- Idris Alooma
Idris Alooma was "mai" (king) of the
Kanem-Bornu Empire, located mainly in Chadand Nigeria. An outstanding statesman, under his rule ( 1571– 1603) Kanem-Bornu touched the zenith of its power. Idris is remembered for his military skills, administrative reforms, and Islamic piety. His feats are mainly known through his chronicler Ahmad bin Fartuwa.
His main adversaries were the Hausa to the west, the
Tuaregand Toubouto the north, and the Bulala to the east. One epic poem extols his victories in 330 wars and more than 1,000 battles. His innovations included the employment of fixed military camps (with walls); permanent sieges and " scorched earth" tactics, where soldiers burned everything in their path; armored horses and riders; and the use of Berber camelry, Kotokoboatmen, and iron-helmeted musketeers trained by Turkish military advisers. His active diplomacyfeatured relations with Tripoli, Egypt, and the Ottoman Empire, which sent a 200-member ambassadorial party across the desertto Alooma's court at Ngazargamu. Alooma also signed what was probably the first written treatyor cease-fire in Chadian history.
Alooma introduced a number of legal and administrative reforms based on his religious beliefs and Islamic law (
sharia). He sponsored the construction of numerous mosques and made a pilgrimage to Mecca, where he arranged for the establishment of a hostel to be used by pilgrims from his empire. As with other dynamic politicians, Alooma's reformist goals led him to seek loyal and competent advisers and allies, and he frequently relied on slaves who had been educated in noble homes. Alooma regularly sought advice from a council composed of heads of the most important clans. He required major political figures to live at the court, and he reinforced political alliances through appropriate marriages (Alooma himself was the son of a Kanurifather and a Bulalamother).
Kanem-Bornu under Alooma was strong and wealthy. Government revenue came from tribute (or
booty, if the recalcitrant people had to be conquered), sales of slaves, and duties on and participation in trans-Saharan trade. Unlike West Africa, the Chadian region did not have gold. Still, it was central to one of the most convenient trans-Saharan routes. Between Lake Chad and Fezzan lay a sequence of well-spaced wells and oases, and from Fezzan there were easy connections to North Africa and the Mediterranean Sea. Many products were sent north, including natron( sodium carbonate), cotton, kola nuts, ivory, ostrichfeathers, perfume, wax, and hides, but the most important of all were slaves. Imports included salt, horses, silks, glass, muskets, and copper.
Alooma took a keen interest in trade and other economic matters. He is credited with having the roads cleared, designing better boats for Lake Chad, introducing standard units of measure for grain, and moving farmers into new lands. In addition, he improved the ease and security of transit through the empire with the goal of making it so safe that "a lone woman clad in gold might walk with none to fear but God.
His capital was N'gazargamu.
*cite web | title=A Country Study: Chad| work=Library of Congress Country Studies|year=1990|url=http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/tdtoc.html|
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Ngizim people — The Ngizim people (Ngizmawa, Ngezzim) live in Yobe State, northeastern Nigeria. As of 1993, there were an estimated 80,000 Ngizim. The Ngizim live in the area to the east and south of Potiskum, the largest city in Yobe State, as well as in… … Wikipedia
Imperio Kanem-Bornu — Para otros usos de este término, véase Borno. Extensión del Imperio Kanem Bornu hacia el año 1200. El Imperio Kanem Bornu existió en África entre el siglo XIV y la década de 1840. En su momento de mayor esplendor abarcó el área de los actuales… … Wikipedia Español
Sayfawa dynasty — or more properly Sefuwa dynasty is the name of the kings (or mai, as they called themselves) of the Kanem Bornu Empire, centered first in Kanem in western Chad, and then, after 1380, in Borno (today north eastern Nigeria). Theories on the origins … Wikipedia
History of Africa — Pre Colonial African States … Wikipedia
1603 — (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10 day slower Julian calendar). EventsJanuary June * March Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada. * March 24… … Wikipedia
1571 — This article is about the year 1571, not the BT Answerphone service accessible by dialling 1 5 7 1. Year 1571 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events of 1571 * January 11 The… … Wikipedia
Islam in Nigeria — Abuja National Mosque, located in Abuja Part of a series on Islam by country … Wikipedia
Aissa Kili N'guirmamaramama — succeeded her father as the ruler of Bornu from 1573 1580. She is noted for holding the throne for the famous Idris Alooma … Wikipedia
Baguirmi (Reich) — Berittener Krieger von Baguirmi, historische Darstellung um 1900 Abd ar Rahman Gwaranga (links), Mbang (Herrscher) von Baguirmi u … Deutsch Wikipedia
Histoire Pré-Coloniale Du Cameroun — Article principal : Histoire du Cameroun. Sommaire 1 Histoire générale 2 La civilisation Sao 3 L empire Kanem Bornou 4 … Wikipédia en Français