- James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton
name =James Hamilton
Duke of Hamilton
caption =James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton by
Marquess of Hamilton Marquess of Clydesdale Earl of Arran Earl of Cambridge Lord Hamilton Lord Aberbrothwick Lord Aven and Innerdale
James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton
William Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Hamilton
married =Lady Mary Feilding
Anne Hamilton, 3rd Duchess of Hamilton
Lady Susannah Hamilton, Countess of Cassillis
Four children died in infancy
royal house =
royal anthem =
James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton
mother =Lady Anne Cunninghame
date of birth =June 19th 1606
place of birth =
Hamilton Palace, Lanarkshire, Scotland
date of death ="executed" 9th March 1649
place of death =
Palace of Westminster, London
date of burial =1400
place of burial =Hamilton|
The son of
James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton, and of the Lady Anne Cunningham, daughter of James Cunningham, 7th Earl of Glencairn, was born on 19 June 1606at Hamilton Palace, Lanarkshire. Following the death of his insane great-uncle James Hamilton, 3rd Earl of Arranin 1609, the infant was styled Earl of Arran. [Scots' Peerage Vol IV pp. 375-6]
Heir to the Throne of Scotland
The young James' near ancestor was the Princess Mary, daughter to
James II of Scotlandand Mary of Gueldres. Failing the House of Stewart, as looked increasingly possible after the death of Henry Frederick, Prince of Walesin 1612, the young Earl of Arranwould become "Heir presumptive" to the throne of Scotland.
James VI's first vist to Scotland since the
Union of the Crownsoccurred in early 1617, whilst in Scotland, he was apparently charmed by the Marquess, and invited him to court in London. The Marquess duly arrived in London in August of that year, with his eleven year old son. Although like most Noblemen's sons of the time he had a private tutor, James Bale, Arran's time spent at court in the ensuing years did not consist of much formal education. To remedy this he was sent in 1621, at the age of fifteen to Exeter College, Oxford. Arran was not a natural scholar and was back at court within six months of entering the college.
The Marquess meanwhile had been intriguing with
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. Like all ambitious upstarts at court, Buckingham was keen to consolidate his new found fortunes by allying himself and his family with established and wealthy families. Buckingham proposed to wed Arran to his niece Mary, daughter to William, Viscount Feilding, an undistinguished Warwickshire Squire. Hamilton, despite his misgivings regarding Buckingham's lowly origins was impressed enough by his influence with the King, to accept his suggestion. On the 16th of June, 1622 the fifteen year old Arran married 9 year old Mary Feilding in the presence of the King. Arran was not consulted and later came to bitterly resent it.
In 1623 Arran was made
Gentleman of the Bedchamberto the Prince of Wales, and the following year was made Lord High Steward of the Royal Household.
Marquess of Hamilton
In 1625 the 2nd Marquess died at
Whitehallof a seizure. His death was blamed on fever, although the speed of his death and his age, thirty-six, made many suspect poison. King James died three weeks later. The new Marquess received all his father's titles, and also the same annuity his father had received from the court of £2500 sterling. At the coronation of King Charles I, Hamilton bore the Sword of Stateat Westminster Abbey.
In 1631 Hamilton took over a force of 6,000 men to assist Gustavus Adolphus in the
Thirty Years' Warin Germany. He guarded the fortresses on the Oderwhile Gustavus fought Tilly at the Battle of Breitenfeld, and afterwards occupied Magdeburg, but his army was destroyed by disease and starvation, and after the complete failure of the expedition Hamilton returned to Englandin September 1634.
He now became Charles I's chief adviser in Scottish affairs. In May 1638, after the outbreak of the revolt against the new Prayer-Book, he was appointed commissioner for Scotland to appease the discontents. He described the Scots as being "possessed by the devil", and instead of doing his utmost to support the king's interests was easily intimidated by the
covenanting leaders and persuaded of the impossibility of resisting their demands, finally returning to Charles to urge him to give way. It is said that he so far forgot his trust as to encourage the Scottish leaders in their resistance in order to gain their favour.
27 July 1638Charles sent Hamilton back to Scotland with new proposals for the election of an assembly and a parliament, episcopacy being safeguarded but bishops being made responsible to future assemblies. After a wrangle concerning the mode of election he again returned to Charles. Having been sent back to Edinburghon 17 September 1638, he brought with him a revocation of the prayer-book and canons and another covenant to be substituted for the national covenant. On 21 November 1638Hamilton presided over the first meeting of the assembly in Glasgowcathedral, but dissolved it on 28 November 1638on its declaring the bishops responsible to its authority. The assembly, however, continued to sit notwithstanding, and Hamilton returned to England to give an account of his failure, leaving the enemy triumphant and in possession.
War was now decided upon, and Hamilton was chosen to command an expedition to the Forth to menace the rear of the Scots. On arrival on
1 May 1639he found the plan impossible, despaired of success, and was recalled in June. On 8 July 1639, after a hostile reception at Edinburgh, he resigned his commissionership. He supported Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford's proposal to call the Short Parliament, but otherwise opposed him as strongly as he could, as the, chief adversary of the Scots; and he aided Henry Vane the Elder, it was believed, in accomplishing Strafford's destruction by sending for him to the Long Parliament.
Hamilton now supported the
parliamentaryparty, desired an alliance with his nation, and persuaded Charles in February 1641 to admit some of their leaders into the council. On the death of Strafford ( 12 May 1641) Hamilton was confronted by a new antagonist in James Graham, 5th Earl of Montrose, who detested both his character and policy and repudiated his supremacy in Scotland.
10 August 1641Hamilton accompanied Charles on his last visit to Scotland. His aim now was to effect an alliance between the king and Archibald Campbell, 8th Earl of Argyll, the former accepting Presbyterianism and receiving the help of the Scots against the English parliament, and when this failed he abandoned Charles and adhered to Argyll. In consequence he received a challenge from Lord Ker, of which he gave the king information, and obtained from Ker an apology. Montrose wrote to Charles declaring he could prove Hamilton to be a traitor. The king himself spoke of him as being "very active in his own preservation".
Shortly afterwards the plot - known as the "Incident" - to seize Argyll, Hamilton and the latter's brother, William Hamilton, Earl of Lanark, was discovered, and on
12 October 1641they fled from Edinburgh. Hamilton returned not long afterwards, and notwithstanding all that had occurred still retained Charles's favour and confidence. He returned with him to London and accompanied him on 5 January 1642when he went to the city after the failure to secure the five members.
In July 1642 Hamilton went to Scotland on a hopeless mission to prevent the intervention of the Scots in the impending
English Civil War, and a breach then took place between him and Argyll.
Duke of Hamilton
On the 12th of April 1643, Hamilton was further ennobled. At Oxford King Charles conferred upon the Marquess, the titles of Duke of Hamilton, Marquess of Clydesdale, Earl of Cambridge, the Baronies of Aven and Innerdale, in addition he also regranted the Earldom of Arran. [Scot's Peerage Vol IV p.377]
Earlier, in February 1643 proposals of mediation between Charles and the parliament came from Scotland, Hamilton instigated the "cross petition" which demanded from Charles the surrender of the annuities of tithes in order to embarrass
John Campbell, 1st Earl of Loudoun, the chief promoter of the project, to whom they had already been granted. This failing, he promoted a scheme for overwhelming the influence and votes of Argyll and his party by sending to Scotland all the Scottish peers then with the king, thereby preventing any assistance to the parliament coming from that quarter, while Charles was to guarantee the establishment of Presbyterianism in Scotland only. This foolish intrigue was strongly opposed by Montrose, who was eager to strike a sudden blow and anticipate and annihilate the plans of the Covenanters. Hamilton, however, gained over the queen Henrietta Mariafor his project, while Montrose was condemned to inaction. Hamilton's scheme, however, completely failed. He had no control over the parliament. He was unable to hinder the meeting of the convention of the estates which assembled without the king's authority, and his supporters found themselves in a minority.
Finally, on refusing to take the Covenant, Hamilton and Lanark were obliged to leave Scotland. They arrived at Oxford on
16 December 1643. Hamilton's conduct had at last incurred Charles's resentment and he was sent, in January 1644, a prisoner to Pendennis Castle, in 1645 being removed to St Michael's Mount, where he was liberated by Lord Fairfax's troops on 23 April 1646.
In 1646 Charles conferred on the Duke the heritable office of Keeper of Holyroodhouse.
Subsequently he showed great activity in the futile negotiations between the Scots and Charles at Newcastle. In 1648, in consequence of the seizure of Charles by the army in 1647, Hamilton obtained a temporary influence and authority in the Scottish parliament over Argyll, and led a large force into England in support of the king on
8 July 1648. He showed complete incapacity in military command; was kept in check for some time by Lambert; and though outnumbering the enemy by 24,000 to about 9000 men, allowed his troops to disperse over the country and to be defeated in detail by Cromwell during the three days 17 - 19 August 1648at the so-called Battle of Preston, being himself taken prisoner on 25 August.
He was tried on
6 February 1649, condemned to death on 6 Marchand executed by decapitationon 9 March.
Hamilton, during his unfortunate career, had often been suspected of betraying the king's cause, and, as an heir to the Scottish throne, of intentionally laying into the hands of the Covenanters with a view of procuring the crown for himself.
The charge was brought against him as early as 1631 when he was levying men in Scotland for the German expedition, but Charles gave no credence to it and showed his trust in Hamilton by causing him to share his own room. The charge, however, always clung to him, and his intriguing character and hopeless management of the king's affairs in Scotland gave colour to the accusation. There seems, however, to be no real foundation for it. His career is sufficiently explained by his thoroughly weak and egotistical character. He took no interest whatever in the great questions at issue, was neither loyal nor patriotic, and only desired peace and compromise to avoid personal losses. "He was devoid of intellectual or moral strength, and was therefore easily brought to fancy all future tasks easy and all present obstacles insuperable". A worse choice than Hamilton could not possibly have been made in such a crisis, and his want of principle, of firmness and resolution, brought irretrievable ruin upon the royal cause.
Issue and Succession
By his wife Mary Feilding, Hamilton had six children, of whom four died in childhood.
* Henrietta Mary (1631-1632)
* Anne (1632-1716), later "suo jure" Duchess of Hamilton
* Susannah (1633-1694), married
John Kennedy, 7th Earl of Cassilisin 1688
* Charles, Earl of Arran (1634-1640)
* James (1635-1639)
* William (1636-1638)
Following the death of his three sons, the dukedom passed by special remainder to his brother
William Hamilton, Earl of Lanark. On the latter's death at Worcester in 1651 the Scottish titles reverted to the 1st duke's eldest daughter, Anne. She married William Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, who was created Duke of Hamiltonfor life.
* Balfour Paul, Sir James, "The Scots Peerage IX Vols". Edinburgh 1907
* S. R. Gardiner, "Dictionary of National Biography"
* S. R. Gardiner, "History of England and of the Civil War"
* H.L. Rubenstein, "Captain Luckless-James, First Duke of Hamilton, 1606-1649". Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh 1975
Gilbert Burnet, "Memoirs of the Dukes of Hamilton"
* "Lauderdale Papers",
Camden Society, 1884—1885)
* "The Hamilton Papers", ed. by S. R. Gardiner (Camden Society, 1880) and addenda (Camden Miscellany, vol. ix., 1895)
* "Thomason Tracts": British Museum, 550 (6), 1948 (30) (account of his supposed treachery), and 546 (21) (speech on the scaffold).
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
James Hamilton — can refer to several different persons:Dukes*James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton (1606 ndash;1649), heir to the throne of Scotland *James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton (1658 ndash;1712), Scottish nobleman *James Hamilton, 5th Duke of Hamilton… … Wikipedia
James Hamilton (1606-1649) — James Hamilton Duque de Hamilton James Hamilton, I duque de Hamilton por Daniel Mitens Nacimiento 19 de junio de 1606 Hamilton Palace, Lanarkshire … Wikipedia Español
James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn — James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn, KG, PC (January 21, 1811 ndash; October 31, 1885) was a British Conservative nobleman and statesman who twice served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He had various styles during his lifetime, namely The Hon.… … Wikipedia
James Hamilton, 3rd Duke of Abercorn — James Albert Edward Hamilton, 3rd Duke of Abercorn, KG, KP, PC (30 November 1869 ndash; 12 September 1953) was a British Unionist politician and nobleman who became the first Governor of Northern Ireland. Born in Hamilton Place, Piccadilly,… … Wikipedia
James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn — James Hamilton, 1. Duke of Abercorn James Hamilton, 1. Duke of Abercorn KG, PC (* 21. Januar 1811 in Mayfair, London; † 31. Oktober 1885 in London), war ein schottischer Adliger und britischer Staatsmann … Deutsch Wikipedia
James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton — James Hamilton, 1. Duke of Hamilton (* 19. Juni 1606; † 9. März 1649 in London) war ein englischer Heerführer und Adeliger. James Hamilton Leben James Hamilton war ein Sohn des James Hamilton, 2. Marquess of Hamilton und dessen Gemahlin Ann … Deutsch Wikipedia
James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton — James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton, 4th Earl of Arran KG PC (1589 ndash;2 March 1625), styled Lord Aven from 1599 to 1604, was a Scottish politician. He was the son of John Hamilton, 1st Marquess of Hamilton.He inherited his father s titles … Wikipedia
James Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Abercorn — James Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Abercorn, KG, CB, PC (24 August 1838 ndash; 3 January 1913) was a British nobleman and diplomat. He was the son of James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn and Lady Louisa Russell. He was variously styled Viscount Hamilton … Wikipedia
James Hamilton, 1. Duke of Hamilton — (* 19. Juni 1606; † 9. März 1649 in London) war ein englischer Heerführer und Adeliger. James Hamilton Leben James Hamilton war ein Sohn des James Hamilton, 2. Marquess of … Deutsch Wikipedia
James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Abercorn — James Edward Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton (29 February 1904 ndash; 4 June 1979). He was the son of James Hamilton, 3rd Duke of Abercorn and Lady Rosalind Cecilia Caroline Bingham. He was variously styled Viscount Strabane (1904 ndash;1913),… … Wikipedia
James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn — PC (c. 1575 – 23 March 1618), was the eldest son of Claud Hamilton, 1st Lord Paisley (4th son of James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran), and of Margaret, daughter of George Seton, 5th Lord Seton. Hamilton was made Sheriff of Linlithgow in 1600,… … Wikipedia