- Hypodermic needle model
The hypodermic needle model is a model of communications also referred to as the
magic bulletperspective, or the transmission-belt model. Essentially, this model holds that an intended message is directly received and wholly accepted by the receiver. The model is rooted in 1930s behaviorismand is considered obsolete today.
The "hypodermic needle theory" implied
mass mediahad a direct, immediate and powerful effect on their audiences. The mass media in the 1940s and 1950s were perceived as a powerful influence on behaviour change. Several factors contributed to this "strong effects" theory of communication, including: the fast rise and popularization of radioand television, the emergence of the persuasion industries, such as advertising and propaganda, the Payne Fund studies of the 1930s, which focused on the impact of motion pictures on children, and Hitler's monopolization of the mass media during WWII to unify the German public behind the Nazi party.
This view of
propagandatook root after World War I and was championed by theorists such as Lasswell in his pioneer work "Propaganda Technique in the World War" (1927). He noted that the people had been duped and degraded by propaganda during the war. Works such as Harold Lasswell's expressed a fear of propaganda. Lasswell based his work on a stimulus-response model rooted in learning theory. Focusing on mass effects, this approach viewed human responses to the media as uniform and immediate. E. D. Martin expressed this approach thusly: "Propaganda offers ready-made opinions for the unthinking herd" (cited in Choukas, 1965, p. 15). Known as the "Magic Bullet" or "Hypodermic Needle Theory" of direct influence effects, it was not as widely accepted by scholars as many books on mass communication indicate. The magic bullet theory was not based on empirical generalizations from research but rather on assumptions of the time about human nature. People were assumed to be "uniformly controlled by their biologically based 'instincts' and that they react more or less uniformly to whatever 'stimuli' came along" (Lowery & DefFleur, 1995, p. 400).
The phrasing "hypodermic needle" is meant to give a mental image of the direct, strategic, and planned infusion of a message into an individual. But as research methodology became more highly developed, it became apparent that the media had selective influences on people.
The most famous incident often cited as a example for the hypodermic needle model was the 1938 broadcast of "The War of the Worlds" and the subsequent reaction of widespread panic among its American mass audience. However, this incident actually sparked the research movement, led by
Paul Lazarsfeldand Herta Herzog, that would disprove the magic bullet theory, as Hadley Cantrilmanaged to show that reactions to the broadcast were, in fact, diverse, and were largely determined by situational and attitudinal attributes of the listeners.
Davis, D.K. & Baron, S.J. (1981). A History of Our Understanding of Mass Communication. In: Davis, D.K. & Baron and S.J. (Eds.). Mass Communication and Everyday Life: A Perspective on Theory and Effects (19-52). Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing.
Media effects theory
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Needle remover — a wall mounted sharps container Needle removers are devices that physically remove a needle from a syringe. In developing countries, there is still a need for improvements in needle safety in hospital settings as most of the needle removal… … Wikipedia
Tuohy needle — Infobox Laboratory equipment name = Tuohy needle caption = A 16G Portex Tuohy needle and epidural catheter. Large rule marks 1 cm apart. acronym = other names = uses = Drug delivery inventor = manufacturer = model = related = Hypodermic needleA… … Wikipedia
Audience theory — is an element of thinking that developed within academic literary theory and cultural studies. With a specific focus on rhetoric, some, such as Walter Ong, have suggested that the audience is a construct made up by the rhetoric and the rhetorical … Wikipedia
Outline of communication — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to communication: Communication – activity of conveying meaningful information. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver… … Wikipedia
Media studies — is an academic discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history and effects of various media; in particular, the mass media . Media studies may draw on traditions from both the social sciences and the humanities, but mostly from … Wikipedia
Topic outline of communication — Communication is the process of generation, transmission, or reception of messages to oneself or another entity, usually via a mutually understood set of signs. The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to communication … Wikipedia
Two-step flow of communication — The two step flow model was propounded by Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz. Unlike the hypodermic needle model which considers mass media effects to be direct, the two step flow model stresses human agency. According to Lazarsfeld and Katz, mass… … Wikipedia
Direct effect — For the Direct effect model of media influence, see hypodermic needle model. Direct effect should not be confused with Vertical effect and debates over the Horizontal effect of the British Human Rights Act Direct effect is the principle of… … Wikipedia
Magic bullet theory — may refer to: Single bullet theory, the theory that John F. Kennedy was killed by a single assassin Hypodermic needle model, a theory of a direct effect of the mass media on audiences This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the… … Wikipedia
Media controversy — may refer to: Censorship Controversy Hypodermic needle model Media influence Media transparency Media violence research Public outcry Wowserism Media content ratings systems Computer Entertainment Rating Organization Entertainment Software Rating … Wikipedia