Eclampsia is a serious complication of
pregnancyand is characterised by convulsions. Usually eclampsia occurs after the onset of pre-eclampsiathough sometimes no pre-eclamptic symptoms are recognisable.The convulsions may appear before, during or after labour, though cases of eclampsia after just 20 weeks of pregnancy have been recorded.
The pathogenesis of eclampsia is poorly understood.
igns and symptoms
The majority of cases are heralded by
pregnancy-induced hypertensionand proteinuriabut the only true sign of eclampsia is an eclamptic convulsion, of which there are four stagesFact|date=June 2008. Patients with edemaand oliguriamay develop renal failureor pulmonary edema.
;Premonitory stage: this stage is usually missed unless constantly monitored, the woman rolls her eyesFact|date=June 2008 while her facial and hand muscles twitch slightlyFact|date=June 2008.;Tonic stage: soon after the premonitory stage the twitching turns into clenching. Sometimes the woman may bite her tongue as she clenches her teeth, while the arms and legs go rigid. The respiratory muscles also spasm, causing the woman to stop breathing, leading to cyanosis. This stage continues for around 30 seconds.;Clonic stage: the spasm stops but the muscles start to jerk violently. Frothy, slightly bloodiedFact|date=June 2008 saliva appears on the lips and can sometimes be inhaled. After around two minutesFact|date=June 2008 the convulsions stop, leading into a temporary unconscious stage.;Comatose stage: the woman falls deeply unconscious and needs
airway managementto allow breathing and prevent hypoxia. This can last only a few minutes or may persist for hours.
Eclampsia is usually treated well in the majority of cases with just under one in 50 affected womenFact|date=June 2008 and one in 14Fact|date=June 2008 fetuses of affected women developing complications.
The treatment of eclampsia consists of preventing further convulsions, controlling elevated blood pressure and delivering the fetus.
Prevention of convulsion is usually done using
magnesium sulfatewith a loading of Magnesium sulfate 20% solution, 4g IV over 5 minutes, followed by 1g of magnesium sulfate an hour.
The blood pressure may be controlled by
hydralazine5mg IV slowly every 5 minutes until blood pressure is lowered . In less well resourced healthcare settings hydralazine 12.5 mg IM every 2 can be given as needed.
Delivery should take place as soon as the woman’s condition has stabilized. Delaying delivery to increase fetal maturity is unsafe for both the woman and the fetusFact|date=June 2008, after delivery the woman's health will begin to improve. Delivery should occur regardless of the gestational ageFact|date=June 2008.
In severe pre-eclampsia, delivery should occur within 24 hours of the onset of symptomsFact|date=June 2008. In eclampsia, delivery should occur within 12 hours of the onset of convulsionsFact|date=June 2008. If vaginal delivery is not anticipated within 12 hours (for eclampsia) or 24 hours (for severe pre-eclampsia), deliver by
caesarean sectionFact|date=June 2008.
* Mayes, M., Sweet, B. R. & Tiran, D. (1997). Mayes' Midwifery - A Textbook for Midwives 12th Edition, pp. 533–545. Baillière Tindall. ISBN 0-7020-1757-4
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Eclampsia — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Eclampsia Clasificación y recursos externos Aviso médico CIE 10 O … Wikipedia Español
eclampsia — toxemia del embarazo, que se origina sobre todo en primíparas durante el tercer trimestre caracterizada por hipertensión, proteinuria, edema, hiperreflexia y, si no se controla adecuadamente, convulsiones clasificación internacional de la… … Diccionario médico
eclâmpsia — s. f. [Medicina] O mesmo que eclampsia … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
Eclampsia — Ec*lamp si*a, n. [NL., from Gr. ? a shining forth, fr. ? to shine forth; ? out + ? to shine.] (Med.) A fancied perception of flashes of light, a symptom of epilepsy; hence, epilepsy itself; convulsions. [1913 Webster] Note: The term is generally… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Eclampsia — vgl. Eklampsie … Das Wörterbuch medizinischer Fachausdrücke
eclampsia — s. f. Afecção que se manifesta nas parturientes ou nas mulheres que estão próximas do termo da gestação, caracterizada por espasmos convulsivos epileptiformes e urinas albuminúricas. = ECLAMPSE … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
eclampsia — (Del gr. ἔκλαμψις, brillo o resplandor súbito). f. Med. Enfermedad de carácter convulsivo, que suelen padecer los niños y las mujeres embarazadas o recién paridas. Acomete con accesos, y va acompañada o seguida ordinariamente de pérdida o… … Diccionario de la lengua española
eclampsia — ► NOUN Medicine ▪ a condition in which one or more convulsions occur in a pregnant woman suffering from high blood pressure, often followed by coma. DERIVATIVES eclamptic adjective. ORIGIN Greek eklampsis sudden development … English terms dictionary
eclampsia — [ek lamp′sē ə] n. [ModL < Gr eklampsis, a shining forth < ek , out + lampein, to shine: see LAMP] an attack of convulsions; specif., a disorder that may occur late in pregnancy, characterized by convulsions, edema, and elevated blood… … English World dictionary
eclampsia — Occurrence of one or more convulsions, not attributable to other cerebral conditions such as epilepsy or cerebral hemorrhage, in a patient with preeclampsia. [G. eklampsis, a shining forth] puerperal e. convulsions and coma associated with… … Medical dictionary