Clear script


Clear script
Clear script
Oirat alphabet
Smp kalmyk.gif
Type Alphabet
Languages Oirat
Sanskrit
Tibetan
Creator Zaya Pandita
Time period ca. – today
Parent systems
Proto-Sinaitic alphabet
Sister systems Manchu script
Vaghintara script
ISO 15924 Mong, 145
Direction Left-to-right
Unicode alias Mongolian
Unicode range U+1800 – U+18AF
Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols.

Clear script (or Oirat clear script, Todo bicig, or just Todo) (Mongolian: Тодо бичиг, todo bichig) is a Mongol alphabet created in 1648 by the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya Pandita Oktorguin Dalai for the Oirat Mongol language.[1][2][3] to It was developed on the basis of the traditional Hudum Mongolian alphabet with the goal of distinguishing all sounds in the spoken language, and to make it easier to transcribe Tibetan and Sanskrit.

Contents

History

The clear script is a Mongolian script, whose obvious closest forebear is vertical Mongolian. This Mongolian script was descendant from the Old Uyghur alphabet, which itself was descendant from Aramaic.[4] Aramaic is an abjad, an alphabet that has no symbols for vowels, and clear script is the first in this line of descendants to develop a full system of symbols for all the vowel sounds.[4]

Formation

As mentioned above the clear script was developed as a better way to write Mongolian, specifically of the Western Mongolian groups of the Oirats and Kalmyks.[3] The practicality of clear script lies in the fact that it was supremely created in order to dissolve any ambiguities that might appear when one attempts to write down a language. Not only were vowels assigned symbols, but all existing symbols were clarified. All of the 'old' symbols, those that did not change from the previously used script, were assigned a fixed meaning, based mostly on their Uyghur ancestors.[2] New symbols and diacritical marks were added to show vowels and vowel lengths, as well as distinguish between voiced and unvoiced consonants.[3] There were even some marks which denoted between sounds like ši and si which are not so important for words written in the Oirat language of clear script, but are useful for the transcription of foreign words and names.[2]

Usage

The clear script was used by Oirat and neighboring Mongols, mostly in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.[2] The text was widely used by its creator and others to translate Buddhist works so that they might better spread the Buddhist religion throughout western Mongolia. Though the script was useful for translating works from other languages, especially Tibetan, it was also used more informally, as evidenced by some letters from the late 1690s.[2]

The script was used by Kalmyks of Russia until 1924, when it was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet. In Xinjiang, China the Oirat people still use it, although today Mongolian education is taught in Chahar Mongolian all across China.

Writing in clear script

This script is a vertical script, as was its 'vertical Mongolian' parent script. Letters and diacritics are written along a central axis. Portions of letters to the right of the axis generally slant up, and portions to the left of the axis generally slant down. The only signs that do not follow these rules are the horizontal signs for S Š and part of Ö.[2] Words are delineated by a space, as well as different letter forms. Though most letters only come in one shape, there are some letters that look different depending on where in the word they occur, whether they are initial, medial, or final.[3]

There is an alphabetic order in clear script, as in other related scripts, but the order for clear script is not the same as its Mongolian parents or Aramaic ancestors.[2]

Tables

An Oirat manuscript written in the 19th century.

Todo Bichig Latin.png

See also

References

  1. ^ N. Yakhantova, The Mongolian and Oirat Translations of the Sutra of Golden Light, 2006
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Kara, György. Books of the Mongolian Nomads. Bloomington: Indiana University, 2005.
  3. ^ a b c d Eds. Daniels, Peter T. and William Bright. The World’s Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996
  4. ^ a b Gnanadesikan, Amalia. The Writing Revolution. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Clear Rivers — Final Destination character Ali Larter as Clear Rivers in the first film First appearance Final Destination …   Wikipedia

  • Script, Humanistic —    Letter forms developed by humanists of the late 14th and early 15th centuries who disliked the elaborate and often nearly illegible handwriting that dominated not only informal writing but also official documents and the copying of books in… …   Historical Dictionary of Renaissance

  • Mongolian script — For the traditional alphabet used specifically to write Mongolian, see traditional Mongolian alphabet. Mongolian …   Wikipedia

  • Soyombo script — Infobox Writing system name = Soyombo type = Abugida typedesc = time = 17th century ndash;18th century languages = Mongolian, Tibetan, Sanskrit fam1=Egyptian hieroglyphs fam2=Proto Sinaitic fam3=Proto Canaanite alphabet [a] fam4=Phoenician… …   Wikipedia

  • Shell script — This article is about scripting in UNIX like systems. For batch programming in DOS, OS/2 and Windows, see Batch file. For batch programming in Windows PowerShell shell, see Windows PowerShell#Scripting. A shell script is a script written for the… …   Wikipedia

  • On a Clear Day You Can See Forever (film) — On a Clear Day You Can See Forever Theatrical release poster Directed by Vincente Minnelli Produced by Howard W. Koch …   Wikipedia

  • Cuneiform script — Infobox Writing system name=Cuneiform type=Logographic typedesc=and syllabic languages=Akkadian, Eblaite, Elamite, Hattic, Hittite, Hurrian, Luwian, Sumerian, Urartian time=ca. 30th century BCE to 1st century CE fam1=(Proto writing) children=Old… …   Wikipedia

  • Japanese script reform — The Japanese script reform is the attempt to correlate standard spoken Japanese with the written word, which began during the Meiji period. This issue is known in Japan as the kokugo kokuji mondai (国語国字問題, national language and script problem?).… …   Wikipedia

  • Southwest script — The southwest script or southwestern script, also known as Tartessian or South Lusitanian is a paleohispanic script that was the mean of written expression of an unknown language usually identified with the same name, among them the most popular… …   Wikipedia

  • Microsoft Script Debugger — is relatively minimal debugger for Windows Script Host supported scripting languages, such as VBScript and JScript. Its user interface allows the user to set breakpoints and/or step through execution of script code line by line, and examine… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.