Snowy Mountains


Snowy Mountains
Snowy Mountains
Range
Country Australia
State NSW
Part of Australian Alps
Highest point Mount Kosciuszko
 - elevation 2,228 m (7,310 ft)
 - coordinates 36°27′S 148°16′E / 36.45°S 148.267°E / -36.45; 148.267
Worldwind image of Snowy Mountains

The Snowy Mountains, known informally as "The Snowies", are the highest Australian mountain range and contain the Australian mainland's highest mountain, Mount Kosciuszko, which reaches 2,228 metres AHD, approximately 7310 feet.

The range contains the five highest peaks on the Australian mainland, all above 2100 metres (6890 feet). They are located in southern New South Wales and are part of the larger Australian Alps and the Great Dividing Range. This is mainland Australia's only true Alpine region with large natural snowfalls every winter. Snow normally falls the most during June, July and Early August. Most of the snow has melted by Late Spring. The Tasmanian highlands are the other Alpine region in Australia.

It is host to the Mountain Plum-pine, a low-lying type of conifer suspected of being the world's oldest living organism.[citation needed] It is one of the centres of the Australian ski industry during the winter months.

The Alpine Way and the Snowy Mountains Highway are the major roads through the Snowy Mountains.

Contents

History

Skiing in Australia began in the goldrush town of Kiandra around 1861.

The mountain range is thought to have had Aboriginal occupation for twenty thousand years. Large scale inter-tribal gatherings were held in the High Country during summer for collective feasting on the Bogong moth. This practice continued until around 1865.[1]

The area was first explored by Europeans in 1835, and in 1840, Edmund Strzelecki ascended Mount Kosciuszko and named it after a Polish patriot. High country stockmen followed who used the Snowy Mountains for grazing during the summer months. Banjo Paterson's famous poem The Man From Snowy River recalls this era. The cattle graziers have left a legacy of mountain huts scattered across the area. Today these huts are maintained by the National Parks and Wildlife Service or volunteer organisations like the.[2]

In the 19th century gold was mined on the high plains near Kiandra. At its height this community had a population of about 4,000 people, and ran 14 hotels. Since the last resident left in 1974, Kiandra has become a ghost town of ruins and abandoned diggings.[3]

The Kosciuszko National Park came into existence as the National Chase Snowy Mountains on December 5, 1906. In 1944 this became the Kosciuszko State Park, and then the Kosciuszko National Park in 1967.[4]

Recreational skiing began at Kiandra in the 1860s and experienced a boom in the 20th century following the commencement of the construction of the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme between 1949 and 1976 which brought many European workers to the district and opened up access to the ranges.

Skiing

Sunrise over Mount Jagungal

The discovery of gold at Kiandra (elevation 1,400 m or 4,600 ft), in 1859, briefly enticed a population of thousands above the snowline and saw the introduction of recreational skiing to the Snowy Mountains around 1861.[5] The Kiandra Goldrush was short-lived, but the township remained a service centre for recreational and survival skiing for over a century. Australia's first T-Bar, was installed at Kiandra in 1957, but the ski facilities were finally shifted up the hill to Selwyn Snowfields in 1978.[6] Steeper slopes and more reliable snows lie further to the south and in the 20th Century, the focus of recreational skiing in New South Wales shifted southward, to the Mount Kosciuszko region.[7]

Thredbo, has the largest vertical drop of any Australian ski resort at 672m

The first Kosciuszko Chalet was built at Charlotte Pass in 1930, giving relatively comfortable access to Australia's highest terrain.[8] In 1964, Australia briefly boasted the "World's Longest Chairlift", designed to carry skiers from the Thredbo Valley to Charlotte Pass, but technical difficulties soon closed the facility.[9][10] At 1760m, Charlotte Pass has the highest village base elevation of any Australia ski resort and can only be accessed via over-snow transport in winter.[11] The growing number of ski enthusiasts heading to Charlotte Pass led to the establishment of a cafe at Smiggin Holes around 1939, where horse drawn sleighs would deliver skiers to be begin the arduous ski to the Kosciusko Chalet.[12] It was the construction of the vast Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme from 1949 that really opened up the Snowy Mountains for large scale development of a ski industry and led to the establishment of Thredbo and Perisher as leading Australian resorts.[13][14] The Construction of Guthega Dam brought skiers to the isolated Guthega district and a rope tow was installed there in 1957.[15]

Skifields up by Kosciusko's side were also established during this period, though their existence is now little realised. The Australian Alpine Club was founded in 1950 by Charles Anton. Huts were constructed in the "Backcountry" close to Mount Kosciusko, including Kunama Hut, which opened for the 1953 season. A rope tow was installed on Mount Northcote at the site and opened in 1954. The site proved excellent for speed skiing, but the hut was destroyed in an avalanche, which also killed one person, in 1956.[16]

Anton also recognised the potential of the Thredbo Valley for construction of a major resort and village, with good vertical terrain. Construction began in 1957.[13] Today, Thredbo has 14 ski-lifts and possesses Australia's longest ski resort run, the 5.9 km from Karel's T-Bar to Friday Flat; Australia's greatest vertical drop of 672m; and the highest lifted point in Australia at 2037m[17][18]

The last establishment of a major skifield in NSW came with the development of Mount Blue Cow in the 1980s. In 1987 the Swiss designed Skitube Alpine Railway opened to deliver skiers from Bullocks Flat, on the Alpine Way, to Perisher Valley and to Blue Cow, which also opened in 1987.[14] The operators of Blue Cow purchased Guthega in 1991, and the new combined resort later merged with Perisher-Smiggins to become the largest ski resort in the Southern Hemisphere.[19] In 2009 Perisher had 48 lifts covering 1,245 hectares and four village base areas: Perisher Valley, Blue Cow, Smiggin Holes and Guthega.[20]

Snowy Mountains Scheme

Map of Snowy Mountains Scheme
Tumut 3 generating station.
The Eucumbene River at Kiandra, upstream from Lake Eucumbene. Snowmelt feeds the lakes of the Scheme.

The Snowy Mountains also feed the Murrumbidgee and Murray rivers from the Tooma River, Whites River and Yarrangobilly River. The range is perhaps best known for the Snowy Mountains Scheme, a project to dam the Snowy River, providing both water for irrigation and hydroelectricity.

The project began in 1949 employing a hundred thousand men, two-thirds of whom came from thirty other countries during the post-World War II years. Socially this project symbolises a period during which Australia became an ethnic "melting pot" of the twentieth century but which also changed Australia's character and increased its appreciation for a wide range of cultural diversity.

The Scheme built several temporary towns for its construction workers, several of which have become permanent: Cabramurra (the highest town in Australia); and Khancoban. Additionally, the economy of Cooma has been sustained by the Scheme.[citation needed] Townships at Adaminaby, Jindabyne and Talbingo were inundated by the construction of Lakes Eucumbene, Jindabyne and Talbingo.[21][22][23] Improved vehicular access to the High Country enabled ski-resort villages to be constructed at Thredbo and Guthega in the 1950s by ex-Snowy Scheme workers who realised the potential for expansion of the Australian ski industry.[24][25]

By 1974, 145 kilometres (90 mi) of underground tunnels and 80 kilometres (50 mi) of aqueducts connected the sixteen dams, seven power stations (two underground), and one pumping station.[26] The American Society of Civil Engineers has rated the Snowy Scheme as "a world-class civil engineering project".

The principle lakes created by the scheme include: Lake Eucumbene, Blowering Dam, Talbingo Dam, Lake Jindabyne and Tantangara Dam.

Geography

Climate

The higher regions of the park experience an alpine climate which is unusual on mainland Australia. However, only the peaks of the main range are subject to consistent heavy winter snow. The climate station at Charlotte Pass recorded Australia's lowest temperature of -23.0°C on 28 June 1994.[27]

Glacial lakes

Lake Cootapatamba in the characteristically U shaped glacial valley, Kosciuszko National Park.

Part of the mountains known as Main Range contains mainland Australia's five glacial lakes.[28] The largest of these lakes is Blue Lake, one of the headwaters of the Snowy River. The other four glacial lakes are Lake Albina, Lake Cootapatamba, Club Lake and Headley Tarn.

During the last ice age, which peaked about 20,000 years ago in the Pleistocene epoch, the highest peaks of the main range near Mount Kosciuszko experienced a climate which favoured the formation of glaciers, evidence of which can still be seen today. Cirques moraines, tarn lakes, roche moutonnées and other glacial features can all be seen in the area. Lake Cootapatamba, which was formed by an ice spilling from Mount Kosciuszko's southern flank, is the highest lake on the Australian mainland. Lake Albina, Club Lake, Blue Lake, and Hedley Tarn also have glacial origins.[29]

There is some disagreement as to exactly how widespread Pleistocene glaciation was on the main range, and little or no evidence from earlier glacial periods exists. The 'David Moraine', a one kilometre long ridge running across Spencers Creek valley seems to indicate a larger glacier existed in this area at some time, however the glacial origin of this feature is disputed.[30]

There is evidence of periglacial activity in the area. Solifluction appears to have created terraces on the north west flank of Mount Northcote. Frost heave is also a significant agent of soil erosion in the Kosciuszko Area.

Ecology

Snow Gum at tree line along Dead Horse Gap Walk, Kosciuszko National Park.

The Snowy Mountains cover a variety of climatic regions which support several distinct ecosystems. The alpine area above the tree line, is one of the most fragile and covers the smallest area. This area is a patchwork of alpine heaths, herbfields, feldmarks, bogs and fens. The windswept feldmark ecotope is endemic to the alpine region, and covers a mere 300,000 m². It is most vulnerable to the wandering footsteps of unmindful tourists.

Fauna

Many rare or threatened plant and animal species occur within the Snowy Mountains.[31] The Kosciuszko National Park is home to one of Australia's most threatened species the Corroboree frog. The endangered Mountain Pygmy Possum and the more common Dusky Antechinus are located in the high country of the park.

By 2008, wild horse numbers in the National Park had reached 1,700 with that figure growing by 300 each year, resulting in park authorities coordinating their culling and relocation.[32]

Flora

The high country is dominated by alpine woodlands, characterised by the Snow Gum. Montane and wet sclerophyll forest also occur across the ranges, supporting large stands of Alpine Ash and Mountain Gum. In the southern Byadbo wilderness area, dry sclerophyll and wattle forests predominate. Amongst the many different native trees in the park, the large Chinese Elm has become naturalised.

The bushfires in 2003 damaged tree cover in the region. Fires are a natural feature of the park ecosystem, but it will take some time for the region to return to its pre 2003 condition.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.kiandrahistory.net/indigenous.html
  2. ^ http://www.kosciuskohuts.org.au/ Kosciuszko Huts Association
  3. ^ "DECC Kosciuszko National Park". DECC National Parks website. http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/NationalParks/parkHome.aspx?id=N0018. Retrieved 2009-04-24. 
  4. ^ "Top of Australia hosts park's centenary". ABC News. http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200612/s1804125.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  5. ^ http://www.selwynsnow.com.au/templates/sel/page/page_html_standard.php?secID=69
  6. ^ http://selwynsnow.com.au/templates/sel/page/page_html_standard.php?secID=69
  7. ^ The history of skiing at Kiandra has been the subject of several studies, including 1959's "Historic Kiandra", written by the Kiandra Historical Society and Kiandra Goldfields to Skifields (2006) by Norman W. Clarke
  8. ^ http://www.charlottepass.com.au/chalet.html
  9. ^ "Of ice and men". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2009-01-24. http://www.smh.com.au/travel/of-ice-and-men-20090121-7mbh.html. 
  10. ^ http://www.colongwilderness.org.au/RedIndex/NSW/Jagu99.htm
  11. ^ Upe, Robert; Darby, Jim; Holt, Russell; Bredow, Susan (2009-06-06). "50 reasons to love Australian snow". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/travel/50-reasons-to-love-australian-snow-20090603-bv3f.html?page=-1. 
  12. ^ http://www.perisherblue.com.au/summer/history/index.html
  13. ^ a b http://www.thredbo.com.au/about-thredbo/history/
  14. ^ a b http://www.perisherblue.com.au/winter/info/history.html
  15. ^ http://www.christianacapital.com/Text/1201316577093-6700/
  16. ^ History of the Australian Alpine Club
  17. ^ http://www.thredbo.com.au/about-thredbo/resort-information/facts-and-figures/winter-2009.asp
  18. ^ http://www.openroad.com.au/travel_holidayideas_snowbusiness.asp
  19. ^ http://www.perisher.com.au/winter/info/history.html
  20. ^ http://www.perisher.com.au/winter/info/stats.html
  21. ^ "Adaminaby". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/travel/travel-factsheet/adaminaby-20081113-5yk8.html. 
  22. ^ http://snowymountains.com.au/Jindabyne.html
  23. ^ http://snowymountains.com.au/Talbingo.html
  24. ^ http://www.thredbo.com.au/about-thredbo/history/
  25. ^ http://www.visitnsw.com/town/Guthega.aspx
  26. ^ Designated Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks. Retrieved on 28 February 2008.
  27. ^ "1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2008". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2008-02-07. http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/ABS@.nsf/bb8db737e2af84b8ca2571780015701e/77B606A652911396CA2573D200106C95?opendocument. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  28. ^ Powell, Greg (1990). The Snowy Mountains: A bushwalker's diary. Hampton, Victoria: Macstyle. p. 10. ISBN 1875293086. 
  29. ^ West,D.,(1994) Kosciuszko Natural Heritage.
  30. ^ Galloway, RW (1963), Glaciation in the Snowy Mountains: A Re-appraisal
  31. ^ DECC | Kosciuszko National Park - plan of management
  32. ^ "Environmentalists call for aerial brumby cull". ABC News. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/01/16/2139601.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 

External links

Coordinates: 36°30′S 148°20′E / 36.5°S 148.333°E / -36.5; 148.333


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Snowy Mountains —   [ snəʊɪ maʊntɪnz], der südliche Teil der Great Dividing Range in Südostaustralien, im Mount Kosciusko 2 230 m über dem Meeresspiegel; Quellgebiet der Flüsse Snowy und Tumut River, Murray und Murrumbidgee River. Der an der Ostseite des Gebirges… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Snowy Mountains — ▪ mountains, Australia  range in the Australian Alps, southeastern New South Wales, including several peaks that exceed 7,000 ft (2,100 m), notably Mt. Kosciusko, the highest in Australia. On their slopes rise the Murray, Murrumbidgee, and Tumut… …   Universalium

  • Snowy Mountains — 36° 27′ 00″ S 148° 16′ 01″ E / 36.45, 148.267 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Snowy Mountains — p1p5 Snowy Mountains Blick auf den Talbingo Stausee, Snowy Mountains Scheme Höchster Gipfel …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Snowy Mountains — geographical name mountains SE Australia in SE New South Wales …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Snowy Mountains — /snoʊi ˈmaʊntənz/ (say snohee mowntuhnz) plural noun a series of mountains in south eastern NSW; part of the Australian Alps. Highest peak (in mainland Australia), Mount Kosciuszko, 2228 m …   Australian English dictionary

  • Snowy Mountains National Forest — was established as the Snowy Mountains Forest Reserve by the U.S. Forest Service in Montana on November 5, 1906 with 126,080 acres. It became a National Forest on March 4, 1907. On July 1, 1908 the entire forest was combined with Little Belt,… …   Wikipedia

  • Snowy Mountains Motel — (Adaminaby,Австралия) Категория отеля: 3,5 звезд Адрес: Snowy Mountains Highwa …   Каталог отелей

  • Snowy Mountains Scheme — The Snowy Mountains Scheme is a hydroelectricity and irrigation complex in south east Australia. The waters of the Snowy River and its tributary, the Eucumbene, are captured at high elevations and diverted inland to the Murray River and the… …   Wikipedia

  • Snowy-Mountains-System — Talbingo Stausee …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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