List of people who converted to Christianity


List of people who converted to Christianity
Converts to Christianity
Converts to Christianity.png
C. S. Lewis • M. Fuchida • C. Soong • B. Jindal • M. Oufkir A. Gbaja-Biamila • G. K. Skanderbeg • E. N. Kusturica • C. S. Menem • Chamillionaire R. A. Yousef • G. Jellinek • The Apostle Paul • B. Dylan • T. Y. Boni F. P. B. Bok • Pocahontas • H. W. H. Pokai • L. Eiríksson • C. F. V. A. C. Augustus
Total population
2,501,396 every year, according to the World Christian Encyclopedia[1]
Another estimate says in Africa, every year, 6 million people convert to Christianity[2].

The following is a list of notable people who converted to Christianity from a different religion or no religion. This article addresses only past voluntary professions of faith by the individuals listed, and is not intended to address ethnic, cultural, or other considerations such as Marriage. Certain people listed here may be lapsed or former converts, or their current religious identity may be ambiguous, uncertain or disputed. Such cases are noted in their list entries.

Contents

From Abrahamic religions

From Islam

Abo of Tiflis, a Christian activist and the Patron AMR Saint of the city of Tbilisi, Georgia.[3]
Bahaa el-Din Ahmed Hussein el-Akkad - Egyptian former Muslim sheikh.[citation needed]
Nonie Darwish, an Egyptian American writer and public speaker.[4]
Mohammed Hegazy the first Egyptian Muslim convert to Christianity to seek official recognition of his conversion from the Egyptian Government.[6]
Italian journalist Magdi Allam converted to Roman Catholicism during the Vatican's 2008 Easter vigil service presided over by Pope Benedict XVI.[7]
Born into a Muslim Batak family, Indonesian Prime Minister Amir Sjarifuddin converted to Christianity in 1931, upon which his fervently Islamic mother committed suicide.[8]


A

B

C

D

E

  • Bahaa el-Din Ahmed Hussein el-Akkad - an Egyptian former Muslim sheikh. For more than 20 years, el-Akkad was a member of the fundamentalist Islamic group Da'wa el Tabligh, which actively proselytized non-Muslims but strictly opposed violence. He also led a mosque community in Al-Haram, in the Giza area adjacent to Cairo. In 1994, he published, Islam: the Religion, a 500-page book reviewing the traditional beliefs and dogmas of Islam. He late became disillusioned with Islam and began to question certain Islamic tenets. A theological discourse with a Christian led him to conduct an intensive study of Christian Scripture, after which he converted to Christianity in January 2005.[citation needed]
  • Estevanico - Berber originally from Morocco and one of the early explorers of the Southwestern United States.[43]
  • Gulshan Esther - Pakistani convert from Islam to Christianity.[44]

F

  • Nurta Mohamed Farah - A 17-year-old girl in Somalia who converted to Christianity from Islam was shot to death in an apparent "honor killing," possibly by her own relatives.[45]
  • Donald Fareed - Iranian Christian tele-evangelist and minister.[46]
  • Jacob Frank - 18th century Jewish religious leader who claimed to be the reincarnation of the self-proclaimed messiah Sabbatai Zevi, and also of King David. Frank publicly converted to Islam in 1757 and later to Christianity at Poland in 1759, but actually presented himself as the Messiah of a syncretic derivation of Shabbatai Zevi's Messianism now referred to as Frankism.[47]

G

H

I

  • Tunch Ilkin - former American football player.[57]
  • Nagla al-Imam - the prominent Egyptian lawyer and women's rights activist who announced her conversion to Christianity in Cairo. The announcement brought shock waves in and beyond Egypt. This is perhaps the first case ever of its kind, where a Muslim woman, who is also a Sharia expert, has openly challenged Islamic apostasy laws from within the Muslim world. [58]
  • Qadry Ismail - former American football player.[59]
  • Raghib Ismail - former American football player.[60]

J

K

L

  • Imad ud-din Lahiz - Prolific Islamic writer, preacher and Qur'anic translator.[68]
  • Fernão Lopez - first known permanent inhabitant of the remote Island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.
  • Dr. Nur Luke - Uyghur Bible translator.[69]
  • Kazi Quamrunnessa Luna - a Bangladeshi convert to Christianity after she attended Hindu temples and several churches. Luna met Pastor James Roy – of the Missouri Lutheran Church – with whom she embarked on a spiritual path. [70]

M

N

  • Marina Nemat - Canadian author of Iranian descent and former political prisoner of the Iranian government. Born into a Christian family, she converted to Islam in order to avoid execution but later reverted to Christianity.[83]
  • Noor Nishan - a Sri Lankan American woman who under a fatwa, a public threat of death pronounced by the father, escaped and successfully won a decision in a state court against a forced arranged marriage by her parents.[84]
  • Nunilo and Alodia - a pair of child martyrs from Huesca. Born of a mixed marriage, they eschewed the Islam of their father in favour of their mother's Christianity.

O

  • Malika Oufkir - Moroccan writer, daughter of General Mohamed Oufkir, and former prisoner of King Hassan II of Morocco.

P

R

S

T

U

W

Y

Z


From Judaism

The Jewish Encyclopedia gives some statistics on conversion of Jews to Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, and Orthodox Christianity (which it calls "Greek Catholicism").[117] Some 2,000 European Jews converted to Christianity every year during the 19th century, but in the 1890s the number was running closer to 3,000 per year, — 1,000 in Austria Hungary (Galizian Poland), 1,000 in Russia (Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania), 500 in Germany (Posen), and the remainder in the English world.


From Rastafari movement

From Dharmic religions

From Buddhism


From Hinduism


From Sikhism

From agnosticism or atheism


Other

From Cao Dai

From Confucianism or traditional Chinese/East Asian religions

Note: It is debated whether Confucianism is a religion and some Confucians who became Christians considered themselves to remain Confucian in philosophy.

From Paganism

Paganism is a term which, from a Western perspective, has come to connote a broad set of spiritual or cultic practices or beliefs of any folk religion, and of historical and contemporary polytheistic religions in particular.

While the term has historically been used to denote adherents of any non-Abrahamic faith, for the purposes of this list, only adherents of non-major polytheistic, shamanistic, pantheistic, or animistic religions will be listed in this section.

British Isles/Celtic/Germanic (excluding Norse) paganism

Norse paganism

Graeco-Roman Paganism

Egyptian paganism

  • Horapollo - leader of the few remaining pagan schools of Menouthis during Emperor Zeno's reign (474-491) who converted to Christianity after being tortured.[273]

Mideastern and Arabian paganism

African traditional religions

North American or Inuit

New Zealand and Pacific Islands traditional religions

European paganism (generic)

Eastern European/ Slavic paganism

From Manichaeism


From Zoroastrianism


From Satanism

  • Bartolo Longo - Italian satanic priest who converted to Catholicism, became a lay Dominican and founded a lay prayer society. On October 26, 1980 he was beatified by Pope John Paul II, who called him the "Apostle of the Rosary" and mentioned him specifically in his encyclical letter "Rosarium Virginis Mariae" (The Rosary of the Virgin Mary).
  • Jeffrey Dahmer - American serial killer and cannibal. Dahmer dabbled in Satanism before his arrest,[296] but later converted to Christianity while in prison.[297]
  • Sean Sellers - American murderer.[298]

Undetermined former religion


See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ The Numbers. FastestGrowingReligion.com
  2. ^ Six Million African Muslims Convert to Christianity Each Year. OrthodoxyToday.org May 6, 2006.
  3. ^ a b Collected Papers in Greek And Georgian Textual Criticism, pg. 174.[1]; January 8th Saints
  4. ^ a b Friedman, Lisa. "Ex-Muslim calls on her people to reject hatred", Los Angeles Daily News, 5 June 2005. (reproduced)
  5. ^ a b Kabeer Gbaja-Biamila
  6. ^ a b [2]
  7. ^ a b Pope baptizes one of Italy's most prominent Muslims at Easter vigil service
  8. ^ a b Vickers (2005), page 86
  9. ^ a b c d e f Compass Direct News
  10. ^ Former terrorist trades weapons for olive branch
  11. ^ http://www.rnw.nl/arabic/article/467965
  12. ^ http://www.hdhod.com/%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%A6%D9%82-%D8%B9%D8%B1%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%8A%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%AC-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D9%83%D8%AA%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A9-%D8%B9%D8%B1%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A8%D8%B7%D9%84%D9%8A-%D9%84%D9%81%D9%83%D8%B1%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B1%D8%A8-%D8%A3%D8%B9%D8%B7%D9%89-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B1%D8%B6-%D9%84%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%87%D9%88%D8%AF_a34209.html
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  14. ^ Holweck, F. G. (1924). A Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co.. p. 84. 
  15. ^ Christian Convert Held in Ethopian Jail for Distributing Bibles
  16. ^ "A History of Orthodox Missions Among the Muslims". Yurij Maximov, Russian author and religious studies teacher in the Religious Studies at the Moscow Orthodox Seminary. http://www.orthodoxytoday.org/articles4/MaximovMuslims.shtml. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  17. ^ Joseph Patrich, The Sabaite Heritage in the Orthodox Church, Peeters Publishers, 2001, ISBN 90-429-0976-5, Google Print, p. 157.
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  19. ^ Amazon.com: Inside Islam: A Guide for Catholics: Books: Daniel Ali,Robert Spencer
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  21. ^ Compass Direct News
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  26. ^ Biography of Johannes Aveteranian
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  28. ^ The Kurdish Minority Problem, p.11, December 1948, ORE 71-48, CIA "The first of the major Barzani revolts took place in 1931 after Sheikh Ahmed Barzani, one of the most prominent Kurdish leaders in Iraqi Kurdistan, announced his conversion to Christianity and succeeded in defeating a number of other Kurdish tribes as well as regular Iraqi troops." [4].
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  32. ^ I Love Jeddah in the Springtime Time magazine
  33. ^ Benin's new president announced
  34. ^ Djibril Cisse - Biography "Cisse, originally a Muslim converted to Christianity."
  35. ^ Muslim to Catholic Convert Hansen Hashem Clarke Member of US Congress.
  36. ^ Latter-day Saint (Mormon) character in "Panther" (1997) (Eldridge Cleaver, Latter-day Saint)
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  39. ^ Constantine the African, or Constantinus Africanus (medieval medical scholar)
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  43. ^ Estevanico (aka Estevan, Esteban, Estebanico, Black Stephen, Stephen the Moor)
  44. ^ Gulshan Esther, Alistair Mark Dean, Thelma Sangster, The Torn Veil: The Best-selling Story of Gulshan Esther, Zondervan (1992), pg.46, ISBN 0-551-01153-X
  45. ^ Somali girl tortured, murdered by her family for leaving Islam
  46. ^ Donald Fareed's testimony on the Persian ministries website
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  51. ^ Akbar Gbaja-Biamila Keeps the Faith - ("In college, Akbar converted to Christianity, while his father remains a Muslim.")
  52. ^ Egypt's Christian Converts Face A Life On The Run
  53. ^ Ruffa Gutierrez reaffirms her Christian faith
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  60. ^ Article on Raghib Ismail: Rocket shows strong path
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  66. ^ Article about Kusturica's religion on pionirovglasnik.com
  67. ^ News of Kusturica's baptism on passagen.se
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  69. ^ Cryer, Neville Barker (1979). Bibles Across the World. United States of America: Mowbrays. p. 94. ISBN 0264664175. 
  70. ^ Muslim Family Stigmatized Because Their Daughter Converted to Christianity
  71. ^ Majumdar, Margaret (2002). Francophone Studies: The Essential Glossary. United States of America: Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0340806966. 
  72. ^ In Tibet and Chinese Turkestan: Being the Record of Three Years' Exploration, Henry Hugh Peter Deasy, pg. 284
  73. ^ "Carlos Menem" Encyclopædia Britannica
  74. ^ Norge IDAG - Norwegian language newspaper - Friday May 7, 2010
  75. ^ Iran ‘Officially’ Charges Ex-Muslim with Drug Trafficking
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  77. ^ http://www.wiscopts.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=153&Itemid=97
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  80. ^ Jarrett-Kerr, Martin (1972). Patterns of Christian Acceptance. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 196. 
  81. ^ Christian convert in Afghanistan faces the death penalty for apostasy
  82. ^ Afghanistan: Christian in prison for apostasy secretly released in Kabul
  83. ^ Flight from Iran
  84. ^ The Iconoclast - American-Born Noor Nishan Tells Her Story About Escape from Islam
  85. ^ Hussein Fardust, The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty:, Motilal Banarsidass, 1999, ISBN 81-208-1642-0, Google Print, pp. 122–123.
  86. ^ Hamid Pourmand: Imprisonment due to religious belief
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  92. ^ Publisher's review for Memoirs of an Arabian Princess from Zanzibar - ("Despite strictures confining Islamic women, she trysted with a German who is thought to have impregnated her, fled to Germany where she converted to Christianity")
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  94. ^ Egypt The Muhammed Ali dynasty
  95. ^ Egypt
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  97. ^ Egypt: Police release convert from Islam to Christianity to her violent Muslim family
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  108. ^ TURKEY: CONVERTS SUBJECTED TO OFFICIAL HARASSMENT
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  110. ^ Diplomats Concerned About Killing of Iranian Pastor
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  169. ^ http://194.154.164.100/~westbury@westburymusicltd.co.uk/4artisttrackdb/showarticle.php?id=86
  170. ^ Profile of Rev. David Yonggi Cho
  171. ^ Christianity Today newsletter
  172. ^ From Pearl Harbor to Calvary by Mitsuo Fuchida.
  173. ^ "God's on My Side" at nationmultimedia.com
  174. ^ LDS.org
  175. ^ Time Magazine
  176. ^ The Chinese Revolution and Chinese Communism
  177. ^ Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies Edited and with a new introduction by Paul Williams (London: Routledge, 2005). Eight volumes. ISBN 978-0-415-33226-2
  178. ^ Spiritual Counterfeits Project page on Tal Brooke
  179. ^ Rediff
  180. ^ "Indian-born nun to succeed Mother Teresa" at cnn.com
  181. ^ "Women Excel"
  182. ^ On Point : The Party of Death - The Party of Death
  183. ^ A A Panji Tisna - His Life and Thought
  184. ^ Maharaj, Rabi R. Death of a Guru: A Remarkable True Story of one Man's Search for Truth.
  185. ^ Whoriskey, Peter (October 21, 2007). "Jindal Wins Louisiana Race, Becomes First Indian American Governor". washingtonpost.com. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/20/AR2007102000528.html?hpid=topnews?hpid=topnews. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  186. ^ "I, The Convert". outlookindia.com. October 27, 2008. http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?238770. Retrieved 2011-05-16. 
  187. ^ http://www.nikkihaley.com/truthinfacts/question-is-nikki-a-christian
  188. ^ Brother Bakht Singh Website
  189. ^ Anglo Sikh Heritage Trail: Maharajah Duleep Singh.
  190. ^ A hindu sikh sadhu (Sundar Singh) met by Jesus Christ
  191. ^ Seattle Times "In 1975, he threw off his atheism and became a Christian."
  192. ^ Wall Street Journal
  193. ^ Sin: An Honest Mistake?, by Kirk Cameron, Boundless Webzine. From the introduction: "But much more noteworthy than his acting career was his conversion to Christianity. Kirk was not raised in a church-going home and described himself as a devout atheist from a very young age." (Accessed 13 June 2007)
  194. ^ "I was brought up as an agnostic... and when I first became a Christian in the Seventies I didn't really know what it was I'd adopted." Faith in Practice: Holding on to the Mystery of Love, by Bruce Cockburn as told to Cole Morton, Third Way, September 1994, page 15. (Accessed 13 June 2007)
  195. ^ "He converted from atheism to Christianity in his twenties after seeing how radically his patients' faith transformed their experience of suffering, and after reading several works by C. S. Lewis." The Question of God: Interview with Francis Collins, WGBH Educational Foundation, 2004 (Accessed 14 June 2007)
  196. ^ "[Stapleton and Flynt] formed a fast friendship, which resulted in Flynt's surprising and publicized conversion to Christianity." Biography.com: Larry Flynt
  197. ^ [Bo Giertz, The Hammer of God,revised edition, XIII, Augsburg Fortress, Minneapolis, 2005.
  198. ^ [19]; [20]
  199. ^ Telegraph "She reacted strongly against her parents' beliefs and became a Catholic at 19, because she 'no longer found it possible to disbelieve in God.'" (pg 2)
  200. ^ Time Magazine from July 19, 1963 "Lepp has the credentials to explain the mind of the atheist: he was one himself for 27 years."
  201. ^ Catholic Net
  202. ^ "The Killer and the Pastor" article from Time.com
  203. ^ "Lewis lapsed into atheism in his teens but experienced a reconversion to Christianity in 1931." Lewis, C.S.. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved June 28, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
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  205. ^ John J. Drummond, Lester E. Embree. Phenomenological Approaches to Moral Philosophy: A Handbook; Sweetman, Brendan. Marcel and phenomenology: Can literature help philosophy?
  206. ^ http://www.theinterim.com/march98/18colleton.html
  207. ^ biography on official website
  208. ^ Norge IDAG - Monsen med bok om sin tro
  209. ^ Vietnam harsh on hill-tribe minority
  210. ^ [22]
  211. ^ Interview for Christianity Today: I was so outspoken about not believing in God. I had real problems with Christians.]
  212. ^ statement of William J. Murray
  213. ^ Nathanson, Bernand Aborting America (1981 Pinnacle Books)
  214. ^ Marxism and Me by Marvin Olasky: My communism was based on atheism, and when I could no longer be an atheist, I resigned from the party.
  215. ^ Creators Syndicate Profile
  216. ^ The Guardian's obituary of Powell
  217. ^ University of Bielefeld
  218. ^ Chronicle of Higher Education article obituary (Copied by Gametheory.net) has the following "Because George was a fire-spitting atheist and Julia a devout Christian, their relationship was contentious from the beginning. After eight years, the marriage ended in acrimony." "On June 7 [1970] I gave in and admitted that God existed", he explained to friends.
  219. ^ Article from the University of Wollongong
  220. ^ University of Chicago "made a spiritual journey from atheism to agnosticism before eventually converting to Catholicism"
  221. ^ Decibel Magazine
  222. ^ Strobel's official website calls him an "Atheist-turned-Christian."
  223. ^ "...he was an atheist arguing for religious values, a man writing an essay on religion 'in a spirit of irreligion.'... He would not convert to Catholicism for two decades, but his need for religious authority was acute even in 1930." Allen Tate: Orphan of the South, p. 167, biographer Thomas A. Underwood, Princeton University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-691-06950-6
  224. ^ "He was conspicuously bohemian and agnostic..." "Waugh's Catholicism is an organic part of this oneness. In 1930 he was converted..." [23]
  225. ^ The Guardian Quote: Even though she was raised an atheist, in the past three or four years she has been going to church. In her eighth decade, she has even submitted to being baptised.
  226. ^ "At that time, I was an atheist." "...I was converted as I repented of my sins and asked God to accept me in Christ." My Spiritual Pilgrimage from Theistic Evolution to Creationism by Monty White
  227. ^ Advocates for self-government (A Libertarian site) says of him "A lifelong 'vehement, argumentative, proselytizing atheist,' Wright suffered a heart attack in 2003 and soon afterwards had a 'supernatural' religious experience that made him, he wrote, 'aware of a spiritual dimension of reality of which I had hitherto been unaware... I was altered down to the root of my being.' Wright is now a Christian.
  228. ^ Canadian Christianity.com
  229. ^ Kim Foundation
  230. ^ a b Kim, Young-Sik, Ph.D. (2003). The US-Korea relations: 1910–1945: A brief history of the US-Korea relations prior to 1945. Association for Asian Research. http://www.asianresearch.org/articles/1624.html. Retrieved 2006-11-25. 
  231. ^ a b Interview "I had a religious conversion and became a Christian. Before I followed Confucianism"
  232. ^ a b Portraits of Modern Japanese Historical Figures
  233. ^ a b One of China's Scholars: The Culture & Conversion of a Confucianist
  234. ^ The Northern Saints
  235. ^ Patron Saints Index: Saint Alban
  236. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Book III, chapter 7.
  237. ^ Britannia EBK Biographies: St. Constantine, King of Strathclyde
  238. ^ Berkshire History: Biographies: St. Abban of Abingdon
  239. ^ Raedwald - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  240. ^ D.H. Farmer, The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Oxford 1978). ISBN 0-19-282038-9.
  241. ^ [24]
  242. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Ethelbert (King of Kent)
  243. ^ [25]
  244. ^ Allen, Grant. "Anglo-Saxon Britain".
  245. ^ Patron Saints Index: Saint Leonard of Noblac
  246. ^ [26]
  247. ^ St. Bavo - Catholic Online
  248. ^ BBC - History - Leif Erikson (11th century)
  249. ^ Green, John Richard. "A short history of the English people".
  250. ^ Rollo of Normandy
  251. ^ Olav Haraldsson
  252. ^ Viking in the Netherlands
  253. ^ Saint Patrick's Church: Saints of April 18
  254. ^ Forum Romanum: the Temple of Vesta and the Vestal Virgins
  255. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Commodianus
  256. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Constantine the Great
  257. ^ Ecumenical Patriarchate
  258. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Athenagoras
  259. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite
  260. ^ Patron Saints Index: Saint Eustachius
  261. ^ [27], [28]
  262. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Caius Marius Victorinus
  263. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Saint Honoratus
  264. ^ Patron Saints Index: Saint Pancras
  265. ^ Body Theology - St. Panteleimon
  266. ^ Patron Saints Index: Saint Cyriacus
  267. ^ Patron Saints Index: Saint Julius the Veteran
  268. ^ Patron Saints Index: Saint Sabinian of Troyes
  269. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius
  270. ^ Apologia ad Autolycum i. 14, ii. 24.
  271. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Justin Martyr
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  273. ^ Studiolum
  274. ^ Reading Islam.com: What Really Happened Up There?
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  276. ^ Bonaberi.com: A la découverte de Charles Atangana
  277. ^ God's Invisible Hand: The Life and Work of Francis Cardinal Arinze, an Interview with Gerard O'Connell, pp. 12–21 (Ignatius Press, 2006) ISBN 978-1-58617-135-3
  278. ^ Crowther, Samuel Ajayi, Nigeria, Anglican
  279. ^ Jomo Kenyatta
  280. ^ Bernard Mizeki, Catechist and Martyr in Africa
  281. ^ [32], [33]
  282. ^ February 21: Ranavalona II; Christian History Institute
  283. ^ Rock Paper Scissors - Ladysmith Black Mambazo, Raise Your Spirit Higher (Heads Up) - Concert Preview
  284. ^ Samson Occom, Christian Convert
  285. ^ Pocahontas
  286. ^ [34]
  287. ^ Biographies
  288. ^ The Woman Who Changed A Kingdom - Hawaiian Queen Ka'ahumanu
  289. ^ Dictionary Of New Zealand Biography
  290. ^ Borivoj I (Borivorius I) Duke of Bohemia\ Saint Ludmila
  291. ^ Untitled Document
  292. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Ludmilla
  293. ^ Jogaila (1350-1434)
  294. ^ Patron Saints Index: Saint Vladimir I of Kiev
  295. ^ [35]; [36]
  296. ^ Jeffrey Dahmer - Serial killer & Cannibal 12
  297. ^ Jeffrey Dahmer - Serial killer & Cannibal 22
  298. ^ Clay and Thornton, "Sellers Executed For 3 Murders", The Daily Oklahoman, February 4, 1999.
  299. ^ http://www.allhiphop.com/stories/news/archive/2009/09/03/21923200.aspx
  300. ^ The best interview ever with the lead men of UnderOath Norma Jean As I Lay Dying - Buzznet
  301. ^ Wonderful Words of Life: Hymns in American Protestant History and Theology By Richard J. Mouw, Mark A. Noll (Accessed 14 June 2007)
  302. ^ "In the winter of 1959 [René Girard] experienced a conversion to Christian faith which had been preceded by a kind of intellectual conversion while he was working on his first book." René Girard:A Biographical Sketch, by James G. Williams

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