- Silesian Voivodeship
name = Silesian Voivodeship
image_shield = Śląskie herb.svg
map_caption = Location within Poland
map_caption1 = Division into counties
parts_type = Counties
parts=19 cities, 17 land counties *
Bielsko-Biała|p2= Bytom|p3= Chorzów|p4= Częstochowa|p5= Dąbrowa Górnicza|p6= Gliwice|p7= Jastrzębie-Zdrój|p8= Jaworzno|p9= Katowice|p10= Mysłowice|p11= Piekary Śląskie|p12= Ruda Śląska|p13= Rybnik|p14= Siemianowice Śląskie|p15= Sosnowiec|p16= Świętochłowice|p17= Tychy|p18= Zabrze|p19= Żory|p20= Będzin County|p21= Bielsko County|p22= Bieruń-Lędziny County|p23= Cieszyn County|p24= Częstochowa County|p25= Gliwice County|p26= Kłobuck County|p27= Lubliniec County|p28= Mikołów County|p29= Myszków County|p30= Pszczyna County|p31= Racibórz County|p32= Rybnik County|p33= Tarnowskie Góry County|p34= Wodzisław County|p35= Zawiercie County|p36= Żywiec County
area_total_km2 = 12334
population_total = 4676983
population_as_of = 2006
population_density_km2 = auto
footnotes = * further divided into 167
Silesian Voivodeship (also known as Silesia Province, or by its Polish name of "województwo śląskie" IPA-pl| [|w|o|j|e|'|w|u|c|t|f|o|-|'|ś|l|ą|s|k|jIPA-pl|e| or simply "Śląskie") is a
voivodeship, or province, in southern Poland, centring on the region known as Upper Silesia("Górny Śląsk"). Its capital is Katowice.
It was created on
January 1, 1999, out of the former Katowice, Częstochowa and Bielsko-Biała Voivodeships, pursuant to the 1998 Local Government Reorganization Act.
Silesian Voivodeship borders both the
Czech Republicand Slovakiato the south. It is also bordered by four other Polish voivodeships: those of Opole (to the west), Łódź (to the north), Świętokrzyskie (to the north-east), and Lesser Poland (to the east).
The region includes the Silesian Upland ("Wyżyna Śląska") in the centre and north-west, and the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland ("Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska") in the north-east. The southern border is formed by the
Beskidy Mountains(Beskid Śląski and Beskid Żywiecki).
The strong links between
Upper Silesiaand the regions now contained in Opole and Lower Silesian Voivodeships reach back to the medieval history of the Duchy of Silesia("Księstwo Śląskie"), which was divided in the 13th centuryinto Upper and Lower Silesia. However, it should be noted that a around half of the territory of today's Silesian Voivodeship is not part of historical Silesia. Such cities as Częstochowa, Zawiercie, Myszków, Jaworzno, Sosnowiec, Żywiec, Dąbrowa Górnicza, Będzinand east part of Bielsko-Biała, and their surrounding counties, belong historically to Lesser Poland.
Silesian Voivodeship has the highest population density in the country (379 people per square kilometre, compared to the national average of 124). The region's considerable industrialisation gives it the lowest unemployment rate nationally (6.2%). The Silesian region is the most industrialized and the most urbanized region in Poland: 78% of its population live in towns and cities.
Cities and towns
Due to its industrial and urban nature, the voivodeship has many cities and large towns. Of Poland's 40 largest towns, 12 are in Silesian Voivodeship. In all it has 71 towns, listed below in descending order of population (according to official figures for 2006 [http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/45_655_PLK_HTML.htm] ):1.
68. Koziegłowy (2,505)
70. Pilica (1,971)
Silesian Voivodeship is divided into 36 counties (
powiats). These include 19 city counties (far more than any other voivodeship) and 17 land counties. The counties are further divided into 167 gminas.
The counties are listed in the following table (ordering within categories is by decreasing population).
The Silesian voivodship is predominantly an industrial region. Most of themining is derived from one of the world's largest bituminous
coalfields of the Upper Silesian Industrial District ("Gornoslaski Okreg Przemyslowy") and the RybnikCoal District ("Rybnicki Okreg Weglowy") with its major cities Rybnik, Jastrzębie Zdrój, Żoryand Wodzisław Śląski. Leadand zinccan be found near Bytom, Zawiercieand Tarnowskie Góry; iron oreand raw materials for building - near Częstochowa. The most important regional industries are: mining, iron, lead and zinc metallurgy, power industry, engineering, automobile, chemical, building materials and textile. In the past, the Silesian economy was determined by coal mining. Now, considering the investment volume, car manufacturing is becoming more and more important. The most profitable company in the region is FiatAuto-Poland S.A. in Bielsko-Biała with a revenue of PLN6.2 billion in 1997. Recently a new car factory has been opened by GM Opelin Gliwice. There are two Special Economic Zones in the area: Katowice and Częstochowa. The voivodship's economy consists of about 323,000, mostly small and medium-sized, enterprises employing over 3 million people. The biggest Polish steel-works "Huta Katowice" is situated in Dąbrowa Górnicza.
Silesian Voivodship is also one of the richiest regions in Poland. Average salary is about 3 800 zlotychs (over 1 200 EUR).
Katowice International Airportis used for domestic and international flights and the Silesian agglomeration railway network has the largest concentration in the country. The voivodship capital enjoys good railway and road connections with Kraków(highway), Wrocław(highway), Łódźand Warsaw. It is also the crossing point for many international routes like the one connecting Berlin, Dresden, Wrocław, Kraków and Kievand the other from Gdańskto the Balkans. A relatively short distance to Viennafacilitates cross-border co-operation and may positively influence the process of European integration.
There are eleven public universities in the voivodship. The biggest university is the
University of Silesiain Katowice, with 43,000 students. The region's capital boasts the Medical University, the Economic Academy, the Musical Academy, the Physical Education Academy and the Academy of Fine Arts. Częstochowais the seat of the Częstochowa University of Technologyand Pedagogic University. The Silesian University of Technologyin Gliwiceis nationally renowned. Bielsko-Białais home of the Technical-Humanistic Academy. In addition, 17 new private schools have been established in the region.
In voivodship are studying more than 300,000 people.
Protected areas in Silesian Voivodeship include eight areas designated as Landscape Parks:
Eagle Nests Landscape Park(partly in Lesser Poland Voivodeship)
Little Beskids Landscape Park(partly in Lesser Poland Voivodeship)
Rudy Landscape Park
Silesian Beskids Landscape Park
Stawki Landscape Park
Upper Liswarta Forests Landscape Park
Załęcze Landscape Park(partly in Łódź Voivodeship)
Żywiec Landscape Park
Both northern and southern
Silesiais surrounded by a green belt. Bielsko-Białais enveloped by the magnificent Beskidy Mountainswhich are particularly popular with winter sports fans. This genuine skier's paradise offers over 150 ski lifts and 200 kilometres of ski routes. More and more slopes are illuminated and equipped with artificial snow generators. Szczyrk, Brenna, Wisłaand Ustrońare the most popular winter mountain resorts. Rock climbing sites can be found in admirable corners of Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska. The ruins of castles forming the Eagle Nests Trailare a famous attraction of the region. While in Silesia, one cannot miss the Black Madonna's Jasna GóraSanctuary in Częstochowa- the annual destination of over 4 million pilgrims from all over the world.
With its more than two centuries of industrialisation history, region has a number of technical heritage memorials. These include narrow and standard gauge railways,
coaland silvermines, shafts and its equipment from 19th and 20th century.
Most popular surnames in the region
Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship
History of Silesia
* [http://www.zobacz.slask.pl/ The Website of Silesia]
* [http://www.silesia-region.pl/ Województwo Śląskie] Official website
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Silesian Voivodeship — Admin ASC 1 Code Orig. name Silesian Voivodeship Country and Admin Code PL.83 PL … World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II
Lower Silesian Voivodeship — For the historical region, see Lower Silesia. Lower Silesian Voivodeship Województwo dolnośląskie Voivodeship … Wikipedia
Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship — Infobox Former Subdivision native name = Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship conventional long name = common name = Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship continent = Europe country = Poland government type = Autonomy subdivision = Autonomous province… … Wikipedia
Przesieka, Lower Silesian Voivodeship — Infobox Settlement| official name=Przesieka settlement type=Village subdivision type=Country subdivision name=POL subdivision type1=Voivodeship subdivision name1=Lower Silesian subdivision type2=Powiat subdivision name2=Jelenia Góra County… … Wikipedia
Brzeźnik, Lower Silesian Voivodeship — Infobox Settlement| name = Brzeźnik other name = settlement type = Village motto = nickname = image caption = image shield = subdivision name =POL subdivision type1 = Voivodeship subdivision name1 = Lower Silesian subdivision type2 = County… … Wikipedia
Kruszyn, Lower Silesian Voivodeship — Infobox Settlement| name=Kruszyn settlement type=Village subdivision type=Country subdivision name=POL subdivision type4=Voivodeship subdivision name4=Lower Silesian subdivision type1=County (powiat) subdivision name1=Bolesławiec County… … Wikipedia
Lipiany, Lower Silesian Voivodeship — Infobox Settlement| name=Lipiany settlement type=Village subdivision type=Country subdivision name=POL subdivision type4=Voivodeship subdivision name4=Lower Silesian subdivision type1=County (powiat) subdivision name1=Bolesławiec County… … Wikipedia
Łaziska, Lower Silesian Voivodeship — Infobox Settlement| name=Łaziska settlement type=Village subdivision type=Country subdivision name=POL subdivision type4=Voivodeship subdivision name4=Lower Silesian subdivision type1=County (powiat) subdivision name1=Bolesławiec County… … Wikipedia
Łąka, Lower Silesian Voivodeship — Infobox Settlement| name=Łąka settlement type=Village subdivision type=Country subdivision name=POL subdivision type4=Voivodeship subdivision name4=Lower Silesian subdivision type1=County (powiat) subdivision name1=Bolesławiec County subdivision… … Wikipedia
Trzebień, Lower Silesian Voivodeship — Infobox Settlement| name=Trzebień settlement type=Village subdivision type=Country subdivision name=POL subdivision type4=Voivodeship subdivision name4=Lower Silesian subdivision type1=County (powiat) subdivision name1=Bolesławiec County… … Wikipedia