- Ammonium chloride
Ammonium chloride Identifiers CAS number ChemSpider UNII EC number KEGG ChEBI ChEMBL RTECS number BP4550000 Jmol-3D images Image 1 Properties Molecular formula NH4Cl Molar mass 53.491 g/mol Appearance White solid
Odor odorless Density 1.5274 g/cm3 Melting point
338 °C (decomposes)
Solubility in water 297 g/L (0 °C)
372 g/L (20 °C)
773 g/L (100 °C)
Solubility in alcohol 6 g/L (19 °C) Acidity (pKa) 9.245 Refractive index (nD) 1.642 Thermochemistry Std enthalpy of
o298 −314.55 kJ/mol Standard molar
o298 94.85 J K−1 mol−1  Hazards MSDS ICSC 1051 GHS pictograms  GHS hazard statements , GHS precautionary statements  EU Index 017-014-00-8 EU classification Harmful (Xn)
R-phrases , S-phrases , NFPA 704 Flash point Non-flammable LD50 1650 mg/kg, oral (rat) Related compounds Other anions Ammonium fluoride
Other cations Sodium chloride
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Ammonium chloride NH4Cl is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl. It is a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water. Solutions of ammonium chloride are mildly acidic. Sal ammoniac is a name of natural, mineralogical form of ammonium chloride. The mineral is especially common on burning coal dumps (formed by condensation of coal-derived gases), but also on some volcanoes. It is the product from the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia.
- NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl
Ammonium chloride occurs naturally in volcanic regions, forming on volcanic rocks near fume-releasing vents (fumaroles). The crystals deposit directly from the gaseous state, and tend to be short-lived, as they dissolve easily in water.
Giant squid and some other large squid species maintain neutral buoyancy in seawater through an ammonium chloride solution which flows throughout their body and is lighter than seawater. This differs from the method of flotation used by fish, which involves a gas-filled swim bladder. The solution tastes somewhat like salmiakki and makes giant squid unattractive for general human consumption.
- NH4Cl → NH3 + HCl
Ammonium chloride reacts with strong base, e.g. sodium hydroxide, to release ammonia gas:
- NH4Cl + NaOH → NH3 + NaCl + H2O
Similarly, ammonium chloride also reacts with alkali metal carbonates at elevated temperatures, giving ammonia and alkali metal chloride:
- 2 NH4Cl + Na2CO3 → 2 NaCl + CO2 + H2O + 2 NH3
Ammonium chloride is used to produce low temperatures in cooling baths. For example, the zero point of the Fahrenheit temperature scale is determined by placing the thermometer in a mixture of ice, water, and ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride solutions with ammonia are used as buffer solutions.
Biology and agriculture
In biological applications ammonium chloride serves as a nitrogen source and is used in fertilizers, as a feed supplement for cattle and as an ingredient in nutritive media for yeasts and many microorganisms.
Ammonium chloride is an ingredient in fireworks and safety and contact explosives.
Textile and leather
Ammonium chloride is used in the textile and leather industry in dyeing, tanning textile printing and to luster cotton.
Ammonium chloride is used as a flux in preparing metals to be tin coated, galvanized or soldered. It works as a flux by cleaning the surface of workpieces by reacting with the metal oxides at the surface to form a volatile metal chloride. For this purpose, it is sold in blocks at hardware stores for use in cleaning the tip of a soldering iron and can also be included in solder as flux.
Ammonium chloride is used as an expectorant in cough medicine. Its expectorant action is caused by irritative action on the bronchial mucosa. This causes the production of excess respiratory tract fluid which presumably is easier to cough up. Ammonium salts are an irritant to the gastric mucosa and may induce nausea and vomiting.
Ammonium chloride is used as a systemic acidifying agent in treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis, in oral acid loading test to diagnose distal renal tubular acidosis, to maintain the urine at an acid pH in the treatment of some urinary-tract disorders.
Ammonium chloride is used to spice up dark sweets called salty liquorice, in baking to give cookies a very crisp texture, and in the flavouring Salmiakki Koskenkorva for vodkas. In sub-continent (Indo-Pak), its used in making daily snacks like samosa and jalebi for crispiness.
Ammonium chloride is used in a ~5% aqueous solution to work on oil wells with clay swelling problems. It is also used as electrolyte in Zinc–carbon batteries. Other uses include in hair shampoo, in the glue that bonds plywood, in cleaning products like lysol. In hair shampoo, it is used as a thickening agent in ammonium-based surfactant systems, such as ammonium lauryl sulfate.
- ^ a b Solid state data from Ammonium chloride in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2008-10-22)
- ^ a b c Online Sigma Catalogue , accessdate: June 16, 2011.
- ^ a b c Egon Wiberg, Arnold Frederick Holleman (2001) Inorganic Chemistry, Elsevier ISBN 0123526515, p. 614
- ^ Rowley, Steven P. (2011). General Chemistry I Laboratory Manual (Second ed.). Kendall Hunt. ISBN 9780757589423.
- ^ Dr. K. G. Bothara (7 October 2008). Inorganic Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Pragati Books Pvt. Ltd.. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-81-85790-05-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=vOtFj8b7P9MC&pg=SA13-PA7. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
Urologicals, including antispasmodics (G04B) AcidifiersAmmonium chloride • Calcium chloride Urinary antispasmodics
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Look at other dictionaries:
ammonium chloride — n a white crystalline volatile salt NH4Cl that is used in dry cells and as an expectorant called also sal ammoniac * * * [USP] a systemic and urinary acidifying agent and diuretic administered orally or by intravenous infusion. It is also… … Medical dictionary
ammonium chloride — n. a white crystalline compound, NH4Cl, produced by the reaction of ammonia with hydrochloric acid: it is used in medicine to correct alkalosis, and also in dry cells, fertilizers, dyes, etc.; sal ammoniac … English World dictionary
ammonium chloride — Chem., Pharm. a white, crystalline, water soluble powder, NH4Cl, which produces a cooling sensation on the tongue, used chiefly in the manufacture of dry cells, in electroplating, and in medicine as an expectorant. Also called sal ammoniac. [1865 … Universalium
ammonium chloride — amonio chloridas statusas T sritis chemija formulė NH₄Cl atitikmenys: angl. ammoniac; ammonium chloride; salmiac rus. аммоний хлористый; аммония хлорид … Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas
ammonium chloride — noun Date: 1869 a white crystalline volatile salt NH4Cl that is used in dry cells and as an expectorant called also sal ammoniac … New Collegiate Dictionary
ammonium chloride — noun A water soluble salt of ammonia and hydrochloric acid, having the formula NHCl … Wiktionary
ammonium chloride — ammo′nium chlo′ride n. chem. a white, crystalline, water soluble powder, NH4Cl, used chiefly in the manufacture of dry cells and as an expectorant Also called sal ammoniac Etymology: 1865–70 … From formal English to slang
ammonium chloride — /əˌmoʊniəm ˈklɔraɪd/ (say uh.mohneeuhm klawruyd) noun a white granular powder, NH4Cl, used medicinally and industrially; sal ammoniac … Australian English dictionary
ammonium chloride — noun a white salt used in dry cells • Syn: ↑sal ammoniac • Hypernyms: ↑salt … Useful english dictionary
Zinc ammonium chloride — is commonly known as flux, and is used for galvanizing steel. It is 60% ammonium chloride and 40% zinc chloride in it. The pH of zinc ammonium chloride should be 4.2 … Wikipedia