- Hagåtña, Guam
settlement_type = Village
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = Territory
map_caption =Location of Hagåtña (Agana) within the Territory of Guam.
latd=13 |latm=28 |lats=45 |latNS=N
longd=144 |longm=45 |longs=00 |longEW=E
official_name = Hagåtña
other_name = Agana
Hagatna from Fort Apugan.jpg
area_total_sq_mi = 1| population_total = 1100|population_footnotes=
population_as_of = 2000 [http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2001/cb01cn174.html]
population_blank1 = Chamorro|population_blank1_title=
Hagåtña (pronounced|həˈɡɑtɲə [http://www.chamorro.com/fino/siudat/siudat.html] ), formerly Agana and in Spanish Agaña, is the
capitalof the American island territory of Guam. It is the island's second smallest village in both area and population. From the 18th through mid 20th century, it was Guam's population center. Today, it remains one of the island's major commercial districts in addition to being the seat of government.
"Hagåtña" means "his or her blood" in the Chamorro/Chamoru language. There is much speculation that the natives originally migrated from the village of Agat. The Chamorro name for Agat is "Hågat, which means "blood". The "ña" suffix signifies a third person perspective/ownership/etc.; therefore "Hagåtña" translates into "his or her blood" which may mean "relative for him or her". In 1998, the Guam Legislature changed the name from "Agana" (pronounced|aˈgaɲa) back to the original Chamorro/Chamoru form. However, the name of the neighboring village
Agana Heightsremains unchanged.
Hagåtña is located at the mouth of the Hagåtña river on Guam's west coast. According to the
United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1 square mile (2.6 km²). The village is bounded by the sandy beaches of Agana Bay to the north, the Agana River and associated wetlands to the east, and a cliff (above which is the village of Agana Heights) to the South. Several high-rise office buildings are in the center of the village, while the western portion of the city known as Anigua is more residential. Unlike many villages, central Hagåtña is divided into city blocks with shops and small restaurants throughout the center of the village. Highly populated residential areas in the villages of Mongmong-Toto-Maite, Sinajana, and Agana Heights surround Hagåtña.
As the island's capital, the Legislature, the Office of the Governor and other government offices are located in Hagåtña. As in all
villages of Guam, the municipality is governed by an elected mayor. The Government house (Chamorro: Guma I Taotao Guam), traditionally the governor's official residence, is situated above the cliff but technically within the city limit of Hagåtña. Adelup, home of the governor's office and executive complex since 1990, was once part of Asan-Maina before being annexed into Hagåtña so that Hagåtña remains the seat of the Government of Guam.
Hagåtña was a prominent village prior to Guam's
colonizationby the Spanish. In 1668, the first Spanish missionary, Padre San Vitoresarrived on the island. The family of Chief Kepuhadonated land in Hagåtña enabling San Vitores to build the first church (Dulce Nombre de Maria Cathedral-Basilica) on Guam.
Under Spanish rule, much of the indigenous population of Guam and other
Mariana Islandswas forced to relocate to the city. The remains of buildings from the Spanish administration can be seen in the Plaza de España located beside the cathedral of the Archdioceseof Agana.
After Guam was ceded by
Spainto the United Statesin the Spanish-American Warof 1898, 'Agana' remained the seat of government under U.S. Naval Administration. By 1940, the city's population had grown to about 10,000 containing nearly half of the island's residents.
Guam was captured by
Japanese forces on December 8, 1941. During Guam's 1944 liberation from the Japanese during World War II, the city was heavily damaged by U.S. naval bombardment. Many former residents settled in other parts of Guam after the war. As part of Guam's reconstruction plan, the U.S. Navyconstructed new straight city streets that passed through existing lots and created many plots of land with multiple owners. This has hindered the development of the city to the present day. In December 1944 Guam was the scene of the Agana race riot, between black and white servicemen stationed on the island.
Today, despite a resident population of only 1,100 (less than 1% of Guam's total), the city remains the seat of the territorial government. Its historic sites are major attractions for visitors. Hagåtña is served by
Antonio B. Won Pat International Airportin Tamuningand Barrigada.
As Guam's historic population and administrative center, many traditional celebrations take place in Hagåtña. On December 8, Santa Marian Kamalen, Patroness of the
Mariana Islands, is honored by a procession where a statue of the patroness is pulled on a cart amid the prayers of thousands of the island's Catholics [http://ns.gov.gu/kamalen.html] . Guam's most celebrated patriotic holiday, Liberation Day is on July 21. The annual Liberation Day Parade takes place on Marine Corps Drive in Hagåtña. In addition to the historic sites at the Plaza de España and the Basillica, Latte stonepark and the Chamorro Village shopping area offer further information about the island's history and culture.
Primary and secondary schools
Guam Public School Systemserves the entire island of Guam.
Hagåtña residents are zoned to:
*Carlos L. Taitano Elementary School (
*Jose L. G. Rios Middle School (Piti)
*John F. Kennedy High School (
Private schools in Hagåtña include:
Academy of Our Lady of Guam(Catholic girls' high school located in Hagåtña)
Guam Public Library Systemoperates the Nieves M. Flores Memorial Library at 254 Martyr Street in Hagåtña. [http://gpls.guam.gov/Portals/50/GPLS_LOC/GPLS_Location_2007Apr12.xml]
*Rogers, Robert F (1995). Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-1678-1
*Carter, Lee D; Carter, Rosa Roberto; Wuerch, William L (1997). Guam History: Perspectives Volume One: MARC. ISBN 1-878453-28-9
*Sanchez, Pedro C. Guahan, Guam: The History of our Island: Sanchez Publishing House.
*(1996) Kinalamten Pulitikat: Sinenten I Chamorro: Issues in Guam's Political Development: The Chamorro Perspective: The Political Status Education Coordinating Commission. ISBN 1-883488-03-6
* [http://www.guampedia.com/category/57-villages/entry/92 Guampedia Hagåtña Village]
* [http://www.guamportal.com/villages/Hagatna_Guam.html Hagåtña Guam] at Guam Portal
* [http://ns.gov.gu/agana.html City of Hagåtña]
* [http://agana.virtualguam.com/ Virtual Hagåtña]
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