Xinhai Revolution


Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution (Revolution of 1911)
Xinhai Revolution in Shanghai.jpg
Xinhai Revolution in Shanghai; The picture above is Nanking Road after the Shanghai Uprising, hung with the Five Races Under One Union flags then used by the revolutionaries.
Date From October 10, 1911 to February 12, 1912
Location Chinese Empire
Result
Belligerents
Qing Dynasty Qing Empire Republic of China Tongmenghui
Gelaohui
Commanders and leaders
Qing Dynasty Xuantong Emperor,
Qing Dynasty Yuan Shikai,
Qing Dynasty Feng Guozhang
Qing Dynasty Ma Anliang,
Qing Dynasty Duan Qirui,
Qing Dynasty Yang Zengxin,
Qing Dynasty Ma Qi,
Various other nobles of the Qing Dynasty
Republic of China Sun Yat-sen,
Republic of China Huang Xing,
Republic of China Song Jiaoren,
Republic of China Chen Qimei,
Republic of China Li Yuanhong
Strength
200,000 100,000
Casualties and losses
~170,000 ~50,000

The Xinhai Revolution or Hsinhai Revolution (Chinese: 辛亥革命; pinyin: Xīnhài Gémìng), also known as the Revolution of 1911 or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty, the Qing (1644–1912), and established the Republic of China. The revolution consist of many revolts and uprisings. The turning point is the Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911 that was a result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement. The revolution ended with the abdication of the "Last Emperor" Puyi on February 12, 1912, that marked the end of over 2,000 years of Imperial China and the beginning of China's Republican era.[1] The revolution name "Xinhai" is named after the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar.

In general the revolution was a reaction to the declining Qing state and its inability to reform and modernize China to confront the challenges posed by foreign powers and reverse domestic decline, and the majority Han Chinese's resentment of the ruling Manchu minority. Many underground anti-Qing groups with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile had tried to overthrow the Qing. The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui (United League). After the Qing court transferred power to the newly-founded republic, the formation of a provisional coalition government was created along with the National Assembly. However, political power of the new national government in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and lead to decades of political division and warlordism, including several attempts at imperial restoration.

Today, both the Republic of China on Taiwan and the People's Republic of China on the mainland consider themselves to be successors to the Xinhai Revolution and continue to pay homage to the ideals of the revolution including nationalism, republicanism, modernization of China and the national unity. October 10 is commemorated in Taiwan as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the Republic of China. In mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau, the same day is usually celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution.[2] Many overseas Chinese also celebrate the anniversary in Chinatowns across the world.

Contents

Background

The Empress Dowager Cixi (1835–1908), who personified the conservative Qing court and controlled court politics for 47 years, halted the attempt of her nephew Guangxu Emperor (1871–1908), the penultimate Qing emperor, to institute reforms in 1898.
After the failure of Hundred Days' Reform in 1898, Guangxu's advisors Kang Youwei (left, 1858–1927) and Liang Qichao (1873–1929) fled into exile while Tan Sitong (right, 1865–1898) was executed. In Canada, Kang and Liang formed the Emperor Protection Society to promote constitutional monarchy for China. In 1900, they supported an unsuccessful uprising in central China to rescue Guangxu. After the Xinhai Revolution, Liang became a Minister of Justice of the Republic of China. Kang remained a royalist and supported an to restore the last Qing emperor Puyi in 1917.

After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War in 1842, the Qing court struggled to contain foreign intrusions into China. Efforts to adjust and reform the traditional methods of governance were constrained by a deeply conservative court culture where ethnic Manchu rulers did not want to give too much authority to the Han Chinese group.

In the wars against the Taiping (1851–64), Nian (1851–1868), Muslims of Yunnan (1856–1868) and the Northwest (1862–1877), the traditional Manchu armies were proven incompetent and the court came to rely on Han local armies.[3]

Following defeat in the Second Opium War the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement from 1861.[4] In 1895 China suffered a serious defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War.[5] This demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society also needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 Emperor Guangxu was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao for a drastic reform in education, military and economy under the Hundred Days Reforms.[5] The reform was a failure as it was ended prematurely by a conservative coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi.[6] Emperor Guangxu, who have always been a puppet emperor dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898.[7][3] Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled.[7] While in Canada in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to restore the emperor.[3] Empress Cixi mainly controlled the Qing dynasty from this point on. The Boxer Rebellion prompted another foreign invasion of Beijing in 1900 and the imposition of unequal treaty terms, which carved away territories, created extraterritorial concessions, gave away trade privileges. Under internal and external pressure the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms. The Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on political power by brutally suppressing, often at great costs, all domestic rebellions. Dissidents could operate only in secret societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas.

Organization for revolution

From left to right: Tse Tsan-tai, Yeung Kui-wan (President), Sun Yat-sen, three of the earliest revolutionaries

Earliest groups

There were many revolutionaries and many groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to reestablish a Han Chinese government. The earliest revolutionary organizations were established outside of China like Yeung Kui-wan's Furen Literary Society created in Hong Kong in 1890. There were 15 members including Tse Tsan-tai, who did political satire like "The Situation in the Far East" one of the first ever Chinese manhua, and later became one of the core founders of South China morning post.[8]

Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui (Revive China Society) was established at Honolulu in 1894 with the main purpose of fund-raising revolutions.[9] The two organizations were merged in 1894.[10]

Smaller groups

The Huaxinghui (China Revival Society) was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing, Zhang Shizhao, Chen Tianhua and Song Jiaoren and 100 others. Their motto was "Take one province by force, and inspire the other provinces to rise up".[11]

The Guangfuhui (Restoration Society) was also founded in 1904 in Shanghai with Cai Yuanpei. Other notable members include Zhang Binglin and Tao Chengzhang.[12] Despite having the anti-Qing cause, the Guangfuhui is highly critical of Sun Yat-sen.[13] One of the most famous female revolutionaries Qiu Jin who fought for women's rights was also from Guangfuhui.[13]

There were also many other minor revolutionary organizations, such as Lizhi Xuehui (勵志學會) in Jiangsu, Gongchanghui (公強會) in Sichuan, Yiwenhui (益聞會) and Hanzhudulihui (漢族獨立會) in Fujian, Yizhihui (易知社) in Jiangxi, Yuewanghui (岳王會) in Anhui and Qunzhihui (群智會/群智社) in Guangzhou.[14]

Other criminal organizations that were anti-Manchu include Green Gang and Hongmen Zhigongtang (致公堂).[15] Sun Yat-sen himself came in contact with the Hongmen also known as Tiandihui (Heaven and Earth society).[16][17]

Gelaohui (Elder Brother society) was also another group with Zhu De, Wu Yuzhang, Liu Zhidan (劉志丹) and Helong.[7] This is the revolutionary group that would eventually develop a strong link with the later Communist party.[7]

Sun Yat-sen with his Tongmenghui

Tongmenghui

Sun Yat-sen successfully united the Revive China Society, Huaxingwui and Guangfuhui in the summer of 1905, thereby establishing the unified Tongmenghui (United League) in August 1905 in Tokyo.[18] While it started in Tokyo, it has loose organizations distributed across the country and outside the country. Sun Yat-sen was the leader of this unified group. Other revolutionaries that worked with the Tongmenghui include Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin. When the Tongmenhui was established, more than 90% of the Tongmenhui members were between age of 17 and 26 years of age.[19] Some of the work in the era include manhua publications like the Journal of Current Pictorial.[20]

Later groups

In February 1906 Rizhihui (日知會) also had many revolutionaries including Sun Wu (孫武), Zhang Nanxian (張難先), He Jiwei and Feng Mumin.[21][22] A nucleus of attendees of this conference evolved into the Tongmenhui's establishment in Hubei.

In July 1907 several members of Tongmenhui in Tokyo advocated a revolution in the area of the Yangtze River. Liu Quiyi (劉揆一), Jiao Dafeng (焦達峰), Zhang Boxiang (張伯祥) and Sun Wu (孫武) established Gongjinhui (Progressive Association) (共進會).[23][24] In January 1911 revolutionary group Zhengwu Xueshe (振武學社) was renamed as Wenxueshe (Literary society) (文學社).[25] Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) was chosen as the leader.[26] These two organizations would play a big role in the Wuchang Uprising.

Political views

Many revolutionaries promoted anti-Qing / anti-Manchu sentiments, and revived memories of conflict between the ethnic minority Manchu and the ethnic majority Han Chinese from the late Ming Dynasty. Leading intellectuals were influenced by books that had survived from the last years of Ming dynasty (1368–1644), the last dynasty of Han Chinese. In 1904 Sun Yat-sen came about with the goal "to expel the Tatar barbarians, to revive Zhonghua, to establish a Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people." (驅除韃虜, 恢復中華, 創立民國, 平均地權).[27] Many of the underground groups promoted the ideas of "Resist Qing and restore Ming" (反清復明) that has been around since the days of the Taiping Rebellion.[28] Others like Zhang Binglin supported straight up lines like "slay the manchus" and support concepts like Anti-Manchuism (興漢滅胡 / 排滿主義).[29]

Strata and groups

The Xinhai Revolution was supported by many groups, including students and intellectuals who returned from abroad, as well as participants of the revolutionary organizations, overseas Chinese, soldiers of the new army, local gentry, farmers, and others.

Sun Yat-sen arrived in Singapore for the last time on December 16, 1911, residing in the Golden Bell Mansion

Overseas Chinese

Assistance from overseas Chinese was important in the Xinhai Revolution. In the first year of the Revive China Society in 1894, the first meeting ever held by the group was held in the home of Ho Fon, an overseas Chinese who was also the leader of the first Chinese church of Christ.[30] Overseas Chinese support and actively participated in the funding of revolutionary activities, especially by the Southeast Asia Chinese of Malaya (Singapore and Malaysia).[31] Many of these groups were reorganized by Sun, who was referred to as the "mother of the Chinese revolution".[31]

Newly emerged intellectuals

In 1906 after the abolition of the imperial examinations, the Qing Government established many new schools and encouraged students to study abroad. Many young people attended the new schools or went abroad to study to places like Japan.[32] A new class of intellectuals emerged from those students who had studied overseas or at the new schools, in places like Japan. These Chinese students in Japan contributed immensely to the Xinhai Revolution. Besides Sun Yat-sen, key figures in the revolution such as Huang Xing, Song Jiaoren, Hu Hanmin, Liao Zhongkai, Zhu Zhixin, and Wang Jingwei, were all Chinese students in Japan. Some young students like Zou Rong was known for writing the book "Revolutionary Army" where he talked about the extermination of the manchus for the 260 years of oppression and sorrow, cruelty and tyranny, and turn the sons and grandsons of Yellow Emperor into George Washingtons.[33]

Before 1908, revolutionaries focused on coordinating these organizations in preparation for uprisings that these organizations would launch; hence, these groups would provide most of the manpower needed for the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. After the Xinhai Revolution, Sun Yat-sen recalled the days of recruiting support for the revolution and said "The literati were deeply into the search for honors and profits, so they were regarded as having only secondary importance. By contrast, organizations like Sanhehui were able to sow widely the ideas of resisting the Qing and restoring the Ming."[34]

Gentry and businessmen

Prince Qing with some royal cabinet members

The strength of the gentry in local politics had become apparent. From December 1908, the Qing Government created some government apparatus to allow the gentry and businessmen to participate in politics. These middle-class people were originally supporters of constitutionalism. However, they became disenchanted when the Qing Government created a cabinet with Prince Qing as prime minister.[35] By early 1911 an experimental cabinet had 13 members, 9 of which were Manchus selected from imperial family.[36]

Foreigners

Besides Chinese and overseas Chinese, some of the supporters and participants of Xinhai Revolution were foreigners; among foreigners, the Japanese were the most active group. Some Japanese even became members of Tongmenghui. Miyazaki Touten was the closest Japanese supporter, others include Heiyama Shu or Ryōhei Uchida. British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern also took part in the revolution.[37] Some foreigners such as English explorer Arthur de Carle Sowerby led expeditions to rescue many foreign missionaries between 1911 and 1912.[38]

Yuan Shikai (1859–1916)
Yuan, who betrayed the Guangxu reformers to the Empress Dowager, rose to power in north China and built the Beiyang Army.

Soldiers of the new armies

The New Army was formed in 1901 after the defeat of the Qings from the First Sino-Japanese war.[32] They were launched by a decree from eight provinces.[32] New Army were by far the best trained and equipped.[32] They were better recruited than old formations and received regular promotions.[32] Beginning in 1908, the revolutionaries began to shift their call to the new armies. Sun Yat-sen and the revolutionaries infiltrated the New Army.[39]

Uprisings and incidents

The general focus of the uprisings are those that surround the Tongmenghui and Sun Yat-sen including the smaller groups within. Some uprisings below involve groups that never merged with the Tongmenghui. Sun Yat-sen may have participated in 8–10 uprisings; all uprisings prior to the Wuchang Uprising had failed.

Flag of the First Guangzhou Uprising

First Guangzhou Uprising

In spring 1895, the Revive China Society, which was based in Hong Kong, planned the first "Guangzhou uprising" (廣州起義). Lu Haodong was tasked with designing the revolutionaries' Blue Sky with a White Sun flag.[31] On October 26, 1895, Yeung Kui-wan and Sun Yat-sen led Zhen Shiliang and Lu Haodong to Guangzhou, preparing to capture Guangzhou in one strike. However, the details of their plans were leaked to the government.[40] The Qing Government began to arrest revolutionaries, including Lu Haodong, who was later executed.[40] The first Guangzhou uprising was admittedly a failure. Under the pressure from Qing Government, the government of Hong Kong forbade these two men to enter the territory for five years. Sun Yat-sen went into exile, promoting the Chinese revolution and raising funds in Japan, the United States, Canada and Britain on behalf of the revolution. In 1901, Yeung Kui-wan was assassinated by Qing agents in Hong Kong.[41] After his death his family protected his identity on his tomb without his name, and just a number: 6348.[41]

Independence Army Uprising

In 1900, after the Boxer Rebellion started, Tang Caichang (唐才常) and Tan Sitong of the previous Foot Emancipation Society organised the Independence Army. The "Independence Army Uprising" (自立軍起義) was planned to occur on August 23, 1900.[42] Their goal was to overthrow Empress Dowager Cixi to establish a constitutional monarchy under Emperor Guangxu. Their plot was discovered by the governor general of Hunan and Hubei. About 20 conspirators were arrested and executed.[42]

Huizhou Uprising

On October 8, 1900, Sun Yat-sen ordered the launch of the "Huizhou Uprising" (惠州起義).[43] The revolutionary army was led by Zheng Shiliang and initially included 20,000 men, who fought for half a month. However, after the Japanese Prime Minister prohibited Sun Yat-sen from carrying out revolutionary activities on Taiwan, Zheng Shiliang had no choice but to order the army to disperse. This uprising therefore also failed. British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern participated in this uprising.[37]

Two important Qing figures at the time

Great Ming Uprising

A very short uprising occurred from January 25 to 28 in 1903 to establish a "Great Ming Heavenly kingdom" (大明順天國).[44] This involved Tse Tsan-tai, Li Jitong (李紀堂), Liang Muguang (梁慕光) and Hong Chunfu (洪全福) who formerly took part in the Jintian Uprising during the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom era.[45]

Ping-liu-li Uprising

Ma Fuyi (馬福益) and Huaxinghui was involved in an uprising in three areas of Pingxiang, Liuyang and Liling called "Ping-liu-li Uprising" (萍瀏醴起義) in 1905.[46] The uprising recruited miners as early as 1903 to rise against the Qing ruling class. After the uprising failed, Ma Fuyi was executed.[46]

Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway assassination attempt

Wu Yue (吳樾) of Guangfuhui carried out an assassination attempt at the Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway station (正陽門車站) in an attack on five Qing officials on September 24, 1905.[13][47]

Huanggang Uprising

The "Huanggang Uprising" (黃岡起義) was launched on May 22, 1907 in Chaozhou.[48] The Revolutionary party, along with Xu Xueqiu (許雪秋), Chen Yongpo (陳湧波), and Yu Tongshi (余通實) launched the uprising and captured Huanggang city.[48] Other Japanese that followed include (萱野長知) and (池亨吉).[48] After the uprising, Qing Government quickly and forcefully suppressed the uprising. Around 200 revolutionaries were killed with the uprising failing.[49]

Huizhou seven women lake Uprising

In the same year, Sun Yat-sen sent more revolutionaries were in Huizhou to launch the "Huizhou seven women lake Uprising" (惠州七女湖起義).[50] On June 2 Deng Zhiyu (鄧子瑜) and Chen Chuan (陳純) gathered a few members and together they seized Qing arms in the lake, 20km from Huizhou.[51] They killed several Qing soldiers and attacked Taiwei (泰尾) on the 5th.[51] The Qing Army fled in disorder and the revolutionaries exploited the opportunity, capturing several towns. They defeated the Qing Army once again in Bazhiyie. Many organizations voiced their support after the uprising, and the number of troops increased to 200 men at its height. The uprising failed in the end.

A statue to honor female revolutionary Qiu Jin

Anqing Uprising

On July 6, 1907, Xu Xilin of Guangfuhui led an uprising in Anqing, Anhui, which became known as the "Anqing Uprising" (安慶起義).[25] Xu Xilin at the time was the police commissioner as well as the supervisor of the police academy. He led an uprising that was to also assassinate the provincial governor of Anhui En Ming (恩銘).[52] They were defeated after four hours of struggle. Xu was captured where bodyguards cut out his heart and liver and ate them.[52] His cousin Qiu Jin was also executed a few days later.[52]

Qinzhou Uprising

Between August to September 1907 was the "Qinzhou Uprising" (欽州防城起義).[53], caused to protest against heavy taxation from the government. Sun Yat-sen sent Wang Heshun (王和順) there to assist the revolutionary army and captured the county on September.[54] After that, they attempted to besiege and capture Qinzhou, but they were unsuccessful. They eventually retreated to the area of Shiwandashan while Wang Heshun returned to Vietnam.

Zhennanguan Uprising

On December 1, 1907, the "Zhennanguan Uprising" (鎮南關起事) took place at Zhennanguan, a border on the Chinese-Vietnamese border. Sun Yat-sen sent Huang Mintang (黃明堂) to monitor the pass, which was guarded by a fort.[54] With the assistance of supporters among the fort's defenders, the revolutionaries captured the cannon tower in Zhennanguan. Sun Yat-sen, Huang Xing and Hu Hanmin personally went to the tower to command the battle.[55] Qing Government sent armies to counterattack, and the revolutionaries were forced to retreat into mountainous areas. After the failure of this uprising, Sun was forced to move to Singapore due to anti-Sun sentiments within the revolutionary groups.[56] He would not return to the mainland until after the Wuchang Uprising.

Qin-lian Uprising

On March 27, 1908, Huang Xing launched a raid, later known as the "Qin-lian Uprising" (欽廉上思起義), from a base in Vietnam and attacked the cities of Qinzhou and Lianzhou in Guangdong. The struggle continued for 14 days, but was forced to terminate after the revolutionaries ran out of supplies. [57]

Hekou Uprising

In April 1908, another uprising was launched in Yunnan Hekou called the "Hekou Uprising" (雲南河口起義). Huang Mingtang (黃明堂) led 200 men from Vietnam and attacked Hekou on April 30, 1908. Other revolutionaries that participated include Wang Heshun (王和順) and Guan Renfu (關仁甫). They were outnumbered and defeated, thus causing the uprising to fail. [58]

Mapaoying Uprising

On November 19, 1908, the "Mapaiying Uprising" (馬炮營起義) was launched by revolutionary group Yuewanghui (岳王會) member Xiong Chenggei (熊成基) at Anhui.[59] Yuewanghui at this time is a subset of Tongmenghui. This uprising also failed.

Gengxu New Army Uprising

In February 1910, the "Gengxu New Army Uprising" (庚戌新軍起義) also known as "Guangzhou New Army Uprising" (廣州新軍起義) took place.[60] This event involved a conflict between the citizens as well as the police enforcements and the New Army. After the revolutionary leader Ni Yingdian was killed by Qing forces, the remaining revolutionaries were quickly defeated, causing the uprising to fail. Despite this, it instilled great confidence among the people in the revolutionaries.

The memorial for the 72 martyrs

Second Guangzhou Uprising

On April 27, 1911, an uprising was held in Guangzhou known as the "Second Guangzhou Uprising" (辛亥廣州起義) or "Yellow Flower Mound revolt" (黃花岡之役). The result was a disaster as only 72 bodies were ever found.[61] The 72 revolutionaries were remembered as martyrs.[61]

Wuchang Uprising

The Iron blood 18-star flag
Paths of the uprising

The Literary Society (文學社) and the Progressive Association (共進會) were revolutionary organizations that were involved in the uprising that mainly started out from the Railway Protection Movement.[62] In the late summer, some Hubei New Army units were ordered to neighboring Sichuan to quell the Railway Protection Movement, a mass protest of the Qing government's seizure and handover of local railway development ventures to foreign powers.[7]

The New Army units of Hubei had originally been the "Hubei Army," which had been trained by Qing official Zhang Zhidong.[1] On September 24, the Literary Society and Progressive Association convened a conference in Wuchang along with 60 representatives from local New Army units. During the conference, they established a headquarters for the uprising. The leaders of the two organizations, Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) and Sun Wu (孫武), were elected as the commander and the chief of staff. Initially the date of the uprising was to be October 6, 1911.[63] It was postponed to a later date due to insufficient preparations.

On October 9, Revolutionaries intent on overthrowing the Qing dynasty had built bombs and one accidentally exploded.[63] Sun Yat-sen himself had no direct part in the uprising and was traveling in the United States at the time in an effort to recruit more support from among overseas Chinese. The Qing Viceroy of Huguang Duan Zheng (瑞澂) tried to track down and arrest the revolutionaries.[64] Squad leader Xiong Bingkun (熊秉坤) and others decided not to delay the uprising any longer and launched the revolt at October 10, 1911 at 7 pm.[64] The revolt was a success; the entire city of Wuchang was captured by the revolutionaries by the morning of October 11. In the evening that day, they established a tactical headquarters and announced the establishment of the "Military Government of Hubei of Republic of China."[64] The conference chose Li Yuanhong as the governor of the temporary government.[64] The up and coming Battle of Yangxia led by Huang Xing would be a decisive battle of the uprising when the Qing responds.

After Wuchang, echoes from other provinces

Uprising map during the Xinhai revolution

After the success of the Wuchang uprising, many people followed in cities and towns in other provinces with more uprisings of their own. Many of the uprisings are followed up with restorations (光復). Some areas have more of an uprising tone, while others may have more of an independence tone depending on source. Essentially all province left the Qing to join the Republic of China.

Changsha restoration

On October 22, 1911 the Hunan Tongmenghui members were led by Jiao Dafeng (焦達嶧) and Chen Zuoxin (陳作新).[65] They led an armed group consisting partly revolutionaries from Hongjiang and partly of New Army units in a campaign to extend the uprising into Changsha.[65] They then captured the city and killed the local Imperial general. Then they announced the establishment of "Hunan Military Government of the Republic of China", and announced their opposition to the Qing Empire.[65]

Shaanxi Uprising

On the same day, a member of Shaanxi's Tongmenghui, Jing Dingcheng (景定成), Qian ding (錢鼎) as well as Jing Wumu (井勿幕) and others including Gelaohui, launched an uprising and captured Xi'an after two days of struggle.[66] The Muslim General Ma Anliang led over 20 battalions of Hui Muslim troops to defend the Qings by attacking Shaanxi against revolutionary Zhang Fenghui (張鳳翽).[67] Ma Anliang attacked the revolutionaries successfully, but when news of the Qing emperor Puyi was about to abdicate, Ma agreed to join the new Republic.[68] The revolutionaries established the "Qinlong Fuhan Military Government", and elected Zhang Fenghui, a member of the Yuanrizhi Society (原日知會), as new governor.[66]

Jiujiang Uprising

On October 23, Lin Sen, Jiang Qun (蔣群), Cai Hui (蔡蕙), and other members of the Tongmenghui in the province of Jiangxi plotted a revolt of New Army units in Jiujiang.[69][65] After they achieved victory, they announced their independence. The "Jiujiang Military Government" was then established.[69]

Shanxi Taiyuan Uprising

On October 29, Yan Xishan of the New Army led an uprising in Taiyuan, the capital city of the province of Shanxi along with Yao Yijie (姚以價), Huang Guoliang (黃國梁), Wen Shouquan (溫壽泉), Li Chenglin (李成林), Zhang Shuzhi (張樹幟), Qiao Xi (喬煦).[70][69] They managed to kill the Qing Governor of Shanxi, Lu Zhongqi (陸鍾琦), which ended the last Qing governor history in Shanxi.[71] They then announced the establishment of "Shanxi Military Government" with Yan Xishan as the military governor.[66] After the revolution Yan Xishan would later become one of the warlords of the warlord era.

Kunming Double Ninth Uprising

On October 30, Li Genyuan (李根源) of the Tongmenghui in Yunnan province joined with Cai E, Luo Peijin (羅佩金), Tang Jiyao, and other officers of the New Army, and launched the "Double Ninth Uprising" (重九起義).[72] They captured Kunming the next day, and established the "Yunnan Military Government", electing Cai E as the military governor.[69]

Nanchang restoration

On October 31, the Nanchang branch of the Tongmenghui led New Army units in a local uprising and succeeded. They established the Jiangxi Military Government.[65] Li Liejun (李烈鈞) was elected as the military governor.[69]

Chen Qimei, military governor of Shanghai

Shanghai armed Uprising

On November 3, Shanghai's Tongmenghui, guangfuhui, and merchants led by Chen Qimei, Li Pingsu (李平書), Zhang Chengyou (張承槱), Li Yingshi (李英石), Li Xiehe (李燮和) and Song Jiaoren organized an armed rebellion in Shanghai.[69] They recruited various squads, and received the support of local police officers.[69] The rebels captured the Jiangnan Workshop on the 4th, and captured Shanghai soon after. On November 8, they established the "Shanghai Military Government", and elected Chen Qimei as the military governor.[69] Chen Qimei would eventually become one of the starter of the ROC four big families, next to some of the most well known families of the era.[73]

Guizhou Uprising

On November 4, Zhang Bailin (張百麟) of the revolutionary party in Guizhou led an uprising along with New Army units and students from the military academy. They immediately captured Guiyang and established the "Great Han Guizhou Military Government", electing Yang Jincheng (楊藎誠) and Zhao Dequan (趙德全) as the chief and vice governor.[74]

Zhejiang Uprising

Also on November 4, the revolutionaries in Zhejiang urged the New Army units in Hangzhou to launch an uprising.[69] Zhu Rui (朱瑞), Wu Siyu (吳思豫), Lu Gongwang (吕公望) and many others of the New Army captured the military supplies workshop.[69] Other dare-to-die squads led by Chiang Kai-shek and Yin Zhirei (尹銳志) along with others captured most of the government offices.[69] Eventually Hangzhou was in the control of the revolutionaries, and the constitutionist Tang Shouqian (湯壽潛) was elected as the military governor.[69]

Jiangsu restoration

On November 5, Jiangsu constitutionists and gentry urged the Qing governor Cheng Dequan (程德全) to announce independence, and established the "Jiangsu Revolutionary Military Government" with Cheng himself as the governor.[69][75]

Anhui Uprising

Members of Anhui's Tongmenghui also launched the uprising on that day, and laid siege on the provincial capital. The constitutionists persuaded Zhu Jiabao (朱家寶), the Qing Governor of Anhui, to announce independence.[76]

Guangxi Uprising

On November 7, the Guangxi politics department decided to secede from the Qing government, announcing Guangxi's independence. The Qing Governor, Shen Bingkun (沈秉堃) was allowed to remain governor, but Lu Rongting would soon become the new governor.[54] Lu Rongting would later become one of the warlord, while his bandits control Guangxi for more than a decade to follow.[77]

One of the old Guangfuhui address in Lianjiang County, Fujian

Fujian independence

In November members of Fujian's branch of the Tongmenghui along with Sun Daoren (孫道仁) of the New Army launched an uprising against the Qing Army.[78][79] The Qing viceroy, Song Shou (松壽), committed suicide.[80] On November 11 the entire Fujian province declared independence.[78] The "Fujian Military Government" was established, and Sun Daoren was elected as the military governor.[78]

Guangdong independence

Near the end of October, Chen Jiongming, Deng Keng (鄧鏗), Peng Reihai (彭瑞海) and other members of Guangdong's Tongmenghui organized local militias to led the uprising in Huazhou, Nanhai, Sunde and Sanshui in Guangdong province.[81][66] On November 8, after being persuaded by Hu Hanmin, general Li zhun (李準) and Long Jiguang (龍濟光) of the Guangdong Navy agreed to support the revolution.[66] The Qing viceroy of Liangguang Zhang Mingqi (張鳴岐) was forced to discuss with the local representatives a proposal for Guangdong's independence.[66] They decided to announce Guangdong's independence the next day. Chen Jiongming then captured Huizhou. On November 9 Guangdong announced its independence, and established a Military Government.[82] They elected Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming as the chief and vice governor.[83] Qiu Fengjia is known to have help make the independence declaration more peaceful.[82]

Shandong independence

On November 13, persuaded by revolutionary Din Weifen (丁惟汾) and several other officers of the New Army, the Qing Governor of Shandong Sun Baoqi agreed to secede from the Qing Government and announced Shandong's independence.[66]

Ningxia Uprising

On November 17, Ningxia the Tongmenghui launched the "Ningxia Uprising" (寧夏會黨起義). The revolutionaries sent Yu Youren to Zhangjiachuan to meet Dungan Sufi master Ma Yuanzhang to persuade him not to support the Qing. But Ma didn't want to endanger his relationship with the Qings. He sent the eastern Gansu Muslim militia under the command of one of his son to help Ma Qi crush the Ningxia Gelaohui.[84][85] The "Ningxia Revolutionary Military Government" would be established on November 23.[66]

Sichuan independence

On November 21, Guang'an organized the "Great Han shu northern Military Government".[66][86]

On November 22, Chengdu and Sichuan began to declare independence. By the 27th, the "Great Han Sichuan Military Government" was established, headed by revolutionary Pu Dianzun (蒲殿俊).[66] Qing official Duan fang (端方) would also be killed.[66]

Nanking Uprising

On November 8, plotted and supported by the Tongmenghui, Xu Shaozhen (徐紹楨) of the New Army announced an uprising in Molin Pass (秣陵關), 30km away from Nanking City.[66] Xu Shaozhen, Chen Qimei, and other generals decided to form a united army under Xu to strike Nanking together. On November 11, the united army headquarter was established in Zhenjiang. Between November 24 and December 1, under the command of Xu Shaozhen, the united army captured Wulongshan (烏龍山), Mufushan (幕府山), Yuhuatai (雨花臺), Tianbao City (天保城) and many other strongholds of the Qing Army. [66] On December 2, the Nanking City was captured by the revolutionaries after the "Battle of Nanking".[66]

Tibet Lhasa Turmoil

In 1905 the Qing sent Zhao Erfeng to Tibet to put down disorder.[87] By 1908 Zhao was appointed imperial resident in Lhasa.[87] When the revolutionaries arrived to Tibet, Zhao would be beheaded in December 1911.[88] The area that was historically known as Kham was now the Xikang Administrative District created by the revolutionaries.[89] By the end of 1912 the last Manchu troops were escorted out of Tibet. Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama returned to Tibet in January 1913 from Sikkim, where he had been residing.[90] When the new ROC government apologised for the actions of the Qing and offered to restore the Dalai Lama to his former position. He replied that he was not interested in Chinese ranks and was assuming the spiritual and political leadership of Tibet.[90] Because of this Tibetans have read this reply as a formal declaration of independence. The Chinese side ignored the response, and Tibet had 30 years free of interference from China.[90]

Dihua and Yili Uprising

In Xinjiang on December 28 Liu Xianzun (劉先俊) and the revolutionaries started the "Dihua Uprising" (迪化起義).[91] This was led by more than 100 members of Geilaohui.[92] This uprising would fail. On January 7, 1912 the "Yili Uprising" (伊犁起義) with Feng Temin (馮特民) would begin.[91][92] Qing governor Yuan Dahua (袁大化) fled and handed over his resignation to Yang Zengxin because he could not handle fighting the revolutionaries.[93]

In the morning of January 8, a new Yili government would be established for the revolutionaries.[92] But the revolutionaries would be defeated at Jinghe in January and February.[93][94] Eventually because of the abdication to come, Yuan Shikai recognized Yang Zengxin's rule and appointed him Governor of Xinjiang and had the province join the Republic.[93]

Change of government

Seal for the provisional government president of Republic of China

North: Qing court last transformation attempt

On November 1, 1911 the Qing Government appointed Yuan Shikai as the prime minister of the imperial cabinet replacing Prince Qing.[95] On November 3, the Qing court passed the Ninteen Articles (憲法重大信條十九條), which turned the Qing from an autocratic system with the emperor having unlimited power to a constitutional monarchy.[96][97] On November 9, Huang Xing even cabled Yuan Shikai and invited him to join the Republic.[98] The court changes were too late, and the emperor was about to have to step down.

South: Government in Nanking

On November 28, 1911 Wuchang and Hanyang had fallen back to the Qing army. So for safety the revolutionaries convened their first conference at the British concession in Hankou on November 30.[99] By December 2 the revolutionary forces were able to capture Nanking in the uprising, the revolutionaries decided to make it the site of the new provisional government.[100] At the time Beijing was still the Qing capital.

Tang Shaoyi, left. Edward Selby Little, middle. Wu Tingfang, right

North-South Conference

On December 18 the "North-South Conference" (南北議和) was held in Shanghai to discuss the north and south issues.[101] Yuan Shikai selected Tang Shaoyi as his representative.[101] Tang left Beijing for Wuhan to negotiate with the revolutionaries.[101] The revolutionaries chose Wu Tingfang.[101] With the intervention of six foreign powers, UK, US, Germany, Russia, Japan, France Tang Shaoyi and Wu Tingfang began to negotiate a settlement at the British concession.[102] Foreign businessman Edward Selby Little (李德立) acted as the negotiator and facilitated the peace agreement.[103] They agreed that Yuan Shikai would force the Qing Emperor to abdicate in exchange for the southern provinces' support of Yuan as the president of the Republic. After considering the possibility that the new republic might be defeated in a civil war or by foreign invasion, Sun Yat-sen agreed to Yuan's proposal to unify China under Yuan Shikai's Beijing government. Further decisions were made to let the emperor rule over his little court in the New Summer Palace. He would be treated as a ruler of a separate country and have expenses of several million taels in silver.[104]

Establishment of the Republic

Sun Yat-sen in 1912 at one of the historic crossroad with the Five Races Under One Union flag and the Blue Sky with a White Sun flag

Republic of China nationality

On December 29, 1911 Sun Yat-sen became the first provisional president.[105] January 1, 1912 was set as the first day of the First Year of the Republic of China.[106] On January 3, the representatives recommended Li Yuanhong as the Provisional vice president.[107]

During and after the Xinhai revolution, many groups that participated wanted their own pennant as the national flag. During the Wuchang uprising the military units of Wuchang wanted the 9-star flag with Taijitu.[108] Others in competition include Sun Yat-sen's Blue Sky and White Sun flag. Huang Xing favored a flag bearing the mythical "well-field" system of village agriculture. In the end, the assembly compromised: the national flag would be the banner of Five Races Under One Union.[108] The Five Races Under One Union flag with horizontal stripes represented the five major nationalities of the republic.[109] The red represented Han, the yellow represented Manchus, the blue for Mongols, the white for Tibetans, and black for Muslim.[108][109] Despite the general target of the uprisings to be the manchus, Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren and Huang Xing unanimously advocated racial assimilation to be carried out on the frontiers.[110]

Donghuamen incident

On January 16, while returning to his residence, Yuan Shikai was ambushed in a bomb attack organized by the Tongmenghui in Donghuamen (東華門), Tientsin, Beijing.[111] A total of 18 revolutionaries were involved. About 10 of the guards died but Yuan himself was not seriously injured.[111] He sent a message to the revolutionaries the next day pledging his loyalty and asking them to not organize any more assassination attempts against him.

Imperial edict for abdication

Abdication of the emperor

On January 20 Wu Tingfang of the Nanking Provisional Government officially delivered the imperial edict of abdication to Yuan Shikai the terms for the abdication of Qing Emperor Xuantong Puyi.[97] It was drafted by Zhang Jian, and was approved by the Provisional senate. On January 22, Sun Yat-sen announced that if Yuan Shikai supported the emperor's abdication, he (Sun Yat-sen) would resign the presidency in favor of Yuan Shikai.[112] After Yuan received this promise, he sped up the process. He threatened Empress Longyu that if the revolutionaries came to Beijing, the lives of the royal family would not be spared, but if they agree to abdicate, the terms for their abdication would be honored.

On February 3, Empress Longyu gave Yuan Shikai full permission to negotiate the terms for the abdication of the Qing Emperor. Yuan then drew up his own version and forwarded it back to the revolutionaries on February 3.[97] His version consist of three sections instead of two.[97] On February 12, 1912, after being persuaded and pressured by Yuan Shikai and other ministers, Puyi (age 6) and Empress Longyu accepted the terms for the Imperial family's abdication.[113]

Change of capital

Dong'anmen gate incident

The revolutionaries were trying to lure Yuan Shikai to the south. By making Yuan the president of the southern Nanking-based provisional government, he would have to give up his military power base in the north.[114] In February 1912, troops were looting shops and stealing from rich commercial areas.[115] They then burned down the Dong'anmen gate (東安門) on the wall surrounding the Imperial City.[114] Thousands of people were killed.[115] This mutiny was actually ordered by Yuan and Cao Kun.[114] Yuan intimidated the revolutionaries and made it clear that the new government would have to go to him in Beijing, he was not going to the south.[115] This was an excuse to move the capital of the new republic from Nanking back to Beijing.

Yuan Shikai sworn as the Provisional president in Beijing

Government in Beijing

On March 10, 1912, Yuan Shikai was sworn as the second Provisional president of the Republic of China in Beijing.[116] The period from this point in 1912 until 1928 was known simply as the "Beiyang Period". The government of Republic of China during this period was called the Beiyang Government. The first National assembly election would take place according to the Provisional constitution. While in Beijing the Kuomintang (KMT) would be formed on August 25, 1912.[117] The KMT would win the majority seats after the election. Song Jiaoren would be elected as director. However, Song was assassinated in Shanghai on March 20, 1913 under the secret order of Yuan Shikai.[118]

Other issues

The deceased famous General Dong Fuxiang's family, his wife Tung Chao-shih (Dong Zhaoshi), nephew Tung Wen (Dong Wen), and grandson Tung Kung (Dong Gong fought for the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 in Gansu.[119]

At this point, the vast areas south of the Yangtze River were held by the revolutionaries. The capture of Nanking was especially important in stabilizing the situation in the southern China.

Diehard Qing Generals continued the fight. The Mongol General Sheng Yun used his 15,000 troops, some of which were Muslim on March 9, 1912, to go on a rampage in Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces. His example was copied by other Qing Generals and Princes.[120]

Genocides against Manchu people happened for about three days and spread to some cities, Henan, Xi'an, Hangzhou and Guangzhou.[121] [122][123][124][125] The new established government posted notices and stopped it.

Miscellaneous

Bai Chongxi, the future muslim General, then a student at a law and political science school, joined a student Dare to Die corps on the revolutionary's side during the Xinhai Revolution, under command of Huang Shaoxiong, too late to take part in any fighting, although it resulted in him joining military academies into his future military career.[126] In October 1911, violence against the Manchu minority in China began in Wuchang[127] and was followed by massacres in Xi'an, Taiyun, Zhenjiang, Fuzhou and Nanking.[128][129][130][131][132] The attack on the Manchus in Xi'an, where about 20,000 of them lived in a walled compound in the north-eastern sector of the walled city, started at mid-day on October 22. It was the bloodiest episode.[133]

Influence

Historical significance

The Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing government and 4,000 years of monarchy. Throughout Chinese history, old dynasties had always been replaced by new dynasties. The Xinhai Revolution, however, was the first to overthrow a monarchy completely and attempt to establish a Republic. Asia had had democratic republics previously – the Lanfang Republic established in 1777, the Republic of Formosa in 1895, and the First Philippine Republic in 1899. The Xinhai Revolution established the Republic of China, the fourth democratic republic established in Asia. The laws of the democratic republic were undermined by the Beiyang warlords, and a monarchy was briefly restored. However, the republic enjoyed such broad public support that it could not be overturned.

The Chinese revolutionaries had not evolved their own form of republican government. As a result, they followed the American Constitution and the American political system, and they implemented a presidential republic. This continued despite social limitations and despite the provisional constitution's shortcomings. At one time, Sun Yat-sen modified the constitution to limit Yuan Shikai's power, while Yuan Shikai later annulled the constitution to proclaim himself emperor. During the early years of the Republic of China, democracy was not fully fledged. However, it was the first time China had attempted to form a republic, which nevertheless spread democratic ideas throughout China.

Long after the success of the Xinhai Revolution, some support for monarchy persisted in China, and for a while, the monarchy maintained its social influence. Even though the Communist Party of China claimed to have created the "people's democratic dictatorship" in 1949 with the establishment of the People's Republic of China, true democracy (e.g. the separation of power in the United States) was never fully implemented by the Beiyang Government, the Nanking Government led by the Nationalist Party, or the Government of the People's Republic of China.[citation needed]

After each province had had its own democratic revolution, China entered a long period of turmoil and division. Excepting the period after the Second Revolution during which Yuan Shikai briefly reunified the nation, subsequent Chinese regimes were unable to unify China. For example, the Nationalist Government claimed itself the head of a unified China while it was only able to receive taxation from five provinces.[citation needed] It was not until 1949 that the Communist Party of China was able to re-unify China, although with the notable exception of Taiwan. The prolonged divisions and wars retarded China's economic development and the modernisation of its infrastructure.

Social influence

The influence of Xinhai Revolution on Chinese society was not as wide as commonly believed. Even though the Xinhai Revolution was often claimed to be the "Capitalist Revolution of China", China at the time actually lacked a powerful capitalist class, and the participants of the revolution were rarely capitalists. The success of the revolution did not advance the development of a capitalist class. Regarding changes to the traditional society, the Xinhai Revolution only ended the rule of the Manchu. However, the local gentry and the old Han bureaucrats generally benefited from the revolution because they gained status by advancing their positions during the revolution, and because the revolution stabilized their positions in society.

Unlike revolutions in the West, the Xinhai Revolution did not restructure society. The participants of Xinhai Revolution were mostly military personnel, old type bureaucrats, and local gentries. These people still held regional power after the Xinhai Revolution. The Chinese civilians did not participate in the Xinhai Revolution; therefore, after the Xinhai Revolution, there were no major improvements in their standards of living.

The division of the nation by the warlords, the chaos caused by the wars, and militant politics weakened the traditional gentry and bureaucrats. They were gradually replaced by military men and by local outlaws.

The Xinhai Revolution failed to solve many of China's most pressing problems: it did not slow the rise in China's population, which had been growing ever faster since the 18th century, nor did it reverse the land annexations that had occurred near the end of Qing Dynasty, nor did it halt the Western powers' exploitation of, and interventions in, China.

Effects on frontiers

Revolutionary organizations before the outburst of the Xinhai Revolution were mainly based in Han Chinese ideology. The Republic of China was created under the motto of "Get rid of the Tartars". Often the "Republic" referred only to the eighteen provinces which are dominated by the Han Chinese. (This is evident from the 18-star banner used in Wuchang Uprising[citation needed]). Non-Han provinces—Northeast China, Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Tibet—were all excluded. After the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution, the authority of the Qing Dynasty in these provinces declined significantly, and the Qing government was unable to defend its frontiers. The Western powers took advantage of this situation and supported independence movements by non-Han ethnic groups in the frontier provinces, such as Russia's support for the Independence of Outer Mongolia (including Tannu Uriankhai). As a result, these regions began to break away from China.

Evaluation

In the early years of Republic of China, the intellectuals in China and the participants of the Xinhai Revolution were excited by the revolution's success in overthrowing the Manchu Dynasty, and they had high hopes for the revolution. However, because democracy had been only partially realized after the Xinhai Revolution, people began to develop different perspectives. Sun Yat-sen mentioned the following in a letter to the Russian ambassador in 1921 "Now our friends recognize that my resignation was a huge political mistake". Sun also urged in his will that "The revolution is not yet successful, the comrades still need to strive for the future".[citation needed] The intellectuals at the time thought that a political revolution alone could not save China and that preparations had to be made for a cultural reformation.

After the 1920s, the two dominant parties—the Nationalist Party and the Communist Party—evaluated the Xinhai Revolution quite differently. The Nationalist Party recognized Sun Yat-sen as the Father of the Nation and as the leader who led the Xinhai Revolution to success. They had a high opinion of the Xinhai Revolution, viewing the Xinhai Revolution as the starting point of the modern history of China, and as the key element that enabled China to develop into a democratic and modern nation.

On the other hand, the Communist Party thought that the Xinhai Revolution merely overthrew the totalitarian rule of the Qing Dynasty. It did not oppose imperialism or feudalism because the bourgeois class was thought to be compromising and feeble, and therefore it did not create a truly republican system. Land had not been redistributed equally, and a transformation of society had not been achieved. The revolution ended up yielding to the Western powers, and it compromised with Yuan Shikai, who represented the old regime. At the same time however, they recognized that, if viewed as a first stage of reform, the Xinhai Revolution had achieved much and had set the stage for further revolutions. Liu Shaoqi was quoted as saying that the "Xinhai Revolution inserted the concept of a republic into common people".[citation needed] Zhou Enlai pointed out that "Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing rule, ended 2000 years of monarchy, and liberated the mind of people to a great extent, and opened up the path for the development of future revolution. This is a great victory".[citation needed] He Xiangning thought that "Xinhai Revolution was a great victory: it destroyed 2000 years of monarchy, and spread the seed of the thoughts of a republic among the people, and promoted new development for the revolutionary struggle of the Chinese people".[citation needed] Later Marxist historians mainly recognized the Xinhai Revolution as the Chinese bourgeois revolution, which is considered in Marxist theory to be a necessary stage of revolution preceding a socialist revolution. These positive views of the Xinhai Revolution were common in Mainland China and Taiwan after the 1950s.

A change in the belief that the revolution had been a generally positive change began in late 1980s and 1990s. Zhang Shizhao was quoted as arguing that "When talking about the Xinhai Revolution, the theorist these days tends to overemphasize. The word ‘success’ was way overused". Chinese historians such as Li Zehou, Liu Zhaifu, and others thought that in the early 20th century, China would have been better off if it had pursued a gradual constitutional reform of the monarchy instead of engaging in a violent revolution. The former policy was said be better because it would have ensured China's steady development. The concept of constitutional monarchy advocated by Yuan Shikai, Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao, and Yang Du is considered by some modern historians to have been more suitable for China at that time. The Taiwanese historians also began to re-examine some of the alleged "myths" of Xinhai Revolution, and began to re-evaluate the value of Xinhai Revolution and its effects.[citation needed]

Western scholars, Chinese specialists, and historians have researched the Xinhai Revolution to a great extent. Famous Chinese specialist John Fairbank characterized the Xinhai Revolution as merely a "change of political system", which was "essentially a failure". Gao Muke thought that Xinhai Revolution was a revolution that was greater than all its leaders, and was a "revolution without a real leader".[citation needed]

See also

Notes

^ a: Many of the Qing soldiers with Han background turned to support the revolution during the uprisings, so the actual casualties are hard to trace.
^ b: Clipping from Min Bao (People's Papers). Originally the publishing of Hua Xin Hui and was named "China of the Twentieth Century", it was renamed after the establishment of Tongmenhui.

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  •  This article incorporates text from The Britannica year book, a publication from 1913 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from China revolutionized, by John Stuart Thomson, a publication from 1913 now in the public domain in the United States.
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Further reading

Primary sources

Contemporary accounts

  • Edwin J. Dingle, China's Revolution: 1911–1912. A Historical and Political Record of the Civil War (Shanghai, China: Commercial Press, 1912).
  • P. H. B. Kent, The Passing of the Manchus (London: E. Arnold, 1912).

Secondary sources

English

  • Joseph Esherick. Reform and Revolution in China : The 1911 Revolution in Hunan and Hubei. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. ISBN 0520030842
  • Shinkichi Eto and Harold Z. Schiffrin. China's Republican Revolution. [Tokyo]: University of Tokyo Press, 1994. ISBN 4130270303.
  • Edmund S. K. Fung. The Military Dimension of the Chinese Revolution : The New Army and Its Role in the Revolution of 1911. Vancouver [B.C.]: University of British Columbia Press, 1980. ISBN 0774801298.
  • Goldstein, Melvyn C. (1991). A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951:The Demise of the Lamaist state. University of California Prp. ISBN 978-0-520-07590-0. 
  • L. Eve Armentrout Ma. Revolutionaries, Monarchists, and Chinatowns : Chinese Politics in the Americas and the 1911 Revolution. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. ISBN 0824812395 9780824812393.
  • Mary Backus Rankin. Elite Activism and Political Transformation in China : Zhejiang Province, 1865–1911. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1986. ISBN 0804713219.
  • Mary Wright. China in Revolution: The First Phase, 1900–1913. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1968. xiii, 505p. ISBN 0300014600 (paper).
  • Winston Hsieh (Wensun Xie). Chinese Historiography on the Revolution of 1911 : A Critical Survey and a Selected Bibliography. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1975. ISBN 0817933417.
  • Ernest P. Young. The Presidency of Yuan Shih-K'ai : Liberalism and Dictatorship in Early Republican China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, Michigan Studies on China, 1977. ISBN.

Chinese

  • Tang (唐), Degang (德剛) (1998). The Late 50 years of Qing: Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen and Xinhai Revolution. Taipei: Yuanliu (遠流). ISBN 957-32-3513. 
  • Tang (唐), Degang (德剛) (2002). The Rule of Yuan Shikai (袁氏當國). Taipei: Yuanliu (遠流). ISBN 957-32-4680-5. 
  • Zhang (張), Yufa (玉法) (1998). The History of the Republic of China (中華民國史稿). Taipei: Lianjin (聯經). ISBN 957-08-1826-3. 
  • Lin (林), Yusheng (毓生) (1983). <The Anti-tradition Trends of May Forth Era and the Future of Libertarianism in China> included in "Personage and their thoughts" (<五四時代的激烈反傳統思想與中國自由主義的前途> 收入"思想與人物"). Taipei: Lianjin (聯經). ISBN 9570803843. 
  • Zhou (周), Weimin (伟民); Tang (唐), Linlin (玲玲) (2002). The History of Cultural Interactions of China and Malaysia (中国和马来西亚文化交流史). Haikou: Hainan (海南). ISBN 7-5443-0682-8. 
  • Li (李), Zehou (澤厚); Liu (劉), Zhaifu (再復) (1999). A Farewell to the Revolutions – Records of Discussions in 20th century China (告別革命-二十世紀中國對談錄). Taipei: Maitian (麥田). ISBN 957-708-735-3. 


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