- Telugu cinema
Telugu Cinema (Telugu: తెలుగు సినీపరిశ్రమ), refers to the cinema in
Telugu language, sometimes referred as Tollywood, a portmanteauof "Telugu" and " Hollywood".
The industry is the second largest in India in terms of number of movies made in a year and third largest in terms of infrastructure. The state of Andhra Pradesh has the highest number of cinema halls in
India. The IMAXtheater in Hyderabad has a few world records to its credit. The industry has a few Guinness records for the most films directed by male and female directors, the most number of films produced by a person and for having the largest film studio in the world and also recently actor called Brahmanandamgot Guinness Record for acting more than 750 films in a single Language. [http://osdir.com/ml/culture.region.india.zestmedia/2007-01/msg00117.html Telugu film industry, Ind: msg#00117 ] ] .
crore= 10,000,000 rupees, approximately US$ 250,124.68 on Feb 24, 2008.)"
The Telugu cinema industry, is based in the state of
Andhra Pradeshin India. The Telugu film industry produces the largest number of films every year in India, with about 245 films produced in 2006. [ [http://www.blonnet.com/2007/11/06/stories/2007110650842300.htm Telugu film industry enters new era] ] Popular movies tend to open during the three festive/holiday seasons of the region: Sankranthi, Ugadi, and Dussera. In 2004, total revenue for the Sankranthi season was around Rs. 1.5 billion (US$37 million, as of July 17, 2007). There are number of TV channels ( Teja TV [ [http://www.sunnetwork.org/tejatv/ Welcome To MAA TV,ETV,Teja tv, ] ] etc.,) dedicated exclusively to feature programs related to Telugu movies.This is the industy having a maximum comediens in the world and this will varies first and second place in the india but now in the 2008 bollywood is the top film industry in India .
Currently, about 150 Telugu films are released every year with approximately 3 productions every week. Just like any other cinema industry, the Telugu film industry produces all genres of cinema. In 2005, the annual turnover reached Rs. 2.3 Billion ($52 Million), with Rs. 700 million coming from the ticket sales itself next only to Hindi and Tamil. Popular movies tend to open during the three festive/holiday seasons of the region:
Sankranti, Summer, and Dusshera. In 2004, the industry made around Rs. 1.5 Billion (150 Crores) during the Sankranthi season. There are at least three TV channels that are dedicated exclusively to feature programs related to Telugu movies.
Box Office Collections
The Telugu film industry accounts for 1% of the gross domestic product of
Andhra Pradesh. [ [http://osdir.com/ml/culture.region.india.zestmedia/2007-01/msg00117.html Telugu film industry, Ind: msg#00117 ] ] . There is a fair amount of dispersion amongst the Indian film industries. Many successful Telugu films have been remade by the Hindi and Tamil film industries. Tollywood has also remade a fair number of Hindi, Tamil, malayalam and other language films. Nowadays most Telugu films are subsequently dubbed into Malayalam on release. In the last 2 years, about 30 Telugu films were simultaneously released in Malayalam. Below is a chart of box office collections of Telugu Film Industry with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.
The state of
Andhra Pradeshhas more than 2700 Cinema theatres, of which 150 are in the city of Hyderabad alone. The Tollywood film distribution is divided into 12 areas:-
Early development: 1921-1930
The Telugu film industry originated with the silent film in 1921, with the production of "
Bhisma Pratighna". The film was directed by Raghupati Venkaiahand his son R.S. Prakash[http://www.totaltollywood.com/articles/history/index.php?id=1] . The two would go on to produce and direct dozens of films throughout the decade, casting theater actors in major roles [ [http://www.cinegoer.com/telugucinema8.htm CineGoer.com - Articles - History Of Birth And Growth Of Telugu Cinema ] ] . They established a long-lasting precedent of focusing exclusively on religious themes; "Nandanar" [ [http://www.indiafilm.com/lm.htm Land Marks in Tamil Cinema ] ] , "Gajendra Moksham", and "Matsyavatar", three of their most famous productions, centered on religious figures, parables, and morals [ [http://www.tamilentertainment.com/Memories/98/fna/fna1.htm 1916-1936 ] ] .
Rise of the Talkie: 1931-1947
In 1931, the first Telugu film with audible dialogue, "Bhakta Prahlad", was produced by
H.M. Reddy[ [http://www.idlebrain.com/research/anal/anal-his2.html Idle Brain ] ] . Popularly known as ' talkies', films with sound quickly grew in number and fanbase. In 1934, the industry saw its first major commercial success with " Lavakusa". Directed by C. Pullaiahand starring Parupalli Subbaraoand Sriranjaniin lead roles, the film attracted unprecedented numbers of viewers to theaters and thrust the young film industry into mainstream culture [http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/fr/2007/01/19/stories/2007011901020100.htm The Hindu : Friday Review Hyderabad : Reliving the reel and the real ] ] .
Father of Telugu cinema
Though it is celebration time for talkies, can we forget the efforts of pioneers like Dhundiraj Govind Phalke better known as Dadasaheb Phalke who made India's first silent film Raja Harischandra (1913) and R. G. Torney or our own Raghupathi Venkaiah, his son R.S. Prakash and C. Pulliah who made cinema popular during the silent era taking film rolls and projectors exhibiting films in nook and corner of the South? Raghupathi Venkaiah hailed as father of Telugu cinema is the first exhibitor in the South. He bought crono-megaphone, the first projector equipped to reproduce `sound' by disk system and exhibited short reels way back in 1910. He travelled all over the South and in Burma and Ceylon. Venkaiah established Star of East studios known as glass studio to produce silent films.
The success of Alam Ara made Irani to diversify into regional language productions in Telugu and Tamil the same year. It was Ardeshir Irani's associate Hanumantha Muniappa Reddy who directed Bhakta Prahalada and was released six weeks ahead of the first Tamil Talkie, Kalidas that Reddy himself directed with a mixed cast of Telugu, Tamil and Hindi actors. Bhakta Prahlada had an all-Telugu starcast featuring Munipalle Subbiah as Hiranyakasipa and Surabhi Kamalabai as Leelavathy. Both the films were made in Bombay. By 1936, the mass appeal of film allowed directors to move away from religious and mythological themes. That year, under the direction of
Krithiventi Nageswara Rao, " Prema Vijayam", a film focusing on social issues, was released. Its success prompted the production of dozens of other immensely successful 'social films', notably 1939's " Vandemataram" and " Maala Pilla". Touching on societal problems like the status of Untouchables and the practice of giving dowry, Telugu films increasingly focused on contemporary living: twenty-nine of the ninety-six films released between 1937 and 1947 had social themes [ [http://www.cinegoer.com/telugucinema5.htm CineGoer.com - Articles - History Of Birth And Growth Of Telugu Cinema ] ] .
September 15, 1931 saw the release of the first Telugu talkie Bhakta Prahalada in Crown in Kakinada, Maruthi in Vijayawada, Gaiety in Madras and Minerva in Machlipatnam. Just a few months earlier, on March 14, 1931, the first Indian talkie film, Alam Ara was released at Majestic Cinema, Bombay and in other parts of the country including Maruthi Talkies, Vijayawada. People thronged the cinema halls where it was exhibited. With its box office success the country's first black marketeering in cinema tickets began with a four anna (a quarter of a rupee) ticket getting sold for Rs. 4 or 5!
Son of soil
Another doyen, C. Pullaiah after gaining experience in the cinematic art, purchased a second hand movie camera in 1924 in Bombay returned to native Kakinada with an intention to make films in Andhra soil. He shot a thousand feet silent film, Markandeya, with himself cast as Yama and made the film with so many indigenous methods and projected the film on a white washed wall in his house to the amazement of his friends through the very same camera with which he shot the film. He used to call cinema as Goda Meedi Bomma. It was C. Pullaiah who gave Telugu cinema's first super duper hit, Lavakusa (1934) starring Parupalli Subbarao and Sriranjani (Sr.). It was his second feature film (Savithri his first talkie film was made a year before with Ramathilakam and Gaggaiah was a hit too. Interestingly there were two Savithris and two Ramadasus in 1933). People flocked to the theatres from near by villages in bullock carts to see Lavakusa. History repeated when C. Pullaiah and his son C. S. Rao remade the film in 1963 with N. T. Rama Rao and Anjali Devi. At a time when the market was flooded with mythological films, Indian Art Cine tone attempted a social, Prema Vijayam (1936) directed by Krithiventi Nageswara Rao. However, the success of reformist filmmaker Gudavalli Ramabrahmam's Malapilla (1938) starring Dr. Govindarajula Subbarao and Kanchanamala and Rythubidda (1939) with Ballari Raghava and Suryakumari gave an impetus to Y.V. Rao, B.N. Reddy and others to produce films on social themes.
The outbreak of
World War IIand the subsequent resource scarcity caused the British Rajto impose a limit on the use of filmstrip in 1943 to 11,000 feet [ [http://www.cinegoer.com/telugucinema7.htm CineGoer.com - Articles - History Of Birth And Growth Of Telugu Cinema ] ] , a sharp reduction from the 20,000 feet that was common till then [ [http://www.cinegoer.com/telugucinema10.htm CineGoer.com - Articles - History Of Birth And Growth Of Telugu Cinema ] ] . As a result, the number of films produced during the War was substantially lower than in previous years. Nonetheless, prior to the ban, an important shift occurred in the industry: independent studios formed, actors and actresses were signed to contracts limiting who they could work for, and films moved from social themes to folklore legends [ [http://www.cinegoer.com/telugucinema6.htm CineGoer.com - Articles - History Of Birth And Growth Of Telugu Cinema ] ] . 1942's " Balanagamma" typified these changes: the film featured fantasy elements of cultural lore, was produced by Gemini Studios, and its producers added a restricting clause to the lead actress' contract. By 1947, nearly all films were produced by studios with contracted actors.
Santosham Film Awards
Telugu Filmfare Awards
Telugu films, which have won the
National Film Award.
* "Saptapadi", National award for best film on national integration (directed by K. Vishwanath)
* "Rudraveena", National award for best film on national integration (directed by K. Balachander)
* "Hope", National award for best film on social issues (directed by Satish Kasetty)
* "Sankarabharanam", National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment (directed by K. Vishwanath)
:"(1 crore = 1,00,00,000 rupees, approximately US$250,124.68 on
Feb 24, 2008.)"
The budgets for Telugu movies typically range between 7-15 crores per film. Pre-lease revenues for popular films can range between 12-20 crores per film and post-release business for these movies can be around 25-40 crores depending on the success of the movie. Popular actors like
Megastar Chiranjeevi, Nandamuri Balakrishna, Akkineni Nagarjuna, Venkatesh, Mahesh Babu, Pawan Kalyan, N. T. Rama Rao Jr., Ravi Teja, and Allu Arjunare some of the highest paid actors in Telugu Cinema.Singers:Telugu film industry has the reputation of producing many singers like Ghantasala (singer)and S. P. Balasubrahmanyam. S.P.B holds the record singing maximum number of songs (39000 songs approximately)
Cast and Crew
Well-known film personalities of Telugu film industry include,
Chittor V. Nagaiah, Akkineni Nageswara Rao, Prabhakara Reddy, Kantha Rao, Relangi Venkata Ramaiah, Ramana Reddy, Rajanala, Nagabhushanam, Allu Rama Lingaiah, Kaikala Satyanarayana, Rajababu, Padmanabham, Chalam, Ravi Kondala Rao, Krishna, SV Ranga Rao, Harnath, Shoban Babu, Krishnam Raju, Gummadi, Jaggayya, Chandramohan, JV Somayajulu, Rao Gopal Rao, Nutan sad, Chiranjeevi, Balakrishna, Nagarjuna Akkineni, Venkatesh, Mohan Babu, Rajendra Prasad, Suman (actor), Bhanu Chander, Giri Babu, Jagapathi Babu, Dr. Rajasekhar, Kota Srinivasa Rao, Brahmanandam, Ali (actor), Srihari, Tanikella Bharani, Naresh (actor), J. D. Chakravarthy, Pawan Kalyan, Mahesh Babu, Tarun, Srikanth, Ravi Teja, Prakashraj, M. S. Narayana, Nagendra Babu, Jr. NTR, Prabhas, Gopi Chand, Uday Kiran, Kalyan Ram, Raja, Allu Arjun, Siddharth, Nitin, Ram Charan Teja, Allari Naresh, Krishna Bhagavaan, Kondavalasa Lakshmana Rao, Venu Madhav (actor), Sunil (actor)etc..
Savithri, Bhanumathi, Jamuna Ramanarao, Anjali Devi, Sowcar Janaki, Krishna Kumari, Kanchana, Jayanthi, Suryakantham, Chaaya Devi, Vanisri, Sarada, Vijaya Nirmala, Sri Devi, Jayasudha, Jayaprada, Radhika, Vijayashanti, Radha, Suhasini, Bhanupriya, Sobhana, Meena, Roja, Nagma, Aamani, Soundarya, Ramya Krishna, Rambha, Simran, Keerthi Reddy, Laya, Sneha, Aarti Agarwal, Shriya, Trisha, Sameera Reddy, Charmy, Genelia D'Souza, Ileana D'Cruzetc..
Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu, H.M.Reddy,
B. Nagi Reddy, Chakrapani, L. V. Prasad, B.A.Subba Rao, NTR, M.S.Reddy, VB Rajendraprasad, D. Ramanaidu, Edida Nageshwara Rao, S.Gopalreddy, K.Raghavendra Rao, Aswani Dutt, Dil Raju, MS Raju, Ramoji Rao, D Suresh Babu, Tammareddy Bharadwaja, Allu Aravind, Nandamuri Harikrishna, Murali Mohan, Krishna, Mohan Babu, Nagendra Babu, N.Ramakrishna, Maganti Ravindranath Chowdary, A.M. Rathnam, Sravanthi Ravi Kishore, K.S.Rama Rao, Akkineni Nagarjuna, Ambica Krishna, R.B.Chowdary, B. Madhu, D.V.V. Danayya, Nallamalupu Bujji, N.V. Prasad, Shanam Naga Ashok Kumar,
B. Nagi Reddy, K. V. Reddy, L. V. Prasad, Adurthi Subba Rao, V. Madhusudhana Rao, Dasari Narayana Rao, K. Raghavendra Rao, K. Viswanath, Kodi Ramakrishna, Singeetam Srinivasa Rao, Bapu (artist), Jandhyala, A. Kodandarami Reddy, Vamsy, B. Gopal, Ram Gopal Varma, Krishna Vamsi, S. V. Krishna Reddy, Puri Jagannadh, Guna Sekhar, YVS Chowdary, V. V. Vinayak, S. S. Rajamouli, Srinu Vytl, Sekhar Kammula
Saluri Rajeswara Rao, SP Kodandapani, Pendyala, K. V. Mahadevan, Chakravarthy, JV Raghavulu, Ilaiyaraaja, Koti, M. M. Keeravani, A. R. Rahman, Mani Sharma, Devi Sri Prasad, Chakri, RP Patnaik, Vidyasagar
*80 Telugu films were made in the first five years after the release of "Bhakta Prahlad" 1931
*The long-time Chief Minister of
Andhra Pradesh, N. T. Rama Rao, was an alumnus of Telugu Cinema.""'Doddi"
List of Telugu films
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