- Secular humanism
Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds
reason, ethicsand justice, and specifically rejects the supernaturaland the spiritual as the basis of moral reflection and decision-making. Like other types of humanism, secular humanism is a life stancefocusing on the way human beings can lead good and happy lives.
The term "secular humanism" was coined in the 20th century to make a clear distinction from "
religious humanism". A related concept is "scientific humanism", which biologist Edward O. Wilsonclaimed to be "the only worldview compatible with science's growing knowledge of the real world and the laws of nature". [In "Harvard Magazine" December 2005, p. 33.]
Secular humanism describes a world view with the following elements and principles:cite web
title= What Is Secular Humanism?
publisher= Council for Secular Humanism]
*Need to test beliefs – A conviction that dogmas, ideologies and traditions, whether religious, political or social, must be weighed and tested by each individual and not simply accepted on faith.
*Reason, evidence, scientific method – A commitment to the use of critical reason, factual evidence and scientific methods of inquiry, rather than faith and mysticism, in seeking solutions to human problems and answers to important human questions.
* Fulfillment, growth, creativity – A primary concern with fulfillment, growth and creativity for both the individual and humankind in general.
* Search for truth – A constant search for objective truth, with the understanding that new knowledge and experience constantly alter our imperfect perception of it.
* This life – A concern for this life and a commitment to making it meaningful through better understanding of ourselves, our history, our intellectual and artistic achievements, and the outlooks of those who differ from us.
* Ethics – A search for viable individual, social and political principles of ethical conduct, judging them on their ability to enhance human well-being and individual responsibility.
* Building a better world – A conviction that with reason, an open exchange of ideas, good will, and tolerance, progress can be made in building a better world for ourselves and our children.
A Secular Humanist Declarationwas an argument for and statement of belief in Democratic Secular Humanism. The document was issued in 1980 by The Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism (CODESH), now the Council for Secular Humanism(CSH).Fact|date=January 2008
Relationship to other concepts
When humanists use the phrase "secular humanism" it is typically to emphasize differences relative to
religionor religious humanism.Fact|date=January 2008
There are a number of ways in which secular and religious humanism can differ: [Council for Secular Humanism - [http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=library&page=price_22_3 "Religious and Secular Humanism: What's the difference?"] ]
*Religious humanists may value
ritualsand ceremoniesas means of affirming their life stance. Secular humanists are typically not interested in using rituals and ceremonies. [Though there are many exceptions; according to the [http://www.shj.org/ Society for Humanistic Judaism] , "Humanistic Jewish communities celebrate Jewish holidays and life cycle events (such as weddings and bar and bat mitzvah) with inspirational ceremonies that draw upon but go beyond traditional literature."]
*Some religious humanists may seek profound "religious" experiences, such as those that others would associate with the presence of God, despite interpreting these experiences differently. Secular humanists would generally not pursue such experiences solely for their own sake.Fact|date=June 2008
*Some varieties of nontheistic religious humanism may conceive of the word "divine" as more than metaphoric even in the absence of a belief in a traditional God; they may believe in ideals that transcend physical reality; or they may conceive of some experiences as
numinousor uniquely religious. Secular humanism regards all such terms as, at best, metaphors for truths rooted in the material world.
*Some varieties of religious humanism, such as
Christian humanisminclude belief in God, traditionally defined. Secular humanists reject as irrational the idea of God and the supernatural and believe that these are not useful concepts for addressing human problems.Fact|date=January 2008
While some humanists embrace calling themselves "secular humanists", others prefer the term "Humanist", capitalized and without any qualifying adjective. The terms secular humanism and Humanism overlap, but have different connotations. The term secular humanism emphasizes a non-religious focus, whereas the term Humanism deemphasizes this and may even encompass some nontheistic varieties of
religious humanism. The term Humanism also emphasizes considering one's humanism to be a life stance.Fact|date=January 2008
"Secular humanism" advocates "
secularism" but is a broader concept. Secularism has a number of usages but generally emphasizes limits on the role of religious or supernatural considerations in the affairs of society or government. Secular humanism adds to these positions a comprehensive perspective on life, including affirmation of human dignity and the importance of ethics.Fact|date=January 2008
Secular humanism is a broad philosophic position and not limited to be simply a statement about belief or non-belief in God. Accordingly, secular humanism can not be equated with
nontheism, atheism, or agnosticism. Although many nontheists, atheists, and agnostics adhere to the tenets of secular humanism, this is not intrinsically the case. [Council for Secular Humanism - [http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=library&page=kurtz_22_4 "Secular Humanism: a New Approach"] ]
Secular humanism has appeal to atheists, agnostics, freethinkers, empiricists, rationalists, skeptics and materialists, as well as to some
Unitarians, Buddhists, Hindus and Confucians.Fact|date=January 2008
Modern secular humanism
While secular humanist organizations are found in all parts of the world, one of the largest humanist organizations in the world (relative to population) is
Norway's Human-Etisk Forbund, [ [http://www.human.no/templates/Page____2067.aspx Human-Etisk Forbund ] ] which had over 69,000 members out of a population of around 4.6 million in 2004. [ [http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/07/02/10/trosamf_en/tab-2004-10-21-01-en.html] Dead link|date=March 2008]
In certain areas of the world, secular humanism finds itself in conflict with
religious fundamentalism, especially over the issue of the separation of church and state. A faction of secular humanists may judge religions as superstitious, regressive, and/or closed-minded, while the majority of religious fundamentalists see secular humanism as a threat to the values they say are set out in religious texts, such as the Bibleand the Qur'an. [ [http://english.islamway.com/bindex.php?section=lessons&lesson_id=399&scholar_id=38 IslamWay Radio ] ]
Some criticize the philosophy of secular humanism because it offers no eternal truths nor a relationship with the divine, as well as other beliefs such as the afterlife that can only be found within Religion, depriving Man from a comfort they cannot provide. [Buber, Martin (1923) "I and Thou" ("Ich und Du"). ISBN 0-684-71725-5] [ [http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/cultr/documents/rc_pc_cultr_01091993_doc_i-1993-ple_en.html Cultures et foi - Cultures and Faith - Culturas y fe - 1/1993 - Plenaria 1994 ] ] Critics allege that a philosophy bereft of these beliefs [Schaeffer, Francis A. How Should We Then Live? The Rise and Decline of Western Thought and Culture. ISBN 1-58134-536-4] leaves humanity adrift in a foggy sea [Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal (who would become Pope Benedict XVI) (1967) Introduction To Christianity. ISBN 1-58617-029-5] of postmodern
cynicismand anomie. Some argue that this philosophy has always been antireligiousand it is often used in connection with atheism. [ [http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?cid=1123996016072&pagename=IslamOnline-English-AAbout_Islam/AskAboutIslamE/AskAboutIslamE What is the attitude of the Muslim scholars towards humanism?] , IslamOnline, 2003-07-24] Some see their antireligiousness as a sort of an imposed "religion" itself - see below. Within humanism, there can also be found critics, for the exclusion of other types of humanism that are similar in the most important values - see religious humanism.
Humanists respond that such criticisms reflect a failure to look at the actual content of humanist philosophy, which far from being cynical and postmodern, is rooted in optimistic, [ [http://www.wisdomquotes.com/000501.html Unknown Quote - Quotation from Unknown - Humanism Quote - Wisdom Quotes - Unknown Quotation ] ] [ [http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=main&page=affirmations Council for Secular Humanism ] ] idealistic [ [http://atheism.about.com/b/a/180098.htm Humanism, Definitively ] ] attitudes about the future of human society that trace back to the Enlightenment, [ [http://www.bidstrup.com/humanist.htm Just What Is A "Secular Humanist Liberal," Anyway? ] ] [ [http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/fred_edwords/humanism.html What Is Humanism ] ] [ [http://www.humanismtoday.org/vol12/hoertdoerfer.html Religious Humanism - Humanism Today, Volume 12 ] ] or further, back to Pre-Socratic
Greek philosophersand Chinese Confucianism.
Legal mentions in the United States
The issue of whether and in what sense secular humanism might be considered a religion, and what the implications of this would be has become the subject of legal maneuvering and political debate in the
United States. Fact|date=January 2008
"Torcaso v. Watkins"
The phrase "secular humanism" became prominent after it was used in the
United States Supreme Courtcase " Torcaso v. Watkins." In the 1961 decision, Justice Hugo Blackcommented in a footnote, "Among religions in this country which do not teach what would generally be considered a belief in the existence of Godare Buddhism, Taoism, Ethical Culture, Secular Humanism, and others." Such footnotes, known as " obiter dicta", are personal observations of the judge, and hence are incidental to reaching the opinion.Fact|date=January 2008
"Fellowship of Humanity v. County of Alameda"
The footnote in "Torcaso v. Watkins" referenced "
Fellowship of Humanity v. County of Alameda," [ [http://online.ceb.com/CalCases/CA2/153CA2d673.htm "Fellowship of Humanity v. County of Alameda"] , 153 Cal.App.2d 673, 315 P.2d 394 (1957).] a 1957 case in which an organization of humanists [http://pacer.cadc.uscourts.gov/common/opinions/200006/98-5485a.txt Ben Kalka v Kathleen Hawk, et al.] (US D.C. Appeals No. 98-5485, 2000)] ] sought a tax exemption on the ground that they used their property "solely and exclusively for religious worship." Despite the group's non-theisticbeliefs, the court determined that the activities of the "Fellowship of Humanity," which included weekly Sunday meetings, were analogous to the activities of theisticchurches and thus entitled to an exemption.Fact|date=January 2008
The "Fellowship of Humanity" case itself referred to "
humanism" but did not mention the term "secular humanism." Nonetheless, this case was cited by Justice Black to justify the inclusion of Secular Humanism in the list of religions in his note. Presumably Justice Black added the word "secular" to emphasize the non-theistic nature of the "Fellowship of Humanity" and distinguish their brand of humanism from that associated with, for example, Christian humanism.Fact|date=January 2008
"Washington Ethical Society v. District of Columbia"
Another case alluded to in the "Torcaso v. Watkins" footnote, and said by some to have established secular humanism as a religion under the law, is the 1957 tax case of "" (101 U.S. App. D.C. 371). The "
Washington Ethical Society" functions much like a church, but regards itself as a non-theistic religious institution, honoring the importance of ethical living without mandating a belief in a supernaturalorigin for ethics. The case involved denial of the Society's application for tax exemption as a religious organization. The U.S. Court of Appeals reversed the Tax Court's ruling, defined the Society as a religious organization, and granted its tax exemption.
The Society terms its practice
Ethical Culture. Though Ethical Culture is based on a humanist philosophy, it is regarded by some as a type of religious humanism. Hence, it would seem most accurate to say that this case affirmed that a religion need not be theisticto qualify as a religion under the law, rather than asserting that it established generic secular humanism as a religion.
In the cases of both the "Fellowship of Humanity" and the "Washington Ethical Society," the court decisions turned not so much on the particular beliefs of practitioners as on the function and form of the practice being similar to the function and form of the practices in other religious institutions.
"Peloza v. Capistrano School District"
The implication in Justice Black's footnote that secular humanism is a religion has been seized upon by religious opponents of the teaching of the theory of evolution, who have made the argument that teaching evolution amounts to teaching a religious idea.
The claim that secular humanism could be considered a religion for legal purposes was examined by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in the case of "
Peloza v. Capistrano School District" in 1994. In this case, a science teacher argued that, by requiring him to teach evolution, his school district was forcing him to teach the "religion" of secular humanism. The Court responded, "We reject this claim because neither the Supreme Court, nor this circuit, has ever held that evolutionism or secular humanism are 'religions' for Establishment Clausepurposes." The Supreme Court refused to review the case.
The decision in a subsequent case, "Kalka v. Hawk et al.", offered this commentary::The Court's statement in "Torcaso" does not stand for the proposition that humanism, no matter in what form and no matter how practiced, amounts to a religion under the First Amendment. The Court offered no test for determining what system of beliefs qualified as a "religion" under the First Amendment. The most one may read into the "Torcaso" footnote is the idea that a particular non-theistic group calling itself the "Fellowship of Humanity" qualified as a religious organization under California law.
Some religious groups argue that secular humanism—and by association,
secularism—have a religion-like legal status despite the separation of church and state, that secularism in government and in the schools constitutes state favoritism towards a particular religion (namely, the denial of theism), and a double standard is used in granting protections to these groups while allowing the teaching of their non-theisticviews such as evolutionwhich are consistent with secularism. [ [http://members.aol.com/Patriarchy/definitions/humanism_religion.htm Secular Humanism is a Religion ] ]
U.S. courts have consistently rejected this interpretation. Often the discussion is not clearly framed. However, the rationale for believing there is no contradiction appears to include the following:
* "Beliefs involved are about more than secularism" — Religious status has been granted to various
non-theistichumanist organizations. Such organizations typically favor various aspects of secularism. However, "humanism" embraces a variety of ideas which are not part of secularism, for example, affirming human dignity. Even if a particular brand of humanism were to be regarded as a religion, that would not necessarily make particular positions, such as "secularism", religious, as religious status could be based on other considerations.
* "Beliefs of a religious group can be non-religious" — Even if a group did assert "secularism" in isolation to be its religion (no instances of this are known), this would not mean that secularism is in general a religious idea. ("Just because people count something in what they say is their religion does not make it inherently religious. If some people start worshipping chairs chairs shouldn't be kept out of school."Fact|date=December 2007)
* "Court rulings have not been about beliefs" — No court rulings on particular
non-theisticgroups being religious have ever actually ruled that the "ideas" of these groups were religious per se. Instead, rulings have generally said the groups in question functionally acted like other religious institutions and therefore were entitled to similar protections. (This fact has been obscured by imprecise comments, such as those of Justice Black, but is reflected in the text of particular rulings.)
* "Most advocates do not regard their belief in evolution as religious"Fact|date=February 2007 — Ideas such as the
scientific methodand evolutionare advocated primarily by people who do not regard these ideas as being part of their religions, lending credibility to the claim that these ideas are not inherently religious.
Decisions about tax status have been based on whether an organization functions like a church. On the other hand,
Establishment Clausecases turn on whether the ideas or symbols involved are inherently religious. An organization can function like a church while advocating beliefs that are not necessarily inherently religious.
Marci Hamiltonhas pointed out: "Moreover, the debate is not between secularists and the religious. The debate is believers and non-believers on the one side debating believers and non-believers on the other side. You've got citizens who are...of faith who believe in the separation of church and state and you have a set of believers who do not believe in the separation of church and state." [ [http://www.pointofinquiry.org/ Point of Inquiry] podcast(17:44), February 3, 2006.]
The Education for Economic Security Act of 1984 included a section, Section 20 U,S.C.A. 4059, which initially read: "Grants under this subchapter ['Magnet School Assistance] may not be used for consultants, for transportation or for any activity which does not augment academic improvement." With no public notice, Senator
Orrin Hatchtacked on to the proposed exclusionary subsection the words "or for any course of instruction the substance of which is secular Humanism."Implementation of this provision ran into practical problems because neither the Senator's staff, nor the Senate's Committee on Labor and Human Resources, nor the Department of Justice could propose a definition of what would constitute a "course of instruction the substance of which is secular Humanism." So, this determination was left up to local school boards.
The provision provoked a storm of controversy which within a year led Senator Hatch to propose, and Congress to pass, an amendment to delete from the statute all reference to secular humanism.
While this episode did not dissuade fundamentalists from continuing to object to what they regarded as the "teaching of secular humanism," it did point out the vagueness of the claim.
Historical and modern references
secularismwas created in 1846 by George Jacob Holyoakein order to describe "a form of opinion which concerns itself only with questions, the issues of which can be tested by the experience of this life." [http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/religion/blrel_sec_def.htm Secularism 101: Defining Secularism: Origins with George Jacob Holyoake] ]
Historical use of the term humanism (reflected in some current academic usage), is related to the writings of pre-Socratic philosophers. These writings were lost to European societies until Renaissance scholars rediscovered them through Muslim sources and translated them from Arabic into European languages." [ [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/arab-y67s11.html Islamic political philosophy: Al-Farabi, Avicenna, Averroes ] ] Thus the term humanist can mean a humanities scholar, as well as refer to
The Enlightenment/ Renaissanceintellectuals, and those who have agreement with the pre-Socratics, as distinct from secular humanists. See the article on humanismfor additional history of this term.
The meaning of the phrase "secular humanism" has evolved over time. This phrase was first known to have been used in the 1950s. It was used, for example, by
Leo Pfefferand by Joseph Blau, later professor of religion at Columbia University. However, as used initially the phrase did not have the connotations it later assumed. In 1958 Pfeffer used the term to mean "Those unaffiliated with organized religion and concerned with human values."
As mentioned previously, "secular humanism" was a term used by Justice Black in 1961 to refer to a non-theistic variety of humanism that its adherents considered to be religious. The phrase was seized upon by religious fundamentalists, with the inclusion of the word "secular" often used to cast humanists as anti-religious.
By the 1970s the term was embraced by some humanists who, although critical of religion in its various guises, were deliberately non-religious, as opposed to anti-religious, which means that their humanism has nothing to do with spiritual, religious, or ecclesiastical doctrines, beliefs, or power structures. This is how "secular humanism" is most commonly understood by humanists today.
In a mockery of an
Alabamajudge's reference to secular humanism as a religion, musician and free speechadvocate Frank Zappaestablished the " Church of American Secular Humanism." [ [http://wiki.killuglyradio.com/index.php/Church_of_American_Secular_Humanism Church of American Secular Humanism - Zappa Wiki Jawaka ] ] Columnist Art Buchwaldwrote a column, "Secular Humanists: Threat or Menace?", which poked fun at alarm about secular humanism. [ [http://journals.aol.com/richardbk8/TheSentryNewsDigest/entries/1036 Buchwald Recognized the Danger, Even Then ] ]
Notable secular humanists
Some notable secular humanists are:
*Sir Arthur C. Clarke
E. M. Forster(see in particular his " What I Believe")
Julian Huxley- first President of the IHEU, a major Humanist organisation
Paul Kurtz- founding President of the Council for Secular Humanism
Gene Roddenberry- instructed his fellow writers of "" to incorporate attempts to expose self-styled gods as impostors, a key tenet of secular humanism, into several installments of the stories
James D. Watson
E. O. Wilson
Secular humanism manifestos
There are numerous Humanist Manifestos and Declarations, including the following:
* [http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/manifesto2.html Humanist Manifesto II] (1973)
* [http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=main&page=declaration A Secular Humanist Declaration] (1980)
* [http://www.iheu.org/node/2140 A Declaration of Interdependence] (1988)
* [http://www.iheu.org/node/178 IHEU Minimum Statement on Humanism] (1996)
* [http://MHEC.humanists.net/HUMNISM.HTM HUMANISM: Why, What, and What For, In 882 Words] (1996)
*Humanist Manifesto 2000: A Call for a New Planetary Humanism (2000)
* [http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=main&page=affirmations The Affirmations of Humanism: A Statement of Principles]
* [http://humaniststudies.org/humphil.html Amsterdam Declaration] (July 2002)
* [http://www.americanhumanist.org/3/HumandItsAspirations.htm Humanist Manifesto III (Humanism And Its Aspirations)] (2003)
Humanist and related organizations
American Humanist Association
British Humanist Association
Center for Inquiry
Church of Life
Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal
Council for Secular Humanism(formerly CODESH)
Freedom From Religion Foundation
*Godless Americans PAC (political action committee)
Humanist Association of Canada
Humanist Society of Scotland
Institute for Humanist Studies
International Humanist and Ethical Union
Military Association of Atheists and Freethinkers
National Center for Science Education
New Zealand Association of Rationalists and Humanists
Scouting for All
Secular Student Alliance
Secular Party of Australia
International organizations / Historical & scholarly
* [http://www.iheu.org/ International Humanist and Ethical Union]
**International Humanist News is also available at [http://www.iheu.org/ www.iheu.org] .
* [http://www.iheyo.org/ International Humanist and Ethical Youth Organisation]
* [http://www.ifshj.org/ International Federation of Secular Humanistic Jews]
* [http://www.humaniststudies.org/ The Institute for Humanist Studies]
* [http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/secular_humanism.html Secular Humanism] , University of Virginia
* [http://www.ihumanism.org/intro/10points.html 10 Points of Humanism: A Definition] from [http://www.corliss-lamont.org/philos8.htm "The Philosophy of Humanism"] by
* [http://www.freeinquiry.com/humanism-uu.html The History and Philosophy of Humanism] - Speech given by Steven D. Schafersman in Oxford, Ohio (September 24, 1995)
* [http://www.TheSystemHasYou.com Nanovirus] : a humanist perspective on technology, politics and culture
* [http://www.humanism.org.uk/ British Humanist Association]
* [http://www.secularhumanism.org/ Council for Secular Humanism (formerly CODESH)]
* [http://www.americanhumanist.org/ The American Humanist Association]
** [http://www.thehumanist.org/ "The Humanist"] (magazine)
* [http://www.freethoughtassociation.org Freethought Association of West Michigan]
* [http://www.csjo.org/pages/about.htm Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations]
* [http://www.shj.org/ Society for Humanistic Judaism]
* [http://canada.humanists.net/ The Humanist Association of Canada]
** [http://www.humanists.net/hic/ Humanist Perspectives] (magazine)
* [http://www.sofree.ca Society of Ontario Freethinkers]
* [http://www.secularhumanism.ro/index.php/ _en. Wikibook] ] :
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