- British West Indies
The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the
Caribbeanwhich were at one time colonised by the United Kingdom. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/british%20west%20indies definition] ] Collectively these territories are also now known as the Anglophone Caribbean. Between 1958 and 1962 all of the island territories except the British Virgin Islands, the Bahamas, Belize, Guyana, and Bermudawere organised into the West Indies Federation. It was hoped that the Federation would become independent as a single nation, but it had limited powers, many practical problems and a lack of popular support, and was consequently dissolved. Most of the territories, including all the larger ones, are now independent as separate countries with membership to many international fora such as the the Organization of American States, the Association of Caribbean States, the World Trade Organization, the United Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the Caribbean Development Bankamong others. Some of the smaller ones which still make up the current British West Indies are British dependencies. All the former nations of the British West Indies, except the Commonwealth of Dominica and Trinidad and Tobagoare Commonwealth Realms. [ [http://www.scl-online.net/scllanguage_home_en.php?id=4 Islands in the Caribbean - Lists islands still classified as British West Indies]
The current British territories that form the British West Indies are;
British Virgin Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
The former British territories that once were part of the British West Indies are;
Antigua and Barbuda
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
The anglophone countries of
South Americaand Central America, as well as the Bermuda Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are also historically considered to be part of the British West Indies. These are;
Guyana(formerly British Guiana)
Belize(formerly British Honduras)
Sir William Stapleton established the first federation in the British West Indies in 1674. Stapleton set up a General Assembly of the
Leeward Islandsin St. Kitts. Stapleton's federation was active from 1674 to 1685 when Stapleton was Governor and the General Assembly met regularly until 1711.
By the 18th Century each island had kept its own Assembly and made its own laws, but continued to share one Governor and one Attorney-General. Although unpopular, Stapleton's Federation was never really dissolved but simply replaced by other arrangements.
Between 1816 and 1833 the Leewards were divided into two groups, each with its own Governor: St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla and Antigua-Barbuda-Montserrat. In 1833 all the
Leeward Islandswere brought together and Dominicawas added to the grouping until 1940.
In 1869, Governor Benjamin Pine was assigned the task of organizing a federation of Antigua-Barbuda, Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Kitts, Anguilla and the
British Virgin Islands. St. Kitts and Nevis however opposed sharing their government funds with Antigua and Montserrat, which were bankrupt. Governor Pine told the Colonial Officethat the scheme had failed due to "local prejudice and self-interest". Thus the only achievement was giving the Leewards a single Governor. All laws and ordinances, however, had to be approved by the each island council.
In 1871 the British government passed the Leeward Islands Act through which all the islands were under one Governor and one set of laws. Each island was called "Presidency" under its own Administrator or Commissioner. Like earlier groupings this federation was unpopular but was not dissolved until 1956 to make way for the Federation of the West Indies. The Federal Colony was composed of all islands organized under Governor Pine's previous attempt.
In 1833 the Windward Islands became a formal union called the Windward Islands Colony. In 1838,
Trinidad(acquired in 1802) and St. Lucia(acquired in 1814) were brought into the Windward Islands Colony, but were not given their own assemblies (having previously been Crown Colonies). In 1840 Trinidad left the Colony. The Windward Islands Colony was unpopular as Barbados wished to retain its separate identity and ancient institutions, while the other colonies did not enjoy the association with Barbados (but needed such an association for defence against French invasions until 1815). Thus the individual islands resisted British attempts at closer union. Barbados in particular fought to retain its own Assembly.
From 1885 to 1958 the Windward Islands Colony consisted of Grenada and the Grenadines, St. Vincent and St. Lucia for the entire period. Tobago left in 1889 when she formed a union with Trinidad.
Dominicajoined the Windward Islands Colony in 1940 after having been transferred from the Leewards and remained in the Colony until 1958. After 1885 the Windward Islands Colony was under one Governor-General in Grenada and each island had its own Lieutenant-Governor and its own assembly (as before). Attempts at a Federal Colony like in the Leewards were always resisted. The Windward Islands Colony broke up in 1958 when each island chose to join the new Federation of the West Indies as a separate unit.
Jamaica and dependencies
The remaining British colonies in the Caribbean except for
British Guianaand the Bahamaswere grouped under Jamaicaout of convenience and sometimes for historical and/or geographical reasons. British Honduraswas surrounded by hostile Spanish colonies and needed the protection afforded by the Army and Navy based in Jamaica. In addition, British Honduras had been founded by loggers and had expanded in population partly by the settlement of Englishmen arriving from Jamaica in the late 1600s and early 1700s (with settlers also arriving from England directly or being born in the colony). So from 1742 British Honduras was a dependency directly under the Governor of Jamaica. Then in 1749 the Governors of Jamaica appointed Administrators for British Honduras. In 1862 British Honduras became a Crown Colony and was placed under the Governor of Jamaica with its own Lieutenant-Governor. In 1884 it finally broke all administrative ties with Jamaica.
West Indies Federation
The West Indies Federation was a short-lived federation that existed from 3 January 1958 to 31 May 1962. It consisted of several Caribbean colonies of the
United Kingdom. The expressed intention of the Federation was to create a political unit that would become independent from Britain as a single state--possibly similar to the Australian Federation, or Canadian Confederation; however, before that could happen, the Federation collapsed due to internal political conflicts.
Cricket is traditionally the main sport in the British West Indies (though others sports such as football and
basketballhave challenged its dominance from around the 1990s onwards). Most of the countries and territories listed above field a combined cricket team called the West Indies cricket teamor "Windies", which is one of the ten elite international teams that play at the Test match cricket-level. The British West Indies hosted the 2007 Cricket World Cup.
There have been a number of fraudulent documents and other deceptions (including motor vehicle license plates) sold by various parties claiming to be issued by the British West Indies, playing on the confusion with the
British Virgin Islands. [ [http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/puzzles/28.html 28 ] ] [ [http://www.credentialwatch.org/reports/bwimc.shtml The "British West Indies Medical College" Scam ] ] [ [http://www.adl.org/learn/safety/ExIdent.asp Officer Safety and Extremists: An Overview for Law Enforcement Officers ] ] The British West Indies is "not" a country, nor is there any official "British West Indies" governmental authority using that name, and any documents supposedly issued by that "government" are invalid.
* [http://www.adl.org/mwd/gallery/bwi1.gifScan of a fake "British West Indies" Driver's License]
Native nationals of the British West Indies are considered as either
British Overseas Territories citizens (BOTC) or British Overseas citizens (BOC) and would obtain a British passportstating the name of the British territory they are from.
BWIA West Indies Airways
British colonization of the Americas
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
British North America
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Look at other dictionaries:
British West Indies — former British possessions in the West Indies, including Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Trinidad & Tobago, etc … English World dictionary
British West Indies — Tortola, British Virgin Islands Salzgewinnung auf St … Deutsch Wikipedia
British West Indies — See West Indies … Webster's Gazetteer
British West Indies — noun the islands in the West Indies that were formerly under British control, including the Bahamas, Saint Lucia, Antigua, Grenada, Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad • Hypernyms: ↑West Indies, ↑the Indies • Member Holonyms: ↑British Empire * * * a… … Useful english dictionary
British West Indies — geographical name islands of the West Indies including Jamaica, Bahamas, Caymans, British Virgin Islands, British Leeward & Windward islands, Trinidad, & Tobago … New Collegiate Dictionary
British West Indies — Brit′ish West In′dies n. pl. geg (formerly) the possessions of Great Britain in the West Indies Compare West Indies 2) … From formal English to slang
British West Indies — a term formerly used for the possessions of Great Britain in the West Indies. Cf. West Indies (def. 2). * * * … Universalium
British West Indies — island possessions or former possessions of Great Britain in or near the Caribbean: Bahamas; British Leeward, Virgin, and Windward islands; Jamaica, Tobago, Trinidad … Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games
British West Indies dollar — The British West Indies dollar (BWI$) was the currency of the various British West Indies territories from 1935 and, later, of the unitary West Indies Federation. The monetary policy of the currency was overseen by the British Caribbean Currency… … Wikipedia
British West Indies at the 1960 Summer Olympics — Infobox Country Olympics NOC=BWI flagcaption=Flag of the West Indies Federation games=1960 Summer competitors=13 sports=5 flagbearer= gold=0 silver0 bronze=2 total=2 rank=39 summerappearances = 1960 seealso=flagIOC|JAM (1948–) flagIOC|TRI (1948–) … Wikipedia