- Communications in Belarus
Communications in Belarus are dominated by the state which owns most of the corporations and infrastructure.
the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all telecommunications through its carrier
Unitary enterprise Beltelecomwhich is a monopoly. The phone calling code for Belarus is +375.
Belarus has 3 (Velcom,MTS and BeST) GSM operators, the NMT-450 and CDMA-2000 operators. Mobile operators are experiencing rapid growth.
Minskhas a digital metropolitan network; waiting lists for telephones are long; fixed line penetration is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved; intercity - Belarus has developed fiber-optic backbone system presently serving at least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber optics form synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries' systems; an inadequate analog system remains operational.
Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe Fiber-Optic Line (TAE) and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to
Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnikearth stations
During the time of
perestroikaand after the collapse of the Soviet Unionmedia expression flourished, with a wide variety of newspapers that presented a wide variety of points of view.
After 10 years of Lukashenko's presidency, most of the Belarusian media outlets (newspapers, radio, television) are owned by the state. The state-controlled media present pro-
governmentpoints of view and interpretation of events as in the Soviet period. There are a number of privately owned media outlets, mostly small independent newspapers. They operate under a permanent threat of being closed down for violating various government regulations, such as mis-stating their corporate name on their publication or operating out of an office not registered with the government (in fact, this is the situation for all private enterprises in Belarus).
Television channels with news content and nationwide coverage are all either state-owned or state controlled (i.e. state bodies own more than 50 percent of the shares). There is no privately owned TV channel with nationwide coverage. Licences for TV and radio broadcasters are issued by the Republican Commission on Television and Radio Broadcasting, the chair of which is the minister of information; other regulatory functions are undertaken by the information ministry directly. The only producer of broadcast news is the Belarussian Television and Radio Company (BT). Regional channels produce 25-40 percent of their own programming; they do not produce their own news or current affairs programmes, relying instead on news from national channels. Some 400,000 homes in Belarus have satellite dishes.
According to the Ministry of Information, there are some 151 radio channels in Belarus. 30 broadcast on FM frequencies.
There are two types of newspaper, divided into sharply contrasting camps, namely state-owned and privately-owned. State-owned newspapers make up some 80-85 percent of newspapers in circulation. The state-owned newspapers have large circulations running into hundreds of thousands.
Since 1999, it became obligatory to register with thestate press distributor.
The most important of these is the daily
Sovetskaya Belarussia– Belarus segodnya (Soviet Belarus – Belarus Today), published by the presidential administration, with a circulation of about 500,000. Other significant state-owned newspapers are the daily Respublika (The Republic), published by the Cabinet of Ministers, and the weeklies Sem’ Dnei (Seven Days) and Narodnaya Gazeta(The People’s Paper).
According to a 2006 survey of 1,500 adults by Satio, a third of Belarusians use the Internet -- 38% of the urban population and 16% of the rural population. [ [http://www.mk.by/archiv/22.12.2006/rub2.php#2 Минский Курьер : №1096 Пятница 22 Декабря 2006г ] ] According to other data Internet penetration in Belarus is 35.1 % [ [http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats4.htm#europe Europe Internet Usage Stats and Population Statistics ] ] - these are the best results among all
CIScountries, second closest being Russia with 16.5%. Yet another study held by UN indicates 56.5% of population are internet-users [http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/sdteecb20071_en.pdf]
Perhaps the most obvious examples of Belarusian
propagandaare imaginary terrorist stories, whereby alleged terrorists are said to be plotting to overthrow President Alexander Lukashenko.Fact|date=March 2008
The state controlled media in Belarus deny that there is any bias or censoring of
freedom of expressionin Belarus. They point to the Belarusian people's overwhelming re-election of Lukashenko on September 9, 2001claiming that this shows that the anti-democracy sentiment in Belarus is genuine and that the Belarusian people and media do have the right to free speech - they simply do not want to criticize their government because they believe it to be running the country well. Once outside Belarus and free of fear of reprisal, most Belarusians are vocal in their discontent with the Soviet-style system that prevents free enterprise and democracy from taking root in Belarus as it has in neighboring post-Soviet countries. They also point to the fact that the standard of living of Belarus is low compared to the rest of Europe.
Free expression limited
Many western human rights groups state that the
civil rights of free expression are severely limited in Belarus, though there are some individuals and groups that refuse to be controlled and some of the journalists have disappeared. What makes the situation complex, however, is that the relatively free Russian media is allowed to transmit television programming, sell newspapers and conduct journalistic activities in Belarus (though some Russian journalists have been expelled by the Belarusian government) thus giving some members of the public, typically those in large cities with many Russian residents, access to an alternative point of view in the Russian language(nearly all Belarusiansunderstand and most of them speak Russian).
In 2004, media watchdog
Reporters Without Bordersranked Belarus 144th out of 167 countries. For comparison, in the same index Ukraine was 138th and Russia was 140th, while the closest of the other European countries were Serbia at 77 and Romania at 70.
Radio broadcast stations:AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)
Radios:3.02 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:47 (plus 27 repeaters) (1995)
Country code: BY
Broadband Internet access
Belarus has state monopoly Beltelecom, which holds the exclusive rights for interconnection with internet providers outside of Belarus. Beltelecom owns all backbone channels which are linked to
TeleGlobe, SprintLinkand PeterstarISP's.
Until 2005-2006 broadband access (mostly using
ADSL) was available only in a few major cities in Belarus. In Minsk there were a dozen of privately-owned ISP's and in some other big cities Beltelecom's broadband was available. Outside this area the only options for Internet access were dial-upfrom Beltelecom or GPRS/ cdma2000from mobile operators. In 2006 Beltelecomintroduced a new trademark "Byfly" for its ADSLaccess. As of 2008 Byfly is available in all raicenterof Belarus. Other ISP's started expanding their network outside of Minsk too.
* [http://www.mininform.gov.by/ The Ministry of Information of the Republic of Belarus]
* [http://www.mpt.gov.by/ The Ministry of Communications and Informatization of the Republic of Belarus]
* [http://www.e-belarus.org/links/media.html Media in Belarus]
Major telecommunications operators in Belarus:
* [http://www.beltelecom.by/ Beltelecom]
* [http://www.mts.by/ MTS (GSM)]
* [http://www.velcom.by/ Velcom (GSM)]
* [http://www.best.by/ BeST (GSM)]
* [http://www.diallog.by/ Diallog (CDMA)]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Communications Security Establishment Canada — Badge of the Communications Security Establishment Canada Agency overview Formed 1946 Preceding agency Examination Unit, a civilian organization established in … Wikipedia
Communications in the Netherlands — Communications in the Netherlands. Contents 1 Mail 2 Telephone 2.1 Area codes 2.2 Non geographical codes … Wikipedia
Communications in Burundi — refers to the telephony, internet, postal, radio, and television systems of Burundi. Contents 1 Telephony 2 Internet 3 Postal Service 4 Radio and television … Wikipedia
Communications in Afghanistan — has dramatically increased since 2002, and has embarked on wireless companies, internet, radio stations and television channels. Afghan telecommunication companies, such as Afghan Wireless and Roshan, have been boasting rapid increase in cellular … Wikipedia
Communications in Argentina — gives an overview of the postal, telephone, Internet, radio, television, and newspaper services available in Argentina. Contents 1 Postal 2 Telephone 2.1 Companies 3 Internet … Wikipedia
Belarus — This article is about the country. For other uses, see Belarus (disambiguation) … Wikipedia
Communications in the Isle of Man — The Isle of Man benefits from an extremely modern and extensive communications infrastructure, which underpins the main sectors of the Island s economy. Contents 1 Telecommunications 1.1 Telegraph 1.2 Telephones 1.2.1 … Wikipedia
Communications in Gibraltar — See also: Telephone numbers in Gibraltar Communications in Gibraltar comprise a wide range of telephony systems (both fixed line and mobile), Internet access, broadcasting (radio and television) and satellite control. There is also printed and… … Wikipedia
Belarus — /byel euh roohs , bel /, n. official name of Byelorussia. * * * Belarus Introduction Belarus Background: After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer political and… … Universalium
Belarus — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::Belarus <p></p> Background: <p></p> After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR, Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer… … The World Factbook