Abdülmecid II


Abdülmecid II
Abdülmecid II
Caliph
Reign 19 November 1922 - 3 March 1924 (&100000000000000010000001 year, &10000000000000105000000105 days)
Predecessor Mehmed VI
Spouse Shehsuvar Bash Kadın Efendi
Hayrünissa Kadın Efendi
Atiyye Mihisti Kadın Efendi
Bihruz Kadın Efendi
Issue
Prince Şehzade Omer Faruk Efendi
Princess Durru Shehvar
Father Abdülaziz
Mother Hayranıdil Kadınefendi
Born 29 May 1868(1868-05-29)
Beşiktaş, Ottoman Empire
Died 23 August 1944(1944-08-23) (aged 76)
Paris, France
Religion Sunni Islam

Abdülmecid II, (also with various alternate spellings, including Abdul Mejid, Aakhir Khalifatul Muslimeen Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid, (Abdülmecid, The Caliph of Islam and the servant of Medina and Mecca) Abdul Medjit, and in modern Turkish: 'Abdülmecit'; in Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد الثانى Abdülmecid el-Sânî (May 29/30, 1868 – 23 August/23 September 1944; reigned 19 November 1922 – 3 March 1924)) was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman Dynasty, nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman Imperial House from 1922 to 1944.

Contents

Biography

On 29 May 1868 he was born at Dolmabahçe Palace or at Beşiktaş Palace, Beşiktaş, in Istanbul (Constantinople)[1], to then Sultan Abdülaziz and his wife Hayranıdil Kadınefendi. He was educated privately.

On 4 July, 1918 his first cousin Mehmed VI became Sultan and Abdul Mejid was named Crown Prince. Following the deposition of his cousin on November 1, 1922 the Sultanate was abolished. But on 19 November, 1922 the Crown Prince was elected Caliph by the Turkish National Assembly at Ankara. He established himself in Constantinople[2][3] on 24 November, 1922.

On 3 March, 1924 together with his family, he was deposed and expelled from Turkey.

Artist

Abdülmecid was given the title of General in the Ottoman Army, but did not in fact have strong military inclinations, and his more significant role was as Chairman of the Ottoman Artists' Society.

He is considered as one of the most important painters of late period Ottoman art. It is said that his impressive beard was a source of great personal pride.

His paintings of the Harem, showing a modern musical gathering, and of a woman reading Goethe's Faust were displayed at an exhibition of Ottoman paintings in Vienna in 1918. His personal self-portrait can be seen at Istanbul Modern.

Abdülmecid was an avid collector of butterflies, an activity that he occupied himself with during the last 20 years of his life.

Death

On 23 August, 1944 Abdul Mejid II died at his house in the Boulevard Suchet, Paris XVIe, France. His death coincided with the Liberation of Paris from Nazi occupation. He was buried in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

Family

First marriage and issue

Abdülmecid II

He married firstly at Constantinople, Ortaköy, Ortaköy Palace, on 22/23 December 1896 to HH Shehsuvar Bash Kadın Efendi (Constantinople, 2 May 1881 - Paris, 1945, buried there at Bobigny Cemetery), and had:

  • HIH Prince Şehzade Omer Faruk Efendi (Constantinople, Ortaköy, Ortaköy Palace, 27/29 February 1898 - 28 March 1969/1971), married firstly at Yıldız Palace on 29 April 1920 to his cousin HH HIH Princess Rukiye Sabiha Sultan Kadın Efendi (Constantinople, Ortaköy, Ortaköy Palace, 19 March/1 April 1894 - Constantinople, 26 August 1971), and had three daughters, and married secondly in İskenderiye on 31 July 1948 to his cousin HH HIH Princess Mihriban Mihrishah Sultan Kadın Efendi (Constantinople, Beşiktaş, Beşiktaş Palace, 1 June 1916 - Constantinople, 25 January 1987), without issue:
    • HIH Princess Fatma Neslişah Osmanoğlu Sultan (Constantinople, Nişantaşı, Nişantaşı Palace, 4 February 1921 -), married in Heliopolis Palace, Cairo, on 26 September 1940 to her cousin HE Damat HH Prince/HRH Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim Beyefendi (Alexandria, Montaza Palace, 20 February 1899 - Constantinople, 1/2 December 1979, buried in Cairo), Heir Apparent to the Throne of Egypt from 1899 to 1914, created HH in 1922, created HRH in 1952, Regent of Egypt from 1952 to 1953, and had issue
    • HIH Princess Zehra Hanzade Sultan (Constantinople, Dolmabahçe Palace, 12 September 1923 - Paris, 19 March 1998, buried on 26 March 1998), married in Cairo in September 1940 to HE Damat HH Prince Muhammed Ali Ibrahim Beyefendi (Cairo, 29 April 1900 - Paris, 2 July 1977), and had issue:
      • HG Nabila Sabiha Fazila Ibrahim Hanımsultan (b. Neuilly-sur-Seine, 8 August 1941), unmarried and without issue
      • HG Nabil Sultanzade Ahmad Rifat Ibrahim Beyefendi (b. 31 August 1942), married on 26 June 1969 to Emine Ushakidil, without issue
    • HIH Princess Necla Heybetullah Sultan (Nice, 15 May 1926 -), married in Cairo in February 1943 to HG Nabil Amr Ibrahim (Cairo, 18 April 1903 - 1977), and had issue:
      • HH Prince HG Nabil Sultanzade Osman Rifat Ibrahim Beyefendi (b. 20 May 1951), unmarried and without issue

Second marriage

He married secondly at Constantinople, Ortaköy, Ortaköy Palace, on 18 June 1902 to HH Hayrünissa Kadın Efendi (Bandırma, 2 March 1876 - Nice, 3 September 1936), without issue

Third marriage and issue

He married thirdly at Constantinople, Üsküdar, Çamlıca Palace, on 16 April 1912 to HH Atiyye Mihisti Kadın Efendi (Adapazarı, 27 January 1892 - London, Middlesex, 1964), sister of Kamil Bey, and had:

Fourth marriage

He married fourthly in Constantinople, Üsküdar, Çamlıca Palace, on 21 March 1921 to HH Bihruz Kadın Efendi (İzmit, 24 May 1903 - Istanbul, 1955), without issue

Titles

  • His Imperial Highness (as Ottoman prince)
  • His Imperial Majesty (as pretender to Ottoman throne)
  • The Commander of the Faithful on Earth
  • The Caliph of the Faithful and the servant of Medina and Mecca

References

  1. ^ Caroline Finkel, Osman's Dream, (Basic Books, 2005), 57.
  2. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire...
  3. ^ Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.

External links

Media related to Abdül Mecid II at Wikimedia Commons

Abdülmecid II
Born: 29 May 1868 Died: 23 August 1944
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Mehmed VI
Caliph of Islam
November 19, 1922 – March 3, 1924
Vacant
Caliphate abolished
(Briefly claimed by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca)
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Mehmed VI
— TITULAR —
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
November 19, 1922 – August 23, 1944
Reason for succession failure:
Empire abolished in 1922
Succeeded by
Ahmed Nihad
— TITULAR —
Caliph of Islam
November 19, 1922 – August 23, 1944
Reason for succession failure:
Caliphate abolished in 1924

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