- Advanced Placement Program
The Advanced Placement Program is a program that offers college level courses at
high schoolsacross the United Statesand Canada. According to the " Good Schools Guide International", it is "usually much more rigorous than the general course offerings." [http://gsgi.co.uk/articles/curricula-and-exams/curricula/advanced-placement-ap]
Gary Cantor, a non-profit organization [ [http://www.collegeboard.com/about/index.html About the College Board] ] based in New York City, which has run the AP program since 1955, [ [http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/program/history/8019.html The History of the AP Program] ] develops and maintains guidelines for the teaching of college level courses in various subject areas. In addition, it supports teachers of AP courses, and supports universities. [ [http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/program/index.html The Advanced Placement Program] ] These activities are funded through fees charged to students taking AP Exams.
In 2006, over one million students took over two million AP examinations. [ [http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap06_prog_summary_rpt.pdf Program Summary Report 2006] ] Many high schools in the United States offer AP courses [ [http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap05_apfactsheet_37491.pdf AP Fact Sheet] ] , though the College Board allows any student to take the examination without participating in the course. [ [http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/about_faq.html#faq1
] ] Therefore, home-schooled students and students from schools that do not offer AP courses have an equal opportunity to take the examination. As of the 2008 testing season, exams cost $80 each, though the cost may be subsidized by local or state programs. Financial aid is available for students who qualify for it; the exam reduction is usually $25 per exam. On April 3, 2008, it was announced that four AP courses - Italian Literature, French Literature, Latin Literature, and Computer Science AB - would be discontinued after the 2008-2009 school year due to lack of funding. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2008/04/03/ST2008040303977.html AP Language, Computer Courses Cut] ]
AP tests are scored differently from the A-F grading scale common in the
United States. They are scored on a numeric scale, 1 to 5.
These scores are obtained with a bell curved grading scale - thus students are scored competing against each other rather than on a set standard.
These scorings are used by some colleges to exempt students from introductory coursework if they demonstrate mastery through an AP test. Each college's policy is different (see link below), but most accept scores of 4 or 5, and some accept scores of 3. [ [http://pathaspire.com/standardized/ap/ap/1/ Understanding AP Exams] ] On the student's college transcript, the course is given a simple CR or other generic grade to indicate that the student has received credit for the course, although some colleges and universities will award an A grade for a 5 score.
In some high schools with an exam exemption policy, an AP Exam can be taken in place of the school's final exam and the final grade given to the student in that case is the final quarter/semester grade without the exam. The AP exam is rarely used as a course grade because the AP exam scores are published in mid-July, while many schools issue their final grade earlier in the year. Some teachers encourage success on the AP test by offering after-the-fact grade boosts for certain scores.
Some schools have policies that allow the AP Exam grade to override a grade earned in the course. A typical scale is as follows:
* 5: A
* 4: B
* 3: C
* 2: D
* 1: F Individual teachers may have their own policy in this respect.
This is usually only used when an exam grade's letter value is greater than that of the grade earned in the course.
Recognizing that the cost could be an impediment to students of limited means, a number of states and municipalities independent of the
College Boardhave partially or fully subsidized the cost. For example, the State of Florida reimburses schools districts for the exam costs of students enrolled in Advanced Placement courses. The Los Angeles Unified School District, the Montebello Unified School District, the Hawaii Department of Education, and the Sparta School District currently allow Advanced Placement students who enroll in the free school lunch program. In addition some school districts, such as Springdale Public Schoolsoffer free tests to all students enrolled in any Advanced Placement class.
Education in the United States
Education in Canada
Advanced Placement Awards
Notes and References
McCauley, David. 2007. The Impact of Advanced Placement and Dual Enrollment Programs on College Graduation. Applied Research Project. Texas State University. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/206/Schneider, Jack. 2008. " [http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0528/p09s01-coop.html Schools' Unrest Over the AP Test] "
[http://gsgi.co.uk/articles/curricula-and-exams/curricula/advanced-placement-ap Explanatory article at the
Good Schools Guide International]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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