Esterase


Esterase

An esterase is a hydrolase enzyme that splits esters into an acid and an alcohol in a chemical reaction with water called hydrolysis.

A wide range of different esterases exist that differ in their substrate specificity, their protein structure, and their biological function.

EC classification/list of enzymes

** Acetylesterase (EC 3.1.1.6), splits off acetyl groups
*** Cholinesterase
**** Acetylcholinesterase, inactivates the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
**** Pseudocholinesterase, broad substrate specificity, found in the blood plasma and in the liver
** Pectinesterase (EC 3.1.1.11), clarifies fruit juices

* "EC 3.1.2": Thiolester hydrolases
** Thioesterase
*** Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1

* "EC 3.1.3": Phosphoric monoester hydrolases
** Phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.x), hydrolyses phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and an alcohol
*** Alkaline phosphatase, removes phosphate groups from many types of molecules, including nucleotides, proteins, and alkaloids.
*** Phosphodiesterase (PDE), inactivates the second messenger cAMP
**** cGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5, is inhibited by Sildenafil (Viagra)
** Fructose bisphosphatase (3.1.3.11), converts fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate in gluconeogenesis

* "EC 3.1.4": Phosphoric diester hydrolases

* "EC 3.1.5": Triphosphoric monoester hydrolases

* "EC 3.1.6": Sulfuric ester hydrolases (sulfatases)

* "EC 3.1.7": Diphosphoric monoester hydrolases

* "EC 3.1.8": Phosphoric triester hydrolases

* Exonucleases (deoxyribonucleases and ribonucleases)
** "EC 3.1.11": Exodeoxyribonucleases producing 5'-phosphomonoesters
** "EC 3.1.13": Exoribonucleases producing 5'-phosphomonoesters
** "EC 3.1.14": Exoribonucleases producing 3'-phosphomonoesters
** "EC 3.1.15": Exonucleases active with either ribo- or deoxy-

* Endonucleases (deoxyribonucleases and ribonucleases)
** Endodeoxyribonuclease
** Endoribonuclease
** either deoxy- or ribo-

See also

* Enzyme
* List of enzymes
* Carboxylic acid
* Ester
* Leukocyte esterase
* Hemagglutinin esterase
* Nuclease

External links

* [http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/EC3/1/ Enzyme nomenclature]


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