First Arkansas
92nd Infantry Division (United States)
93d Infantry Division (United States)
366th Infantry Regiment (United States)
761st Tank Battalion (United States)
Abraham Lincoln Brigade
Thornton Chase, Captain, Company D, 104th United States Colored Troops
* [http://www.army.mil/africanamericans/ African Americans in the U.S. Army]
* [http://www.mrlincolnandfreedom.org/inside.asp?ID=50&subjectID=3 Mr. Lincoln and Freedom: Black Soldiers]
*1863 Picture and News Report on the [http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1863/february/first-colored-troops.htm First Colored Regiment] in the US
* [http://www.afroamcivilwar.org/index.htm African American Civil War Memorial and Museum]
*5th United States Colored Infantry [http://www.5thusci-companyg.org]
* [http://battleofolustee.org/8th_usct.html 8th USCT]
* [http://battleofolustee.org/35th_usct.html 35th USCT] (previously the 1st North Carolina Colored Volunteers)
* [http://battleofolustee.org/54th_mass_inf.html 54th Massachusetts]
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