Katharevousa


Katharevousa

Katharevousa ( _el. Καθαρεύουσα, IPA-all|kaθaˈɾe̞vusa, lit. "the purified one"), is a form of the Greek language conceived in the early 19th century by Greek intellectual and revolutionary leader Adamantios Korais (1748–1833). A graduate of the University of Montpellier in 1788, Korais spent most of his life as an expatriate in Paris. Being a classical scholar, he was repelled by the Byzantine and later influence on Greek society and was a fierce critic of the ignorance of the clergy and their subservience to the Ottoman Empire. He held that education was a prerequisite to Greek liberation. The Katharevousa was widely used in public documents and whatever was conceived as work of profound intellectual activity by the Greek scholars.This phenomenon occurred mainly due to the "impurity" the demotic language was thought to represent.

Katharevousa was set at a midpoint between Ancient Greek and the Modern Greek of the time. It stressed both a more ancient vocabulary and a simplified form of the archaic grammar. The first known use of "katharevousa" is in a work by the Greek polymath Nikephoros Theotokis, in 1796. [ [http://www.onassis.gr/enim_deltio/foreign/01/story_05.php The Phenomenon of Diglossia: Language and National Identity] , interview with Peter Mackridge]

Part of its purpose was to mediate the struggle between the "archaists" favouring full reversion to archaic forms, and the "modernists". Katharevousa can also be translated as "the clean one", implying a form of Greek without extraneous influences, as it may hypothetically have independently evolved from ancient Greek, but in its modern Greek connotation it merely means "formal language".

In later years, Katharevousa was used for official and formal purposes (such as politics, letters, official documents, and newscasting), while "Dimotiki" (δημοτική), 'demotic' or popular Greek, was the daily language. This created a diglossic situation whereby most of the Greek population was excluded from the public sphere and advancement in education unless they conformed to Katharevousa. In 1976, Dimotiki was made the official language and by the end of the 20th century full Katharevousa in its earlier form had become obsolete. However, many grammatical and syntactical rules that Katharevousa had adopted, and much vocabulary from the Katharevousa strand, have come into contact with Dimotiki during the two centuries of its existence, so that the project's emphasis has made an observable contribution to the language as it is used today. [ [http://www.translexis.demon.co.uk/new_page_2.htm www.translexis.demon.co.uk] ] One may suggest that the Modern Greek of today is no longer the Dimotiki of old, but rather set midway between it and the traditional Katharevousa as stressed in the 19th century, with the concurrent and age-old influence of Koine Greek. Amongst Katharevousa's later contributions is the promotion of classically based compounds to describe items and concepts that did not exist in earlier times, such as "newspaper", "police", "automobile", "airplane", "television" and much else, rather than borrowing words directly from other languages.

ee also

*Demotic Greek
*Diglossia
*Greek diacritics
*Greek language question
*Greek orthography
*Linguistic purism

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Katharevousa — (Καθαρεύουσα) Projektautor Adamantios Korais Linguistische Klassifikation Konstruierte Sprache Kunstsprache Griechische Sprache Katharevousa …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Katharevousa — Katharévousa Histoire de la langue grecque (voir aussi : alphabet grec) Proto grec (vers 2000 av. J. C.) Mycénien (vers 1600–1100 av. J. C.) Grec ancien (vers 800–300 av. J. C.) Dialectes : éolien, arcado cypriote, Ionien attique …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Katharévousa — Katharévousa, kazarévusa o cazarévusa[1] (en griego: καθαρεύουσα , [kaθa ɾɛvusa], literalmente «lengua pura») es una variante culta y arcaizante del griego moderno.[2] La katharévousa se concibió en el siglo XIX como un intento de «purificar» la… …   Wikipedia Español

  • katharevousa — [kä΄thä rev′o͞o sä΄] n. 〚ModGr, lit., being pure〛 the form of Modern Greek that conforms to classical Greek usage * * * …   Universalium

  • katharevousa — [kä΄thä rev′o͞o sä΄] n. [ModGr, lit., being pure] the form of Modern Greek that conforms to classical Greek usage …   English World dictionary

  • Katharévousa — Histoire de la langue grecque (voir aussi : alphabet grec) Proto grec (vers 2000 av. J. C.) Mycénien (vers 1600 1100 av. J. C.) Grec ancien (vers 800 300 av. J. C.) Dialectes : éolien  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Katharevousa — or Katharevusa noun Etymology: New Greek kathareuousa, from Greek, feminine of kathareuōn, present participle of kathareuein to be pure, from katharos pure Date: 1936 modern Greek conforming to classic Greek usage …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • katharévousa — см. демотика …   Пятиязычный словарь лингвистических терминов

  • Katharevousa — noun A learned, archaising form of Modern Greek, the artificial Greek language based on Classical Greek, used for formal and official purposes, primarily written but not used for conversation. Legally displaced in 1976 by Demotic Greek. See Also …   Wiktionary

  • katharevousa — [ˌkaθə rɛvu:sə] noun a heavily archaized form of modern Greek used in traditional literary writing. Compare with demotic. Origin mod. Gk, lit. purified …   English new terms dictionary


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