Pat Benatar


Pat Benatar
Pat Benatar

Pat Benatar, 2007
Background information
Birth name Patricia Mae Andrzejewski
Born January 10, 1953 (1953-01-10) (age 58)
Origin Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
Genres Rock, hard rock
Occupations Singer-songwriter, Musician
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1972–present
Labels Chrysalis Records, CMC International, Bel Chiasso Records
Website http://www.benatarfanclub.com

Pat Benatar (born Patricia Mae Andrzejewski; January 10, 1953) is an American singer and four-time Grammy winner. She had considerable commercial success particularly in the United States. During the 1980s, Benatar had two RIAA-certified Multi-Platinum albums, five RIAA-certified Platinum albums, three RIAA-certified Gold albums and 19 Top 40 singles, including "Love Is A Battlefield", "Hit Me With Your Best Shot", and "We Belong".[1] Benatar was one of the most heavily played artists in the early days of MTV.[2]

Contents

Life and career

Patricia Mae Andrzejewski was born in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, New York City. Her Polish father, Andrew, was a sheet-metal worker, and her Irish mother, Mildred, a beautician.[3] Her family later moved to North Hamilton Avenue in Lindenhurst, New York, a village within the town of Babylon, on Long Island.[4]

Patti (as she was known)[citation needed] became interested in theater and began voice lessons, singing at Daniel Street Elementary School her first solo, a song called "It Must Be Spring", at age eight.[citation needed] At Lindenhurst Senior High School (1967–71),[citation needed] Benatar participated in musical theater, playing Queen Guinevere in the school production of Camelot, marching in the homecoming parade, singing at the annual Christmas Tree Lighting ceremony, and performing a solo of "The Christmas Song" on a holiday recording of the Lindenhurst High School Choir her senior year.[citation needed]

Pat Benatar performing live in Sydney. 22 Oct 2010.

Benatar was cut off from the rock scene in nearby Manhattan. Her musical training was strictly classical and theatrical.[citation needed]

Training as a coloratura with plans to attend the Juilliard School, Benatar surprised family, friends and teachers by deciding a classical career was not for her and pursued health education at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. At 19, after one year at Stony Brook, she dropped out to marry her high school sweetheart Dennis Benatar, an army draftee who trained at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, and then served with the Army Security Agency at Fort Devens, Massachusetts, before being stationed at Fort Lee, Virginia. Specialist (E-4) Dennis Benatar was stationed there for three years, and Pat worked as a bank teller outside Richmond, Virginia.[citation needed]

In 1973, Benatar quit her job as a bank teller to pursue a singing career after being inspired by a Liza Minnelli concert she saw in Richmond. She got a job as a singing waitress at a flapper-esque nightclub named The Roaring Twenties and got a gig singing in lounge band Coxon's Army, a regular at Sam Miller's basement club. The band garnered enough attention to be the subject of a never-aired PBS special, and the band's bassist Roger Capps also would go on to be the original bass player for the Pat Benatar Band. The period also yielded Benatar's first and only single until her eventual 1979 debut on Chrysalis Records: "Day Gig" (1974), Trace Records, written and produced by Coxon's Army band leader Phil Coxon and locally released in Richmond. Her big break came in 1975 at an amateur night at the comedy club Catch a Rising Star in New York. Her rousing rendition of Judy Garland's "Rock-a-Bye Your Baby With a Dixie Melody" earned her a call back by club owner Rick Newman, who would become her manager.[citation needed]

The couple headed back to New York following Dennis' discharge from the army, and Benatar went on to be a regular member at Catch A Rising Star for close to three years, until signing a record contract. She would eventually divorce Dennis Benatar in 1979. Catch A Rising Star was not the only break Benatar got in 1975. She landed the part of Zephyr in Harry Chapin's futuristic rock musical, The Zinger.[5] The production, which debuted on March 19, 1976, at the Performing Arts Foundation's (PAF) Playhouse in Huntington Station, Long Island, ran for a month and also featured Beverly D'Angelo and Christine Lahti. Benatar noted: "I was 22 by the time I started to sing rock, so at first I was very conscious of technique and I was overly technical. That proved to be inhibiting so it was a disadvantage until I began to sing intuitively. That’s the only way to sing rock – from your gut level feelings. It's the instinct that the best singers have."[6]

Halloween 1977 proved a pivotal night in Benatar's early, spandexed stage persona. Rather than change out of the costume she wore to a Halloween contest at the Cafe Figaro in Greenwich Village that evening, she went onstage at Catch a Rising Star in costume. Benatar said: "I was dressed as a character from this ridiculous B movie called Cat-Women of the Moon."[7] Despite performing her usual array of songs, she received a standing ovation.[citation needed]

Between appearances at Catch a Rising Star and recording commercial jingles for Pepsi Cola and a number of regional concerns, she headlined New York City’s Tramps nightclub from March 29 - April 1, 1978, where her performance impressed representatives from several record companies. She was signed to Chrysalis Records by founder Terry Ellis the following week.[8] Benatar recorded her first album, In the Heat of the Night, in June and July 1979.[citation needed]

She won an unprecedented four consecutive Grammy Awards for Best Female Rock Performance from 1980 to 1983 for her second LP, Crimes of Passion, and the songs "Fire and Ice", "Shadows of the Night", and "Love Is a Battlefield".[citation needed] Of the ten Grammy Award ceremonies in the 1980s, Benatar was nominated for Best Female Rock Performance eight times, including for "Invincible" in 1985, "Sex as a Weapon" in 1986, "All Fired Up" in 1988 and in 1989 for "Let's Stay Together".[citation needed]

Benatar also earned Grammy Award nominations in 1985 for Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female with "We Belong" and in 1986 for Best Rock Vocal Performance, Duo or Group as a member of Artists United Against Apartheid for their single, "Sun City". Benatar is also the winner of three American Music Awards: Favorite Female Pop/Rock Vocalist of 1981 and 1983, and Favorite Female Pop/Rock Video Artist of 1985.[citation needed]

Pat Benatar was inducted into the Long Island Music Hall of Fame at the Second Induction Award Ceremony and Fundraising Gala held October 30, 2008.[citation needed]

Discography

In the Heat of the Night

"I Need a Lover" was the first single to be released on August 27, 1979. However, both it and the next single, "If You Think You Know How to Love Me" (October 1979), were unsuccessful. Benatar's third single "Heartbreaker" was released in early December 1979 and became an immediate hit, climbing to #23 in the US. A fourth single "We Live for Love," which was written by her future husband Neil Giraldo, was released in February 1980, and reached US #27.[9]

Benatar's debut album In the Heat of the Night was released in October 1979, and reached #12 in the US. It established Benatar as a new force in rock. Producer Mike Chapman, who had worked with Blondie and The Knack, broke his vow not to take on any new artists when he heard Benatar's demo tape. Chapman personally produced three tracks on the album, while his long-time engineer and now independent producer, Peter Coleman (who also supervised Nick Gilder) oversaw the rest. In addition, Chapman and his partner, Nicky Chinn, wrote three songs that appear on the LP, "In the Heat of the Night" and "If You Think You Know How to Love Me" which were previously recorded by Smokie, as well as a rearranged version of a song they wrote for Sweet, "No You Don't". The album also featured two songs written by Roger Capps and Benatar as well as "I Need a Lover" written by John Mellencamp and "Don't Let It Show" written by Alan Parsons and Eric Woolfson. The album would be Benatar's first RIAA certified platinum album.[10]

Crimes of Passion

In August 1980, Benatar released her LP, Crimes of Passion, featuring her signature song "Hit Me with Your Best Shot" along with the controversial song "Hell is for Children", which was inspired by reading a series of articles in the New York Times about child abuse in America. "Hit Me With Your Best Shot" (US #9) was her first single to break the US Top 10 and eventually sold more than one million copies (at that time, gold status) in the United States alone. The album peaked for five consecutive weeks at US #2 in January 1981 (behind Yoko Ono and John Lennon's Double Fantasy) and eventually sold over five million copies, and a month later, Benatar won her first Grammy Award for "Best Female Rock Vocal Performance" of 1980.[11] Other singles released from Crimes of Passion were "Treat Me Right" (US #18) and the Rascals' cover, "You Better Run" (US #42), which gained some later fame when it was the second music video ever played on MTV, after the Buggles' "Video Killed the Radio Star".[8][12][13] The album also featured a changed-tempo cover of Kate Bush's "Wuthering Heights". Nominally produced by Keith Olsen, Crimes of Passion remained on the US album charts for 93 weeks and in the top 10 for more than six months, eventually becoming her second consecutive platinum certification by the RIAA. In October 1980, Benatar (along with future husband Neil Giraldo) graced the cover of Rolling Stone magazine.

Precious Time

In July 1981, she released her third LP, Precious Time. A month later the album hit #1 on the Billboard US Top 200 LP chart. It was also her first to chart in the UK, reaching #30. The album's lead single, "Fire and Ice", was another big hit (US #17, AUS #30) and would win Benatar her second Grammy Award, this time for "Best Female Rock Vocal Performance" of 1981 and her third consecutive RIAA certified platinum album. "Promises in the Dark" (US #38) was also released.

In August 1981, Benatar's video You Better Run, was the second video aired by MTV.[12]

Get Nervous

A hit single, "Shadows of the Night", (US #13, AUS #19) heralded a new LP, Get Nervous, released in late 1982. The album was another smash, reaching US #4, her fourth consecutive RIAA platinum certification, and the single would garner Benatar yet another Grammy, again for "Best Female Rock Vocal Performance" of 1982. The follow-up singles, "Little Too Late" and "Looking for a Stranger", were also successful, hitting US #20 and #39 respectively. The WWII-themed music video for "Shadows of the Night" featured then-unknown actors Judge Reinhold and Bill Paxton as an American fighter copilot and a German radio operator, respectively.

Live from Earth

By 1983, Benatar had established a reputation for singing about "tough" subject matters, best exemplified by one of the biggest hits of her career, "Love Is a Battlefield" (penned by noted hit songwriter Holly Knight with Mike Chapman), released in December 1983. By then, her sound had mellowed from hard rock to more atmospheric pop and the story-based video clip for "Love Is a Battlefield" was aimed squarely at MTV, even featuring Benatar in a Michael Jackson-inspired group dance number. This new pop direction was a huge commercial success, with the single peaking at #5 in the United States, and #1 in Australia for seven consecutive weeks. The song gained interest in the UK where it peaked at #49. The song would also net Benatar her fourth consecutive Grammy Award for "Best Female Rock Vocal Performance" of 1983. A live album, Live from Earth, which was recorded during Benatar's sold-out Get Nervous world tour of America and Europe in 1982 and 1983, contained two studio tracks, "Love Is a Battlefield" and "Lipstick Lies." The album peaked at US #13 and became her fifth consecutive RIAA platinum winner.[10]

Tropico

In October 1984, the single "We Belong" became another Top 5 smash in the US, and reached #7 in Australia. It was also Benatar's first ever UK top 40 hit, where it peaked at #22. In November, Benatar released her sixth album, Tropico (US #14, AUS #9, UK #31). A second single release, "Ooh Ooh Song," reached US #36. It is also said by Benatar and Giraldo that this album is the first where they moved away from Benatar's famed "hard rock" sound and start experimenting with new, sometimes "gentler," styles and sounds. Despite not quite making the US Top 10, it immediately earned her a sixth consecutive RIAA platinum-certified album. This album is now out-of-print, but is currently available in a 2 for 1 package, combined with "Seven the Hard Way" (import cd).

After the chart success of "We Belong" in the UK, "Love is a Battlefield" was re-released in early 1985 and became her highest chart hit there, reaching #17.

Seven the Hard Way

Benatar would hit the US Top 10 with the #10 single "Invincible" (the theme from the movie, The Legend of Billie Jean) in 1985. "Sex As a Weapon" would climb as high as #28 in January 1986, and "Le Bel Age" (#54) in February. The album Seven the Hard Way peaked at #26, earning an RIAA Gold certification.

The title of the album is based on a bet in the game of craps: "Rolls of 4, 6, 8, and 10 are called "hard" or "easy" (e.g. "Six the Hard Way", "Easy Eight", "Hard Ten") depending on whether they were rolled as a "double" or as any other combination of values, because of their significance in center table bets known as the "hard ways"." The album was the band's seventh release in seven years. Benatar is holding a pair of dice on the album cover with three and a half dots each. This album is now out-of-print, but is currently available in a 2 for 1 package, combined with "Tropico" (import cd).

Wide Awake in Dreamland

In July 1988, Benatar released her eighth album, Wide Awake in Dreamland (US #28, UK #11). A single lifted from the album, "All Fired Up" (written by Kerryn Tolhurst, ex-The Dingoes) reached #19 in both the US and the UK, and was a #2 smash in Australia, becoming one of the biggest hits of 1988 in that country. Other singles released from the LP are "Don't Walk Away" (UK #42), "Let's Stay Together", and "One Love" (UK #59). The album also earned an RIAA gold certification. This album is now out-of-print, but is currently available in a 2 for 1 package, combined with "Live From Earth" (import cd).

True Love

True Love was a jump blues record, released in late April 1991, and featured the blues band Roomful of Blues, backing up Pat Benatar, Neil Giraldo and Myron Grombacher. The album sold over 339,000[14] copies without significant radio airplay and limited exposure on VH-1. "Payin' the Cost to Be the Boss," "So Long," and the title cut were released as singles. The album reached #40 in the UK and #37 in the US.

Gravity's Rainbow

Gravity's Rainbow (US #85) was released in 1993 and was a return to the AOR genre. "Everybody Lay Down" was picked up by Album Rock radio and went all the way to #3. The single was never released to Top 40/Contemporary Hit Radio and a music video was never produced. "Somebody's Baby" was instead released as the single to Top 40 radio and a music video produced.

A third track was scheduled and a video shot for "Everytime I Fall Back", but the single was never released and the music video was lost when Chrysalis was sold to EMI records. Benatar had become pregnant again and this may have had an effect on her label's support of the album. This was Benatar's last album recorded for Chrysalis records. With very little promotion from Chrysalis, Gravity's Rainbow failed to have the same commercial success as Benatar's previous works. According to SoundScan, the album sold approximately 160,000 copies in the United States. It is currently available in a 2 for 1 release with "True Love" (import).

Innamorata

Innamorata (US #171) was released in 1997 on the CMC International record label. A single video was produced for "Strawberry Wine (Life is Sweet)". According to SoundScan, the album has now sold close to 65,000 copies in the 14 years since its release.

Go

Benatar has released only one album of new material since 1997's Innamorata, which is 2003's Go (US #187). The album included the 9/11 charity single, "Christmas in America" as a bonus track. A compilation video was produced for the single "Have It All", but was never released; the only video from this album is for the bonus track. According to SoundScan, the album has now sold nearly 34,000 copies.

Greatest hits collections

"Best Shots" (US #67) was first released in the UK in 1987, where it became Benatar's biggest selling album in the UK, it reached #6 and achieved Gold sales status.[citation needed] The album was also a top 20 hit in Australia.[citation needed] In the US, it was released in November 1989. The US version consisted of 15 tracks on a single CD, including a live version of "Hell is for Children" with Suffer the Little Children intro, "Painted Desert" (from Tropico) and a remixed version of "Outlaw Blues" (also from Tropico). It would be another certified RIAA gold (later platinum) album.[citation needed] "Best Shots" was the only official greatest hits compilation until 1994[citation needed] when All Fired Up: The Very Best of Pat Benatar was released (2 CD). The box set Synchronistic Wanderings (3 CD) was released in 1999.[citation needed]

"Classic Masters" was released in October 2002, and Pat Benatar Greatest Hits was released in June 2005. The most recent collection, Ultimate Collection (2 CD set) was released in June 2008 under the Capitol Records label with forty 24 bit-digitally remastered tracks. Ultimate Collection included the version of "Everytime I Fall Back" from her appearance on The Young and the Restless.

21st century

Pat Benatar has toured every year since 1996.[citation needed]

In 2009, Benatar teamed up with Blondie for the "Call Me Invincible" tour, which also features The Donnas.[15]

Benatar undertook a tour with REO Speedwagon during the summer of 2010,[16] which included her original drummer, Myron Grombacher. Subsequently, in October 2010, she toured Australia and played various dates with the 1980s girl pop group, The Bangles.[citation needed]

Pat Benatar's 2011 tour is called, "The Elements of Five", along with Neil Giraldo and band.

Memoir

In June 2010, Benatar's memoir, Between a Heart and a Rock Place was released. The book was published by HarperCollins and was acquired by Lisa Sharkey. Benatar's memoir touches on her battles with her record company Chrysalis, and the difficulties her career caused in her personal life. Initially reluctant to undertake the project, she found the actual writing process so enjoyable that it inspired her with plans to write a novel.[16] In summer 2011 Benatar announced she was working on a Christmas album and a novel about the second coming of Christ.[17]

Band

Neil Giraldo, lead guitarist for Pat Benatar performing live in Sydney. 22 Oct 2010.

Although billed as a solo artist, Benatar recorded and toured with a consistent set of band members over most of her career, who contributed greatly to the writing and producing of songs and are recognizable characters on album photos and in many of her music videos.

  • Neil "Spyder" Giraldo (incorrectly spelled as "Geraldo" in early liner notes/credits) is the distinctive lead guitarist of the band and has performed on all of Benatar's albums. Born in Cleveland on December 29, 1955, Giraldo began playing the guitar at the age of six and learned to play the piano at age 12. Giraldo performed in Rick Derringer's touring band before working with Benatar, appearing in a possible bootleg entitled Derringer Live At The Paradise Theater Boston, Massachusetts, July 7, 1978 (UPC 672627400428). Giraldo's appearance on the video for Benatar's "You Better Run" distinguished him as the first guitarist on MTV. The video, the second ever aired on MTV, followed The Buggles, who had no guitar player. In addition to playing lead guitar, Giraldo is credited with composing and producing much of Benatar's work. Giraldo's first outside production credit was on John Waite's debut album Ignition. He has also given a helping musical hand to artists such as The Del-Lords, Rick Springfield, The Cruzados, and Kenny Loggins. In addition, Giraldo was the musical composer for the 2005 movie Smile starring Beau Bridges, Linda Hamilton, Sean Astin and directed by Jeffrey Kramer. The soundtrack features an original song by Giraldo and Scott Kempner of The Del-Lords, appearing as The Paradise Brothers, titled "Beautiful Something." Proceeds from the movie go to Operation Smile. The Paradise Brothers also contributed a cover of "Light Of Day" for a Bruce Springsteen Tribute album.
  • Myron Grombacher, who played with Neil in Rick Derringer's touring band, is drummer on nine of Benatar's original albums and has numerous writing credits. Myron is easily recognizable in the music videos, particularly as the mad dentist in Get Nervous.
  • Charlie Giordano performed keyboard duties on five albums, and is identifiable by his glasses and distinctive array of berets, blazers and 80s-style ties. In 2007, he replaced the late Danny Federici in the E Street Band.
  • Mick Mahan is the band's bassist and has performed with Benatar since 1995. The original bassist, Roger Capps, was replaced by Donnie Nossov on Tropico, and then later by Frank Linx.
  • Scott St. Clair Sheets is credited on rhythm guitar on the first three albums.
  • Glen Alexander Hamilton played drums on the first album.

Other achievements

Pat Benatar performing with her husband and lead guitarist, Neil Giraldo. Live in Sydney, 22 Oct 2010.

Stage & screen, soundtracks

  • In 1981, "Hell Is For Children" appeared on the soundtrack of the Ralph Bakshi animated film American Pop.
  • The soundtrack to Giorgio Moroder's 1984 restoration of Fritz Lang's 1926 classic Metropolis features Benatar performing two versions of the movie's love song "Here's My Heart"
  • Benatar played the character Zephyr in Harry Chapin's futuristic rock musical The Zinger. Benatar performed the solo "Shooting Star" in honor of Chapin for the Harry Chapin Tribute, Carnegie Hall, December 7, 1987.
  • "Run Between the Raindrops" was featured on the soundtrack for The Stepfather (1987 film)
  • "Sometimes the Good Guys Finish First" was on the Soundtrack for The Secret of My Success in 1987.
  • Benatar appears on "Yakety Yak - Take It Back", a Public Service Announcement produced by the Take It Back Foundation in 1991. It was later shown occasionally on Sesame Street during the 1990s, though it does not feature any Sesame Street characters.
  • "Love Is a Battlefield" was featured twice on South Park
  • In 2003, "Love Is a Battlefield" was featured in the movie 13 Going on 30.
  • In 2003, Konami released a singing video game called "Karaoke Revolution" that featured the cover version of Benatar's song "Hit Me With Your Best Shot" as a part of the song list line-ups.
  • Benatar has made numerous TV appearances, mostly as herself. She appeared with her husband in the Charmed episode "Lucky Charmed" on which "Heartbreaker" was used and in an episode of Dharma & Greg as herself singing "We've Only Just Begun" at an impromptu wedding in an airport. In 2001, she also appeared as fictional rock star Anna Raines in the CBS TV drama Family Law with Dixie Carter and Christopher McDonald.
  • In 2006, Benatar and her music were featured on "CMT Crossroads."
  • In 2007-2008 Benatar's single "Hit Me With Your Best Shot" was put into the songlist for Guitar Hero 3 in the first tier of songs, also in Guitar Hero On Tour, and is available as a downloadable song in the video game Rock Band. Her song "Heartbreaker" is a playable song in the 2008 video game followup Guitar Hero: World Tour as well as also being downloadable content on Rock Band. In 2011, "Fire and Ice", "Love is a Battlefield," "Shadows of the Night," "We Belong," "Invincible," and "Promises in the Dark" were added as downloadable content for the music game, Rock Band 3.

Advertising

In 2006, the song "We Belong" was part of a $20 million dollar ad campaign for Sheraton hotels,[18] although the version used in the commercial was not Benatar's. Her version of the song is featured in the 2006 comedy Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby, starring Will Ferrell and directed by Adam McKay.

Though she had earlier expressed dismay for rock stars endorsing products (including onetime cohort Debbie Harry, who had developed her modeling career simultaneously to her rock career), Benatar herself became a commercial spokeswoman for the Energizer company, and has been featured in an ad for Candies Vintage shoes for Kohl's department store.[citation needed] In 2007, her song "Passion" could be downloaded free from the official Jell-O web site.[citation needed]

References

Further reading

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pat Benatar — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Pat Benatar Pat Benatar Información personal Nombre real …   Wikipedia Español

  • Pat Benatar — sur scène en 2007. Nom Patricia Mae Andrzejewski Naissance 10  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pat Benatar — Pat Benatar, eigentlich Patricia Mae Andrzejewski (* 10. Januar 1953 in Brooklyn, New York), ist eine US amerikanische Hard Rock Sängerin polnisch irischer Abstammung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pat Benatar Ultimate Collection — Infobox Album | Name = Pat Benatar Ultimate Collection Type = Studio Artist = Pat Benatar Released = June 2008 Recorded = 1979 2008 Genre = Rock Length = Disc 1 76:26 Disc 2 75:31 Label = Capitol/EMI Records Reviews = * Allmusic Rating|4|5… …   Wikipedia

  • Pat Benatar discography — Infobox Artist Discography Artist = Pat Benatar Caption = Studio = 11 Studio link = Albums Live = 9 Compilation = 28 Video = 6 Video link = Tribute = 4 EP = Singles = 47 Singles link = Singles Music videos = 27 MV link = B sides = Soundtrack =… …   Wikipedia

  • Go (álbum de Pat Benatar) — Go Álbum de Pat Benatar Publicación Agosto de 2003 Grabación 2002 2003 Género(s) Rock Discográfica …   Wikipedia Español

  • True Love (álbum de Pat Benatar) — True Love Álbum de Pat Benatar Publicación Abril de 1991 Género(s) Blues Duración 36:37 Discográfica …   Wikipedia Español

  • True Love (Pat Benatar album) — Infobox Album | Name = True Love Type = studio Artist = Pat Benatar Released = April 1991 Recorded = Genre = Blues Length = 36:37 Label = Chrysalis Records Producer = Neil Giraldo Reviews = *Allmusic Rating|2|5… …   Wikipedia

  • Greatest Hits (álbum de Pat Benatar) — Para otros usos de este término, véase Greatest Hits. Greatest Hits Grandes éxitos de Pat Benatar Publicación Junio de 2005 Grabación 1979 1988 Género(s) …   Wikipedia Español

  • Go (Pat Benatar album) — Infobox Album Name = Go Type = Studio Artist = Pat Benatar Released = August 12, 2003 Recorded = Spyder s Soul Kitchen, Rumbo Recorders Genre = Pop/Rock Length = Label = Bel Chiasso Records Producer = Neil Giraldo Reviews = * Allmusic Rating|2|5… …   Wikipedia


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