- Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
" "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" is a late 14th-century
Middle Englishalliterative romance outlining an adventure of Sir Gawain, a knight of King Arthur's Round Table. In the tale, Sir Gawain accepts a challenge from a mysterious warrior who is completely green, from his clothes and hair to his beard and skin. The " Green Knight" offers to allow anyone to strike him with his axe if the challenger will take a return blow in a year and a day. Gawain accepts, and beheads him in one blow, only to have the Green Knight stand up, pick up his head, and remind Gawain to meet him at the appointed time. The story of Gawain's struggle to meet the appointment and his adventures along the way demonstrate the spirit of chivalryand loyalty.
The poem survives in a single manuscript, the "Cotton Nero A.x.", that also includes three religious pieces, "Pearl", "Cleanness", and "Patience". These works are thought to have been written by the same unknown author, dubbed the "
Pearl Poet" or "Gawain poet." All four narrative poems are written in a North West Midland dialect of Middle English."The Norton Anthology of English Literature". Ed. Stephen Greenblatt. 8th ed. Vol. B. New York, London: W. W. Norton and Co., 2006. pp. 19–21 and 160–161. ISBN 0393928330] cite web | title = Web Resources for Pearl-poet Study: A Vetted Selection | publisher = Univ. of Calgary | url = http://www.ucalgary.ca/~scriptor/cotton/blog.html | accessdate = 2007-04-01] The story thus emerges from the Welsh and English traditions of the dialect area, borrowing from earlier "beheading game" stories and highlighting the importance of honour and chivalry in the face of danger.
In addition to its complex plot and rich language, the poem's chief interest for literary critics is its sophisticated use of medieval
symbolism. Everything from the Green Knight, to the beheading game, to the girdlegiven to Gawain as protection from the axe, is richly symbolic and steeped in Celtic, Germanic, and other folklore and cultural traditions. The Green Knight, for example, is interpreted by some as a representation of the Green Manof Celtic legend and by others as an allusion to Christ.
"Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" is an important poem in the romance genre, which typically involves a hero who goes on a quest that tests his ability. The ambiguity of the poem's ending, however, makes it more complex than most. Christian readings of the poem argue for an apocalyptic interpretation, drawing parallels between Gawain and
Lady Bertilakand the story of Adam and Eve. Feminist interpretations disagree at the most basic level, some arguing that women are in total control from beginning to end, while others argue that their control is only an illusion. Cultural critics have argued that the poem is best read as an expression of tensions between the Welsh and English present at the time in the poet's dialect region. The poem remains popular to this day, through translations from renowned authors like J. R. R. Tolkienand Simon Armitage, as well as through recent film and stage adaptations.
The story begins in
Cameloton New Year's Dayas King Arthur's court is feasting and exchanging gifts. A large Green Knight armed with an axe enters the hall and proposes a game. He asks for someone in the court to strike him once with his axe, on condition that the Green Knight will return the blow one year and one day later.For reasons not entirely understood, the Celts used the phrase "a year and a day", to refer to exactly one year. See for example W. J. McGee's "The Beginning of Mathematics." "American Anthropologist." (Oct 1899) Vol. 1 Iss. 4 pp. 646–674.] Sir Gawain, the youngest of Arthur's knights and nephew to the king, accepts the challenge. He severs the giant's head in one stroke, expecting him to die. The Green Knight, however, picks up his own head, reminds Gawain to meet him at the Green Chapel in a year and a day (New Year's Day the next year) and rides away.
As the date approaches Sir Gawain sets off to find the Green Chapel and complete his bargain with the Green Knight. His long journey leads him to a beautiful castle where he meets Bertilak de Hautdesert, the lord of the castle, and his beautiful wife; both are pleased to have such a renowned guest. Gawain tells them of his New Year's appointment at the Green Chapel and says that he must continue his search as he only has a few days remaining. Bertilak laughs and explains that the Green Chapel is less than two miles away and proposes that Gawain stay at the castle.
Before going hunting the next day, Bertilak proposes a bargain to Gawain: he will give Gawain whatever he catches, on condition that Gawain give him whatever he might gain during the day. Gawain accepts. After Bertilak leaves, the lady of the castle,
Lady Bertilak, visits Gawain's bedroom to seduce him. Despite her best efforts, however, he yields nothing but a single kiss. When Bertilak returns and gives Gawain the deer he has killed, his guest responds by returning the lady's kiss to Bertilak, without divulging its source. The next day, the lady comes again, Gawain dodges her advances, and there is a similar exchange of a hunted boarfor two kisses. She comes once more on the third morning, and Gawain accepts from her a green silk girdle, which the lady promises will keep him from all physical harm. They exchange three kisses. That evening, Bertilak returns with a fox, which he exchanges with Gawain for the three kisses. Gawain keeps the girdle, however.
The next day, Gawain leaves for the Green Chapel with the girdle. He finds the Green Knight at the chapel sharpening an axe, and, as arranged, bends over to receive his blow. The Green Knight swings to behead Gawain, but holds back twice, only striking softly on the third swing, causing a small scar on his neck. The Green Knight then reveals himself to be the lord of the castle, Bertilak de Hautdesert, and explains that the entire game was arranged by
Morgan le Fay, Arthur's enemy. Gawain is at first ashamed and upset, but the two men part on cordial terms and Gawain returns to Camelot, wearing the girdle in shame as a token of his failure to keep his promise with Bertilak. Arthur decrees that all his knights should henceforth wear a green sash in recognition of Gawain's adventure.
Though the real name of "The "Gawain" Poet" (or poets) is unknown, some inferences about him can be drawn from an informed reading of his works. The manuscript of "Gawain" is known in academic circles as "Cotton Nero A.x", following a naming system used by one of its owners, Robert Cotton, a collector of Medieval English texts.cite web | title = Web Resources for Pearl-poet Study: A Vetted Selection | publisher = Univ. of Calgary | url = http://www.ucalgary.ca/~scriptor/cotton/blog.html | accessdate = 2007-04-01] Before the "Gawain" manuscript came into Cotton's possession, it was in the library of Henry Savile of Bank in
Yorkshire. [cite web | title = Pearl: Introduction | publisher = Medieval Institute Publications, Inc. | date = 2001 | url = http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/teams/pearlint.htm | accessdate = 2007-04-02] Little is known about its previous ownership, and until 1824, when the manuscript was introduced to the academic community by Thomas Warton, it was almost entirely unknown. [Turville-Petre, Thorlac. The Alliterative Revival. Woodbridge: Brewer etc., 1977. pp. 126–129. ISBN 0859910199] Now held in the British Library, it has been dated to the late 14th century, so the poet was a contemporary of Geoffrey Chaucer, author of " The Canterbury Tales", though it is highly unlikely that they ever met. ["Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". "The Broadview Anthology of British Literature: The Medieval Period", Vol. 1., ed. Joseph Black, "et al." Toronto: Broadview Press, Introduction, p. 235. ISBN 1-55111-609-X] The three other works found in the same manuscript as "Gawain", (commonly known as "Pearl", "Patience", and " Cleanness" or "Purity") are often considered to be written by the same author. However, the manuscript containing these poems was transcribed by a copyist and not by the original poet. Although nothing explicitly suggests that all four poems are by the same poet, comparative analysis of dialect, verse form, and diction have pointed towards single-authorship.Nelles, William. "The Pearl-Poet". "Cyclopedia of World Authors", Fourth Revised Edition Database: MagillOnLiterature Plus, 1958.] Consensus on the issue, however, remains elusive.
What is known today about the poet is largely general, as
J. R. R. Tolkienand E.V. Gordon, after reviewing the text's allusions, style, and themes, concluded in 1925:
The most commonly suggested candidate for authorship is John Massey of Cotton, Cheshire. [Peterson, Clifford J. "The Pearl-Poet and John Massey of Cotton, Cheshire". "The Review of English Studies, New Series". (1974) 25.99 pp. 257–266.] He is known to have lived in the dialect region of the Pearl Poet and is thought to have written the poem, "St. Erkenwald", which some scholars argue bears stylistic similarities to "Gawain". "St. Erkenwald", however, has been dated by some scholars to a time outside the Gawain poet's era. Thus, ascribing authorship to John Massey is still controversial and most critics consider the Gawain poet an unknown.
The 2,530 lines and 101
stanzasthat make up "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" are written in what linguists call the "Alliterative Revival" style typical of the 14th century. Instead of focusing on a metrical syllabic count and rhyme, the alliterative form of this period usually relied on the agreement of a pair of stressed syllables at the beginning of the line and another pair at the end. Each line always includes a pause, called a " caesura", at some point after the first two stresses, dividing it into two half-lines. Although he largely follows the form of his day, the Gawain poet was somewhat freer with convention than his predecessors. The poet broke his alliterative lines into variable-length groups and ended these nominal stanzas with a rhyming section of five lines known as the " bob and wheel", in which the "bob" is a very short line, sometimes of only two syllables, followed by the "wheel," longer lines with internal rhyme.
The earliest known story to feature a beheading game is the 8th century
Middle Irishtale "Bricriu's Feast". This story parallels "Gawain" in that, like the Green Knight, Cúchulainn's antagonist feints three blows with the axe before letting his target depart without injury. A beheading exchange also appears in the late 12th century "Life of Caradoc", a Middle Frenchnarrative embedded in the anonymous First Continuation of Chrétien de Troyes' " Perceval, the Story of the Grail". A notable difference in this story is that Caradoc's challenger is his father in disguise, come to test his honour. Lancelotis given a beheading challenge in the early 13th century " Perlesvaus", in which a knight begs him to chop off his head or else put his own in jeopardy. Lancelot reluctantly cuts it off, agreeing to come to the same place in a year to put his head in the same danger. When Lancelot arrives, the people of the town celebrate and announce that they have finally found a true knight. Many others had been tested and failed this test of chivalry.
The stories "The Girl with the Mule" (alternately titled "The Mule Without a Bridle") and "Hunbaut" feature Gawain in beheading game situations. In "Hunbaut" Gawain cuts off a man's head and, before he can replace it, removes the magic cloak keeping the man alive, thus killing him. Several stories tell of knights who struggle to stave off the advances of voluptuous women sent by their lords as a test; these stories include "Yder", the
Lancelot-Grail, "Hunbaut", and "The Knight of the Sword". The last two involve Gawain specifically. Usually the temptress is the daughter or wife of a lord to whom the knight owes respect, and the knight is tested to see whether or not he will remain chastein trying circumstances.Brewer, Elisabeth. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 1992. ISBN 0859913597]
In the first branch of the medieval Welsh collection of tales known as the "
Mabinogion", Pwyllexchanges places for a year with Arawnthe lord of Annwn(the Otherworld). Despite having his appearance changed to resemble Arawn exactly, Pwyll does not have sexual relations with Arawn's wife during this time, thus establishing a lasting friendship between the two men. The story may, then, provide a background for the seduction test when Gawain attempts to resist to the wife of the Green Knight; thus, the story of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight may be seen as a tale which combines elements of the Celtic beheading game with a Celtic version of a seduction test, as Arawn is pleased to find that Pwyll has not slept with Arawn's wife. Some scholars disagree with this interpretation, however, as Arawn seems to have accepted the notion that Pwyll may reciprocate with his wife, making it less of a "seduction test" per se as seduction tests typically involve a Lord and Lady conspiring to seduce a knight, seemingly "against" the wishes of the Lord.Friedman, Albert B. "Morgan le Fay in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." "Speculum." Vol. 35, No. 2 (Apr 1960) pp. 260-274] Additionally, in both stories a year passes before the completion of the conclusion of the challenge or exchange is complete.
After the writing of "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", several similar stories followed. "
The Greene Knight" (15th-17th century) is a rhymed retelling of nearly the same tale. [Hahn, Thomas. "The Greene Knight". In "Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales". Western Michigan University Medieval Institute Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-879288-59-1. Full text: [http://lib.rochester.edu/Camelot/teams/greenfrm.htm "The Greene Knight"] ] In it, the plot is simplified, motives are more fully explained, and some names are changed. Another story, "The Turke and Gowin" (15th century) begins with a Turk entering Arthur's court and asking, "Is there any will, as a brother,To give a buffett and take another?"Hahn, Thomas. "The Turke and Sir Gawain". In "Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales". Western Michigan University Medieval Institute Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-879288-59-1. Online: [http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/teams/turkfrm.htm "The Turke and Sir Gawain"] .] At the end of this poem, the Turk, rather than buffeting Gawain back, asks the knight to cut off his head, which Gawain does. The Turk then praises Gawain and showers him with gifts. "The Carle off Carlile" (17th century) also resembles "Gawain" in a scene in which the Carl, a lord, orders Gawain to cut off his head in exchange for allowing his own to be cut off. [Hahn, Thomas. "The Carle of Carlisle", in "Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales". Western Michigan University Medieval Institute Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-879288-59-1. Online: [http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/teams/carintro.htm "The Carle of Carlisle"] .] Gawain obliges and strikes, but the Carl rises, laughing and unharmed. Unlike the "Gawain" poem, no return blow is demanded or given.
Temptation and testing
The heart of "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" is the test of Gawain's adherence to the code of
chivalry. The typical temptation fableof medieval literaturepresents a series of tribulations assembled as tests or "proofs" of moral virtue. The stories often describe several individuals' failures after which the main character is tested.Kittredge, George Lyman. "A Study of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". Harvard University Press, 1960. p. 76. ASIN B0006AWBXS] Success in the proofs will often bring immunity or good fortune. Gawain's ability to pass the tests of his host are of utmost importance to his survival, though he does not know it. It is only by fortuity or “instinctive-courtesy” that Sir Gawain is able to pass his test.Kittredge, p. 83]
In addition to the laws of chivalry, Gawain must respect another set of laws concerning
courtly love. The knight’s code of honour requires him to do whatever a damselasks. Gawain must accept the girdle from the Lady, but he must also keep the promise he has made to his host that he will give whatever he gains that day. Gawain chooses to keep the girdle out of fear of death, thus breaking his promise to the host but honouring the lady. Upon learning that the Green Knight is actually his host, he realises that although he has completed his quest, he has failed to be virtuous. This test demonstrates the conflict between honour and knightly duties. In breaking his promise, Gawain believes he has lost his honour and failed in his duties. [Burrow, J.A. "A Reading of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". London: Kegan Paul Ltd., 1965. p. 162. ISBN 0710086954]
Hunting and seduction
Scholars have frequently noted the parallels between the three hunting scenes and the three seduction scenes in "Gawain". They are generally agreed that the fox chase has significant parallels to the third seduction scene, in which Gawain accepts the girdle from Bertilak's wife. Gawain, like the fox, fears for his life and is looking for a way to avoid death from the Green Knight's axe. Like his counterpart, he resorts to trickery in order to save his skin. The fox uses tactics so unlike the first two animals, and so unexpectedly, that Bertilak has the hardest time hunting it. Similarly, Gawain finds the Lady's advances in the third seduction scene more unpredictable and challenging to resist than her previous attempts. She changes her evasive language, typical of
courtly loverelationships, to a more assertive style. Her dress, relatively modest in earlier scenes, is suddenly voluptuous and revealing.Burnley, J.D. "The Hunting Scenes in 'Sir Gawain and the Green Knight' ". "The Yearbook of English Studies". (1973) Vol. 3, pp. 1–9.]
The deer- and boar-hunting scenes are less clearly connected, although scholars have attempted to link each animal to Gawain's reactions in the parallel seduction scene. Attempts to connect the deer hunt with the first seduction scene have unearthed a few parallels. Deer hunts of the time, like courtship, had to be done according to established rules. Women often favoured suitors who hunted well and skinned their animals, sometimes even watching while a deer was cleaned. [The "hyndez" (hinds) first described in the poem are probably from
red deer, a species with large antlers like the American elk, while the subsequent "dos and of oþer dere" (does and other deer) likely refer to the smaller fallow deer. (Ong, Walter J. "The Green Knight's Harts and Bucks". "Modern Language Notes". (December 1950) 65.8 pp. 536–539.)] The sequence describing the deer hunt is relatively unspecific and nonviolent, with an air of relaxation and exhilaration. The first seduction scene follows in a similar vein, with no overt physical advances and no apparent danger; the entire exchange is humorously portrayed.
The boar-hunting scene is, in contrast, laden with detail. Boars at the time were much more difficult to hunt than deer; approaching one with only a sword was akin to challenging a knight to single combat. In the hunting sequence, the boar flees but is cornered before a ravine. He turns to face Bertilak with his back to the ravine, prepared to fight. Bertilak dismounts and in the ensuing fight kills the boar. He removes its head and displays it on a pike. In the seduction scene, Bertilak's wife, like the boar, is more forward, insisting that Gawain has a romantic reputation and that he must not disappoint her. Gawain, however, is successful in parrying her attacks, saying that surely she knows more than he about love. Both the boar hunt and the seduction scene can be seen as depictions of a moral victory: both Gawain and Bertilak face struggles alone and emerge triumphant.
Nature and chivalry
Some argue that nature represents a chaotic, lawless order which is in direct confrontation with the civilisation of Camelot throughout "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". The green horse and rider that first invade Arthur’s peaceful halls are iconic representations of nature's disturbance. Nature is presented throughout the poem as rough and indifferent, constantly threatening the order of men and courtly life. Nature invades and disrupts order in the major events of the narrative, both symbolically and through the inner nature of humanity. This element appears first with the disruption caused by the Green Knight, later when Gawain must fight off his natural lust for Bertilak’s wife, and again when Gawain breaks his vow to Bertilak by choosing to keep the green girdle, valuing survival over virtue. Represented by the
sin-stained girdle, nature is an underlying force, forever within man and keeping him imperfect (in a chivalric sense).Woods, William F. "Nature and the Inner Man in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". "The Chaucer Review", Vol. 36, No. 3, 2002, pp. 209–227.] In this view, Gawain is part of a wider conflict between nature and chivalry, an examination of the ability of man's order to overcome the chaos of nature.Green, Richard Hamilton. "Gawain's Shield and the Quest for Perfection". "ELH". (June 1962) 29.2 pp. 121–139.]
The word "gomen" (
game) is found 18 times in "Gawain". Its similarity to the word "gome" ( man), which appears 21 times, has led some scholars to see men and games as centrally linked. Games at this time were seen as tests of worthiness, as when the Green Knight challenges the court's right to its good name in a "Christmas game". The "game" of exchanging gifts was common in Germanic cultures. If a man received a gift, he was obliged to provide the giver with a better gift or risk losing his honour, almost like an exchange of blows in a fight (or in a "beheading game"). [Harwood, Britton J. "Gawain and the Gift", "PMLA". (1991) 106.3 pp. 483–99.] The poem revolves around two games: an exchange of beheading and an exchange of winnings. These appear at first to be unconnected. However, a victory in the first game will lead to a victory in the second. Elements of both games appear in other stories; however, the linkage of outcomes is unique to "Gawain".
Times and seasons
Times, dates, seasons, and cycles within "Gawain" are often noted by scholars because of their symbolic nature. The story starts on New Year's Day with a beheading and culminates on the next New Year's Day. Gawain leaves Camelot on
All Saints Dayand arrives at Bertilak's castle on Christmas Eve. Furthermore, the Green Knight tells Gawain to meet him at the Green Chapel in "a year and a day"—a period of time seen often in medieval literature. Some scholars interpret the yearly cycles, each beginning and ending in winter, as the poet's attempt to convey the inevitable fall of all things good and noble in the world. Such a theme is strengthened by the image of Troy, a powerful nation once thought to be invincible which, according to the " Aeneid", fell to the Greeks due to pride and ignorance. The Trojan connection shows itself in the presence of two virtually identical descriptions of Troy's destruction. The poem's first line reads: "Since Troy's assault and siege …" and the final stanzaic line (before the bob and wheel) is "After the siege and assault of Troy".Clark, S. L., and Julian N. Wasserman. "The Passing of the Seasons and the Apocalyptic in "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". "South Central Review". (1986) 3.1 pp. 5–22.]
ignificance of the colour green
Given the varied and even contradictory interpretations of the colour
green, its precise meaning in the poem remains ambiguous. In English folkloreand literature, green was traditionally used to symbolise nature and its associated attributes: fertility and rebirth. Stories of the medieval period also used it to allude to love and the base desires of man. [Chamberlin, Vernon A. "Symbolic Green: A Time-Honored Characterizing Device in Spanish Literature". "Hispania". (March 1968) 51.1 pp. 29–37] [Goldhurst, William. "The Green and the Gold: The Major Theme of Gawain and the Green Knight". "College English". (November 1958) 20.2 pp. 61–65. doi:10.2307/372161] Because of its connection with faeriesand spirits in early English folklore, green also signified witchcraft, devilry and evil. It can also represent decay and toxicity.Williams, Margaret. The Pearl Poet, His Complete Works. Random House, 1967. ASIN B0006BQEJY] When combined with gold, as with the Green Knight and the girdle, green was often seen as representing youth's passing. [Lewis, John S. "Gawain and the Green Knight". "College English". (October 1959) 21.1 pp. 50–51] In Celtic mythology, green was associated with misfortune and death, and therefore avoided in clothing. The green girdle, originally worn for protection, became a symbol of shame and cowardice; it is finally adopted as a symbol of honour by the knights of Camelot, signifying a transformation from good to evil and back again; this displays both the spoiling and regenerative connotations of the colour green.Besserman, Lawrence. "The Idea of the Green Knight". "ELH". (Summer 1986) 53.2 The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 219–239.]
Scholars have puzzled over the Green Knight's symbolism since the discovery of the poem. He could be a version of the
Green Man, a mythological being connected with nature in medieval art, a Christiansymbol, or the Devilhimself. British medieval scholar C. S. Lewissaid the character was "as vivid and concrete as any image in literature" and J. R. R. Tolkiensaid he was the "most difficult character" to interpret in "Sir Gawain". His major role in Arthurian literature is that of a judge and tester of knights, thus he is at once terrifying, friendly, and mysterious.Besserman, Lawrence. "The Idea of the Green Knight." "ELH". (Summer, 1986) 53.2 pp. 219–239. The Johns Hopkins University Press.] He appears in only two other poems: "The Greene Knight" and "King Arthur and King Cornwall". [Hahn, Thomas. "The Greene Knight". In "Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales". Western Michigan University Medieval Institute Publications, 2000 p. 314. ISBN 1-879288-59-1] [Hahn, Thomas. "King Arthur and King Cornwall". In "Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales". Western Michigan University Medieval Institute Publications, 2000. p. 427. ISBN 1-879288-59-1] Scholars have attempted to connect him to other mythical characters, such as Jack in the Greenof British tradition but no definitive connection has yet been established. [Lasater, Alice E. "Spain to England: A Comparative Study of Arabic, European, and English Literature of the Middle Ages". University Press of Mississippi, 1974. ISBN 0-878-05056-6] [Rix, Michael M. "A Re-Examination of the Castleton Garlanding". "Folklore". (June 1953) 64.2 pp. 342–344]
:"See also: Girdle in literature"Critics often debate whether the girdle that Gawain receives from Bertilak's wife has sexual meaning. Proponents compare the girdle to elements of other stories in the culture, such as the Germanic epic poem "
Nibelungenlied". In this tale, Brunhilde sees her stolen girdle produced as evidence and becomes convinced that she has had intercourse with the wrong man.Friedman, Albert B., and Richard H. Osberg. "Gawain's Girdle as Traditional Symbol". "The Journal of American Folklore". (1977) 90.357 pp. 301–15.] Feminist interpretations view the girdle (called a "love lace" at one point in the text) as a symbol of feminine power. They note the definition of "lace" at the time, which along with the "article of clothing", also meant "net", "noose", or "snare".Heng, Geraldine. "Feminine Knots and the Other Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". "PMLA". (1991) 106.3 pp. 500–514.] Critics who view the poem through a Christian lens see Gawain's trust in the girdle as a replacement for his trust in God to save him from the axe-wound. [cite web | last = Berger | first = Sidney E. | title = Gawain's Departure from the Peregrinatio | publisher = Morgantown: West Virginia University Press | date = 1985 | url = http://www.luc.edu/publications/medieval/vol2/berger.html | accessdate = 2007-04-14] The image of the girdle as a "sexual symbol", however, should not be confused with modern notions of a girdle as "underwear". Its sexual meaning was deeper and less overt. [Bloomfield, Morton W. "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: An Appraisal. "PMLA". (1961) 76.16 pp. 9–17.] A girdle in the days of the "Pearl" Poet was "a belt worn around the waist, used for fastening clothes or for carrying a sword, purse, etc." ["Middle English Dictionary" (as cited in Friedman, Albert B., and Osberg, Richard H. "Gawain's Girdle as Traditional Symbol". "The Journal of American Folklore". (1977) 90.357 pp. 301–315.)]
The pentangle on Gawain's shield is seen by many critics as signifying Gawain's perfection and power over evil. [The poem contains the first recorded use of the word "pentangle" in English ("Oxford English Dictionary Online").] The poem contains the only representation of such a symbol on Gawain's shield in the Gawain literature. What is more, the poet uses a total of 46 lines to describe the meaning of the pentangle. No other symbol in the poem receives as much attention or is described in such detail. [Arthur, Ross G. "Medieval Sign Theory and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987. pp. 22, 26. ISBN 0802057179] The poem describes the pentangle as a symbol of faithfulness and an "endless knot". In line 625, it is described as "a sign by Solomon".
Solomon, the third king of Israel, in 10th century B.C. was said to have the mark of the pentagram on his ring, which he received from the archangelMichael. The pentagram seal on this ring was said to give Solomon power over demons. [LaBossière, Camille R., and Gladson, Jerry A. "Solomon", in "A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature". Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1992 p. 722.]
Along these lines, some academics link the Gawain pentangle to magical traditions. In
Germany, the symbol was called a "Drudenfuß" and was placed on household objects to keep out evil.Hulbert, J. R. "Syr Gawayn and the Grene Knyzt (Concluded)". "Modern Philology". (April 1916) 13.12 pp. 689–730.] The symbol was also associated with magical charms which, if recited or written on a weapon, would call forth magical forces. However, concrete evidence tying the magical pentagram to Gawain's pentangle is scarce. [Jackson, I. "Sir Gawain's Coat of Arms." "The Modern Language Review". (January 1920) 15.1 pp. 77–79.]
Gawain’s pentangle also symbolises the “phenomenon of physically endless objects signifying a temporally endless quality.” [Arthur, pp. 33–34.] Many poets use the symbol of the circle to show infinity or endlessness, but Gawain’s poet insisted on using something more complex. In medieval number theory, the number five is considered a “circular number”, since it “reproduces itself in its last digit when raised to its powers”.Arthur, p. 34.] Furthermore, it replicates itself geometrically; that is, every pentangle has a smaller pentagon that allows a pentangle to be embedded in it and this “process may be repeated forever with decreasing pentangles”. Thus, by reproducing the number five, which in medieval number symbolism signified incorruptibility, Gawain's pentangle represents his eternal incorruptibility. [Arthur, p. 35.]
The poet highlights number symbolism to add symmetry and meaning to the poem. For example, three kisses are exchanged between Gawain and Bertilak's wife; Gawain is tempted by her on three separate days; Bertilak goes hunting three times, and the Green Knight swings at Gawain three times with his axe. The number two also appears repeatedly, as in the two beheading scenes, two confession scenes, and two castles. [Howard, Donald R. "Structure and Symmetry in Sir Gawain". "Speculum". (July 1964) 39.3 pp. 425–433.] The five points of the pentangle, the poet adds, represent Gawain's virtues, for he is "faithful five ways and five times each". ["Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", Book 2, Stanza 27.] The poet goes on to list the ways in which Gawain is virtuous: all five of his senses are without fault; his five fingers never fail him, and he always remembers the five wounds of Christ, as well as the five joys of the
Virgin Mary. The fifth five is Gawain himself, who embodies the five moral virtues of the code of chivalry: " friendship, generosity, chastity, courtesy, and piety". [Kittredge, p. 93.] All of these virtues reside, as the poet says, in the "Endless Knot" of the pentangle, which forever interlinks and is never broken. ["Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", Book 2, Stanza 28.] Thus, the poet makes Gawain the epitome of perfection in knighthood through number symbolism.
The number five is also found in the structure of the poem itself. "Sir Gawain" is 101 stanzas long, traditionally organised into four books of 21, 24, 34, and 22 stanzas. These divisions, however, have since been disputed; scholars have begun to believe that they are the work of the copyist and not of the poet. The original manuscript features a series of capital letters added after the fact by another scribe, and some scholars argue that these additions were an attempt to restore the original divisions. These letters divide the manuscript into nine parts. The first and last parts are 22 stanzas long. The second and second-to-last parts are only one stanza long, and the middle five parts are eleven stanzas long. The number eleven is associated with transgression in other medieval literature (being one more than ten, a number associated with the
Ten Commandments). Thus, this set of five elevens (55 stanzas) creates the perfect mix of transgression and incorruption, suggesting that Gawain is faultless in his faults.Robertson, Michael. "Stanzaic Symmetry in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". "Speculum". (October 1982) 57.4 pp. 779–785.]
At the story's climax, Gawain is wounded superficially in the neck by the Green Knight's axe. During the medieval period, the body and the soul were believed to be so intimately connected that wounds were considered an outward sign of inward sin. The neck, specifically, was believed to correlate with the part of the soul related to
will, connecting the reasoning part (the head) and the courageous part (the heart). Gawain's sin resulted from using his will to separate reasoning from courage. By accepting the girdle from the lady, he employs reason to do something less than courageous—evade death in a dishonest way. Gawain's wound is thus an outward sign of an internal wound. The Green Knight's series of tests shows Gawain the weakness that has been in him all along: the desire to pridefully use his will for personal gain, rather than submitting his will in humility to God. The Green Knight, by engaging with the greatest knight of Camelot, also reveals the moral weakness of pride in all of Camelot, and therefore all of humanity. However, the wounds of Christ, believed to offer healing to wounded souls and bodies, are mentioned throughout the poem in the hope that this sin of prideful "stiffneckedness" will be healed among fallen mortals. [Reichardt, Paul F. "Gawain and the Image of the Wound". "PMLA". (March 1984) 99.2 pp. 154–161.] [Arthur, pp. 121–123.]
"Gawain" as medieval romance
Many critics argue that "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" should be viewed, above all, as a romance. Medieval romances typically recount the marvellous
adventures of a chivalrous, heroic knight, often of super-human ability, who abides by chivalry's strict codes of honour and demeanour, embarks upon a questand defeats monsters, thereby winning the favour of a lady. Thus, medieval romances focus not on love and sentiment (as the term "romance" implies today), but on adventure. [Frye, Northrop. " Anatomy of Criticism", p. 186. ISBN 0-691-01298-9]
Gawain's function, as medieval scholar Alan Markman says, "is the function of the romance hero … to stand as the champion of the human race, and by submitting to strange and severe tests, to demonstrate human capabilities for good or bad action." Through Gawain's adventure, it becomes clear that he is merely human. The reader becomes attached to this human view in the midst of the poem’s romanticism, relating to Gawain’s humanity while respecting his knightly qualities. Gawain "shows us what moral conduct is. We shall probably not equal his behaviour, but we admire him for pointing out the way."Markman, Alan M. "The Meaning of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". "PMLA". (September 1957) 72.4 pp. 574–586]
In viewing the poem as a chivalric romance, many scholars see it as intertwining chivalric and
courtly lovelaws under the English Order of the Garter. The group's motto, 'honi soit qui mal y pense', or "Shamed be he who finds evil here," is written at the end of the poem. Some critics describe Gawain's peers wearing girdles of their own as evidence of the origin of the Order of the Garter. However, in the parallel poem, " The Greene Knight", the lace is white, not green, and is considered the origin of the collar worn by the knights of the Bath, not the Order of the Garter. ["Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", second edition. Ed. J.R.R. Tolkien and E.V. Gordon, 1925, note to lines 2514ff. ASIN B000IPU84U] The motto on the poem was probably written by a copyist and not by the original author. Still, the connection made by the copyist to the Order is not extraordinary. ["The Norton Anthology of English Literature", eighth edition, Vol. B. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt. New York, London: W. W. Norton and Co., 2006, p. 213 (footnote). ISBN 0393928330]
The poem is in many ways deeply Christian, with frequent references to the fall of Adam and Eve and to Jesus Christ. Scholars have debated the depth of the Christian elements within the poem by looking at it in the context of the age in which it was written, coming up with varying views as to what represents a Christian element of the poem and what does not. For example, some critics compare "Sir Gawain" to the other three poems of the "Gawain" manuscript. Each has a heavily Christian theme, causing scholars to interpret Gawain similarly. Comparing it to the poem "Cleanliness" (also known as "Purity"), for example, they see it as a story of the
apocalypticfall of a civilisation, in "Gawain's" case, Camelot. In this interpretation, Sir Gawain is like Noah, separated from his society and warned by the Green Knight (who is seen as God's representative) of the coming doom of Camelot. Gawain, judged worthy through his test, is spared the doom of the rest of Camelot. King Arthur and his knights, however, misunderstand Gawain's experience and wear garters themselves. In "Cleanliness" the men who are saved are similarly helpless in warning their society of impending destruction.
One of the key points stressed in this interpretation is that salvation is an individual experience difficult to communicate to outsiders. In his depiction of Camelot, the poet reveals a concern for his society, whose inevitable fall will bring about the ultimate destruction intended by God. "Gawain" was written around the time of the
Black Deathand Peasants' Revolt, events which convinced many people that their world was coming to an apocalyptic end and this belief was reflected in literature and culture. However, other critics see weaknesses in this view, since the Green Knight is ultimately under the control of Morgan le Fay, usually viewed as a figure of evil in Camelot tales. This makes the knight's presence as a representative of God problematic.Goodlad, Lauren M. (1987) [http://repositories.cdlib.org/cmrs/comitatus/vol18/iss1/art4 "The Gamnes of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight"] , "Comitatus: A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies", Vol. 18, Article 4.]
While the character of the Green Knight is usually not viewed as a representation of
Christin "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", critics do acknowledge a parallel. Lawrence Besserman, a specialist in medieval literature, explains that "the Green Knight is not a figurative representative of Christ. But the idea of Christ's divine/human nature provides a medieval conceptual framework that supports the poet's serious/comic account of the Green Knight's supernatural/human qualities and actions". This duality exemplifies the influence and importance of Christian teachings and views of Christ in the era of the Gawain Poet.
Furthermore, critics note the Christian reference to Christ's crown of thorns at the conclusion of "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". After Gawain returns to Camelot and tells his story regarding the newly acquired green sash, the poem concludes with a brief prayer and a reference to "the thorn-crowned God". ["Sir Gawain and the Green Knight", line 2529.] Besserman theorises that "with these final words the poet redirects our attention from the circular girdle-turned-sash (a double image of Gawain's "yntrawpe/renoun") to the circular Crown of Thorns (a double image of Christ's humiliation turned triumph)."
Throughout the poem, Gawain encounters numerous trials testing his devotion and faith in Christianity. When Gawain sets out on his journey to find the Green Chapel, he finds himself lost, and only after praying to the
Virgin Marydoes he find his way. As he continues his journey, Gawain once again faces anguish regarding his inevitable encounter with the Green Knight. Instead of praying to Mary, as before, Gawain places his faith in the girdle given to him by Bertilak’s wife. From the Christian perspective, this leads to disastrous and embarrassing consequences for Gawain as he is forced to reevaluate his faith when the Green Knight points out his betrayal.Cox, Catherine. [http://muse.jhu.edu/content/z3950/journals/chaucer_review/v035/35.4cox.html "Genesis and Gender in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight"] , "The Chaucer Review". (2001) 35.4 pp. 379–390. Retrieved on 22 September 2007.]
An analogy is also made between Gawain’s trial and the
Biblicaltest that Adam encounters in the Garden of Eden. Adam succumbs to Eve just as Gawain surrenders to Bertilak’s wife by accepting the girdle. Although Gawain sins by putting his faith in the girdle and not confessing when he is caught, the Green Knight pardons him, thereby allowing him to become a better Christian by learning from his mistakes. [Pugh, Tison. "Gawain and the Godgames". "Christianity and Literature". (2002) 51.4 pp. 526–551. Retrieved on 30 September 2007, from [http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com.ezp.slu.edu/hww/results/external_link_maincontentframe.jhtml?_DARGS=/hww/results/results_common.jhtml.9 Saint Louis University] ] Through the various games played and hardships endured, Gawain finds his place within the Christian world.
Feminist literary critics see the poem as portraying women's ultimate power over men. Morgan le Fay and Bertilak's wife, for example, are the most powerful characters in the poem—Morgan especially, as she begins the game by enchanting the Green Knight. The girdle and Gawain's scar can be seen as symbols of feminine power, each of them diminishing Gawain's masculinity. Gawain's
misogynistpassage, [Mills, David. "The Rhetorical Function of Gawain's Antifeminism?" "Neuphilologische Mitteilungen". (1970) 71 pp. 635–4.] in which he blames all of his troubles on women and lists the many men who have fallen prey to women's wiles, further supports the feminist view of ultimate female power in the poem.
In contrast, others argue that the poem focuses mostly on the opinions, actions, and abilities of men. For example, on the surface, it appears that Bertilak’s wife is a strong leading character. [Burns, E. Jane. "Courtly Love: Who Needs It? Recent Feminist Work in the Medieval Tradition". "Signs". (Autumn 2001) 27.1 pp. 23–57. Retrieved on 7 September 2007 from [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0097-9740%28200123%2927%3A1%3C23%3ACLWNIR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-3 JSTOR] ] By adopting the masculine role, she appears to be an empowered individual, particularly in the bedroom scene. This is not entirely the case, however. While the Lady is being forward and outgoing, Gawain’s feelings and emotions are the focus of the story, and Gawain stands to gain or lose the most. [Burns, p. 24] The Lady "makes the first move", so to speak, but Gawain ultimately decides what is to become of those actions. He, therefore, is in charge of the situation and even the relationship. [Burns, p. 24]
In the bedroom scene, both the negative and positive actions of the Lady are motivated by her desire. [Rowley, Sharon M. "Textual Studies, Feminism, and Performance in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". "The Chaucer Review". (2003) Vol. 38 pp. 158–177.] Her feelings cause her to step out of the typical female role and into that of the male, thus becoming more empowered. [Rowley, p. 161] At the same time, those same actions make the Lady appear adulterous; some scholars compare her with Eve in the Bible. [Cox, p. 378] By forcing Gawain to take her girdle, i.e. the apple, the pact made with Bertilak—and therefore the Green Knight—is broken.Cox, p. 379] In this sense, it is clear that at the hands of the Lady, Gawain is a "good man seduced".
From 1350 to 1400—the period in which the poem is thought to have been written—Wales experienced several raids at the hands of the English, who were attempting to colonise the area. The Gawain poet uses a North West Midlands dialect common on the Welsh-English border, potentially placing him in the midst of this conflict. Patricia Clare Ingham is credited with first viewing the poem through the lens of
postcolonialism, and since then a great deal of dispute has emerged over the extent to which colonial differences play a role in the poem. Most critics agree that gender plays a role, but differ about whether gender supports the colonial ideals or replaces them as English and Welsh cultures interact in the poem.Arner, Lynn. "The Ends of Enchantment: Colonialism and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight". "Texas Studies in Literature and Language". (Summer 2006) 48.2 pp. 79–101.]
A large amount of critical debate also surrounds the poem as it relates to the bi-cultural political landscape of the time. Some argue that Bertilak is an example of the hybrid Anglo-Welsh culture found on the Welsh-English border. They therefore view the poem as a reflection of a hybrid culture that plays strong cultures off one another to create a new set of cultural rules and traditions. Other scholars, however, argue that historically much Welsh blood was shed well into the 14th century, creating a situation far removed from the more friendly hybridisation suggested by Ingham. To further support this argument, it is suggested that the poem creates an "us versus them" scenario contrasting the knowledgeable civilised English with the uncivilised borderlands that are home to Bertilak and the other monsters that Gawain encounters.
In contrast to this perception of the colonial lands, others argue that the land of Hautdesert, Bertilak’s territory, has been misrepresented or ignored in modern criticism. They suggest that it is a land with its own moral agency, one that plays a central role in the story. Bonnie Lander, for example, argues that the denizens of Hautdesert are "intelligently immoral," choosing to follow certain codes and rejecting others, a position which creates a "distinction … of moral insight versus moral faith." Lander thinks that the border dwellers are more sophisticated because they do not unthinkingly embrace the chivalric codes but challenge them in a philosophical, and—in the case of Bertilak's appearance at Arthur’s court—literal sense. Lander’s argument about the superiority of the denizens of Hautdesert hinges on the lack of self-awareness present in Camelot, which leads to an unthinking populace that frowns on individualism. In this view, it is not Bertilak and his people, but Arthur and his court, who are the monsters.Lander, Bonnie. "The Convention of Innocence and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight's Literary Sophisticates". "Parergon,". (2007) 24.1 pp. 41–66.]
According to medieval scholar Richard Zeikowitz, the Green Knight represents a threat to
homosocialfriendship in his medieval world. Zeikowitz argues that the narrator of the poem seems entranced by the Knight's beauty, homoeroticising him in poetic form. The Green Knight's attractiveness challenges the homosocial rules of King Arthur's court and poses a threat to their way of life. Zeikowitz also states that Gawain seems to find Bertilak as attractive as the narrator finds the Green Knight. Bertilak, however, follows the homosocial code and develops a friendship with Gawain. Gawain's embracing and kissing Bertilak in several scenes thus represents not a homosexual but a homosocial expression. Men of the time often embraced and kissed and this was acceptable under the chivalric code. Still, however, the Green Knight blurs the lines between homosociality and homosexuality, representing the difficulty medieval writers sometimes had in separating the two. [Zeikowitz, Richard E. "Befriending the Medieval Queer: A Pedagogy for Literature Classes." "College English: Special Issue: Lesbian and Gay Studies/Queer Pedagogies." Vol. 65 No. 1 (Sep 2002) pp. 67-80]
The poem may have been a response to accusations that Richard II had a male lover—an attempt to reestablish the idea that heterosexuality was the Christian norm. Around the time the poem was written, the Catholic Church was beginning to express concerns about kissing between males. Many religious figures were trying to make the distinction between strong trust and friendship between males and homosexuality. Still, the Pearl Poet seems to have been simultaneously entranced and repulsed by homosexual desire. In his other poem, "Cleanness", he points out several grievous sins, but spends lengthy passages describing them in minute detail. His obsession seems to carry into "Gawain" in his descriptions of the Green Knight.Dinshaw, Carolyn. "A Kiss Is Just a Kiss: Heterosexuality and Its Consolations in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." "Diacritics". Vol. 24 No. 2/3 (Summer 1994) pp. 204-226]
Beyond this, Gawain can be read as a woman-like figure. He is the passive one in the advances of Lady Bertilak, as well as in his encounters with Lord Bertilak, where he acts the part of a woman in kissing the man. However, while the poem does have homosexual elements, these elements are brought up by the poet in order to establish heterosexuality as the normal lifestyle of Gawain's world. The poem does this by making the kisses between Lady Bertilak and Gawain sexual in nature, but rendering the kisses between Gawain and Lord Bertilak "unintelligible" to the medieval reader. In other words, the poet portrays kisses between a man and a woman as having the possibility of leading to sex, while in a heterosexual world, kisses between a man and a man are portrayed as having no such possibility.
In 1925, J.R.R. Tolkien and E.V. Gordon published a scholarly edition of the Middle English text of "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight"; a second edition of this text was prepared by Norman Davis and published in 1967. The book, featuring a text in Middle English with extensive scholarly notes, is frequently confused with the translation into Modern English that Tolkien prepared, along with translations of "Pearl" and "Sir Orfeo", late in his life. Many editions of the latter work, first published in 1975, shortly after his death, list Tolkien on the cover as author rather than translator. [White, Michael. "Tolkien: A Biography". New American Library, 2003 ISBN 0-451-21242-8.] It is therefore common to see "Sir Gawain" erroneously ascribed to Tolkien as the original author. [See for example: cite web | last =Tolkien | first =J. R. R. | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Old Poetry: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight by J.R.R. Tolkien | work = | publisher =Oldpoetry.com | date = | url = http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/54018-J-R-R-Tolkien-Sir-Gawain-and-the-Green-Knight | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-05-07] More recently in 2007,
Simon Armitage, like Tolkien a native of the Gawain poet's dialect region, has translated a version which has attracted media attention in the US and the United Kingdom. [Hirsch, Edward. "A Stranger in Camelot." "The New York Times". December 16, 2007. Section 7; p. 1.]
"Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" has also been adapted into an opera called "Gawain" by
Harrison Birtwistle, first performed in 1991. Birtwistle's opera has been praised for maintaining the complexity of the poem while translating it into lyric, musical form. [Bye, Antony. "Birtwistle's Gawain." "The Musical Times." (May 1991) 132.1779 pp. 231–233.] Another operatic adaptation is Lynne Plowman's "Gwyneth and the Green Knight", first performed in 2002. This opera uses "Sir Gawain" as the backdrop but refocuses the story on Gawain's female squire, Gwyneth, who is trying to become a knight. [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Opera — Gwyneth and the Green Knight | work = | publisher = lynneplowman.co.uk | date = | url = http://www.lynneplowman.co.uk/gwyneth.htm | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-11-03] Plowman's version has been praised for its approachability, as its target is the family audience and young children, though it has been slightly criticised for its heavy use of modern language and occasional preachy nature. [cite web| last = Kimberley| first = Nick | title = Classical: The footstomping way to repay a sound investment| publisher = The Independent on Sunday| date = May 11, 2003| url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20030511/ai_n12739605/pg_1| accessdate = 2008-01-26]
The poem has been adapted to film twice: first as "Gawain and the Green Knight" in 1973 [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Gawain and the Green Knight (1973) | work = | publisher =imdb | date = | url = http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0070093/ | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-04-13] and again in 1984 as "", featuring
Miles O'Keefeas Gawain and Sean Conneryas the Green Knight. [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Sword of the Valiant: The Legend of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (1984) | work = | publisher =imdb | date = | url = http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0084750/ | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-04-13] The 1973 version has been criticised for deviating from the plot. Gawain, for example, has an adventure which is not a part of the poem between the time he leaves Camelot and the time he arrives at Bertilak's castle. Also, Bertilak and the Green Knight are never connected. [Mills, Maldwyn. "Review." "The Yearbook of English Studies." (1991) Vol. 21. pp. 336–337.] There have been at least two television adaptations, "Gawain and the Green Knight" in 1991 [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Gawain and the Green Knight (1991) (TV) | work = | publisher =imdb | date = | url = http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0387245/ | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-04-13] and the animated "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" in 2002. [cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (2002) (TV) | work = | publisher =imdb | date = | url = http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0846790/ | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-04-13]
* [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/AnoGawa.html JRR Tolkien and EV Gordon's Edition]
* [http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/62.html The poem in Middle English]
* [http://alliteration.net/Pearl.htm Translation by Paul Deane]
* [http://www.ucalgary.ca/~scriptor/cotton/blog.html The Gawain/Pearl Poet] from the University of Calgary
* [http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/gawmenu.htm "The Camelot Project" Info on Sir Gawain]
* [http://www.luminarium.org/medlit/gawain.htm "Luminarium" SGGK Website]
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