- Executive Order 9981
Executive Order 9981 is an executive order issued on
July 26, 1948by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. It expanded on Executive Order 8802by establishing equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all races, religions, or national origins.
The operative statement is::"It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin. This policy shall be put into effect as rapidly as possible, having due regard to the time required to effectuate any necessary changes without impairing efficiency or morale."
The order also established a committee to investigate and make recommendations to the civilian leadership of the military to realize the policy.
Among the order's effects was the elimination of
Montford Pointas a segregated Marine boot camp (the camp became a satellite facility of Camp Lejeune). The last of the all-black units in the United States military was abolished in September 1954.
Fifteen years after Truman's order, on
July 26, 1963 Robert S. McNamaraissued Directive 5120.36obligating military commanders to utilize the economic might of the military against facilities used by soldiers or their families that discriminated based upon sex or race.
* [http://www.trumanlibrary.org/9981.htm Full text of Executive Order 9981] from the website of the
Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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