- Tom Thomson
name = Tom Thomson
imagesize = 150px
caption = Tom Thomson
5 August 1877
deathdate = death date and age|1917|07|08|1877|08|05
Algonquin Park, Ontario
nationality = Canadian
works = "The Jack Pine", "The West Wind" and "The Northern River"
influenced by =
influenced = Group of Seven,
Canadian Group of Painters
Thomas John Thomson (
August 5, 1877– July 8, 1917) was an influential Canadian artist of the early 20th century. He directly influenced a group of painters that would come to be known as the Group of Seven, and is sometimes incorrectly credited as being a member of the group itself. Thomson died under mysterious circumstances, which added to his mystique.
Tom Thomson was born near
Claremont, Ontarioand grew up in Leith, near Owen Sound. In 1899, he entered a machine shop apprenticeship at a foundry owned by William Kennedy, a close friend of his father. He was fired from his apprenticeship by a foreman who complained of Thomson's habitual tardiness. In 1899 he volunteered to fight in the Second Boer War. [Town and Silcox, page 235.] In 1901, he enrolled in a business college in Chatham and dropped out eight months later to follow his older brother, George Thomson, who was operating a business school in Seattle, Washington. There he met and had a brief summer romance with Alice Elinor Lambert. In 1904, he returned to Canada, and may have studied with William Cruikshank, 1905–1906. [Town and Silcox, page 235.] In 1907 Thomson joined Grip Ltd., an artistic design firm in Toronto, where many of the future members of the Group of Seven also worked.Thomson first visited Algonquin Parkin Ontario in 1912; thereafter he often travelled with his colleagues around Canada, especially to the wildernessof Ontario, which was to be a major source of inspiration for Thomson. In 1912 Thomson began working, along with other members of the Group of Seven, at Rous and Mann Press, but left the following year to work as an artist full-time. He first exhibited with the Ontario Society of Artists in 1913, and became a member in 1914, when the National Gallery of Canadapurchased one of his paintings. He would continue to exhibit with the Ontario Society until his death. For several years he shared studio and living quarters with fellow artists, before taking up residence in a shack on Canoe Lake. Beginning in 1914 he worked intermittently as a fire fighter, ranger, and guide in Algonquin Park, but found that such work did not allow enough time for painting. [Town and Silcox, page 58.] During the next three years he produced many of his most famous works, including "The Jack Pine", "The West Wind" and "The Northern River".
Thomson disappeared during a
canoeing trip on Canoe Lake in Algonquin Parkon July 8, 1917, and his body was discovered in the lake eight days later. The official cause of death was accidental drowning, but there are still questions about how he actually died. It was reported that there was fishing line wrapped around his leg seventeen times and he had a head injury (which may have been post mortem).Fact|date=May 2008 It has also been speculated that he was murdered by a German-Americanneighbor, Martin Blecher, Jr., or that he fell on a fire grate during a drunken brawl with J. Shannon Fraser, owner of Canoe Lake's Mowat Lodge, over an old loan to Fraser for the purchase of canoes. Thomson allegedly needed the money for a new suit to marry Winnifred Trainor, whose parents had a cottage at Canoe Lake. Rumours circulated following his drowning that she was pregnant with Thomson's child. Winnifred Trainor made a trip to Philadelphia with her mother the following winter and returned around Easter. She never spoke about her relationship with Thomson. A nephew, Terrance Trainor MacGregor, an upper New York resident who inherited her estate, which included at least 13 small Thomson paintings and letters, said the letters confirm their engagement. MacGregor has refused to produce the letters for scholarly investigation. Others believe that Thomson, who produced at least 63 landscape paintings that last spring, many of which he gave away or discarded, suffered severe depression and drowned himself. He was buried at Canoe Lake in Algonquin Park on July 17, 1917 without family members having seen the body. Under the direction of his older brother, George Thomson, the body was exhumed two days later and re-interred in the family plot beside the Leith Presbyterian Churchon July 21. None of these theories are conclusive, and the wide range of speculation serves mostly to perpetuate Thomson's romantic legend. [Town and Silcox, page 208.]
Art and technique
Thomson was largely self taught. He was employed as a
graphic designerwith Toronto's Grip Ltd., an experience which honed his draughtsmanship. Although he began painting and drawing at an early age, it was only in 1912, when Thomson was well into his thirties, that he began painting seriously. His first trips to Algonquin Park inspired him to follow the lead of fellow artists in producing oil sketches of natural scenes on small, rectangular panels for easy portability while traveling. Between 1912 and his death in 1917, Thomson produced hundreds of these small sketches, many of which are now housed in such galleries as the Art Gallery of Ontarioin Toronto and the National Gallery of Canadain Ottawa.
Many of Thomson's major paintings, including "The Jack Pine", "Northern River", and "The West Wind", began as sketches before being expanded into large
oil paintings at Thomson's "studio"--an old utility shack with a wood-burning stove on the grounds of an artist's enclave in Rosedale, Toronto. Although Thomson sold few of these paintings during his lifetime, they formed the basis of the posthumous exhibitions, including one at Wembleyin London, that eventually brought international attention to his work.
thumb|200px|right|Jack_Pine_(painting)|Jack Pine, 1916"
Thomson's peak creative period was from 1914 to 1917. Thomson was aided by the
patronageof Toronto physician Dr. James MacCallum, who enabled Thomson's transition from graphic designer to professional painter.
Although the Group of Seven was not officially founded until after Thomson's death, his work is sympathetic to that of group members
A. Y. Jackson, Frederick Varley, and Arthur Lismer. These artists shared an appreciation for rugged, unkempt natural scenery, and all used broad brush strokes and a liberal application of paint to capture the stark beauty and vibrant colour of the Ontario landscape.
Thomson's art bears some stylistic resemblance to the work of such
post-impressionists as Vincent Van Goghand Paul Cezanne, whose work he may have known from books or visits to art galleries. Other key influences were the Art Nouveauand Arts and Crafts movements of the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, styles with which he would have been familiar from his work in the graphic arts.
Since his death, Thomson's work has grown ever-more valuable and popular. In 2002, the National Gallery of Canada staged a major exhibition of his work, giving Thomson the same level of prominence afforded
Picasso, Renoir, and the Group of Seven in previous years. In recent decades, the increased value of Thomson's work has led to the discovery of numerous forgeries of his work on the market.
Legacy and influence
In September 1917 the artists James E. H. MacDonald and John W. Beatty, assisted by area residents, erected a memorial cairn at Hayhurst Point on Canoe Lake, where Thomson died. The cost was paid by MacCallum. It can be accessed by boat.
In the summer of 2004 another historical marker honoring Thomson was moved from its previous location nearer the centre of Leith, to the
graveyardin which Thomson is now buried. In 1967 the Tom Thomson Memorial Art Gallery opened in Owen Sound. Numerous examples of his work are also on display at the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, Art Gallery of Ontario,and the McMichael Canadian Art Collectionin Kleinburg, Ontario.
Thomson's influence can be seen in the work of later Canadian artists, including
Emily Carr, Goodridge Roberts, Harold Town, and Joyce Wieland. Joyce Wielandbased a movie ("The Far Shore") on the life and death of Tom Thomson.
In 1970, Judge William Little published a book, "
The Tom Thomson Mystery", about his digging up of Thomson's original gravesite in the Mowat Cemetery on Canoe Lake in 1956. He and three companions found a body in what they believed was Thomson's coffin. Medical investigators determined that the body was that of a native Indian.
Thomson is also referenced in the opening lines of the song
Three Pistolsby influential Canadian rock group The Tragically Hip.
Books on Thomson's art include "The Silence and the Storm" by Harold Town and David Silcox, and several
coffee table books by the art expert Joan Murray. Roy MacGregor's novel "Shorelines" (reissued in 2002 as "Canoe Lake") is a fictional interpretation of Thomson's death.
* Lehto, Neil J. "Algonquin Elegy Tom Thomson's Last Spring". iUniverse, 2005. ISBN 0-595-36132-3
* Little, William T. "The Tom Thomson Mystery". Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1970. ISBN 0-07-092655-7
* Murray, Joan. "Tom Thomson: The Last Spring". Toronto: Dundurn, 1994.
* Town, Harold and David Silcox. "The Silence and the Storm" Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1977.
* Littlefield, Angie "The Thomsons of Durham: Tom Thomson's Family Heritage"
* [http://www.tomthomson.org/ The Tom Thomson Memorial Gallery]
* [http://mywebpage.netscape.com/g7scans/gseven_15.htm Gallery of Tom Thomson Paintings]
* [http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=41859 Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online]
* [http://nthdgr.org/PTMyth/ "Painting The Myth:" an Interactive Biography of Tom Thomson]
* [http://www.algonquincanada.com/tomthomson An Art Retreat in Canada featuring the lore and lure of Tom Thomson]
* [http://www.bushwhacker.ca/thomson.html Article about Thomson's relation to Canoe Lake, Algonquin Park]
* [http://mywebpage.netscape.com/g7scans/gseven_15.htm 1970 CBC television program about Thomson's mysterious death]
* [http://archives.cbc.ca/IDCC-1-68-754-4643/arts_entertainment/group_of_seven/ CBC television program about Thomson's painting, The Jack Pine]
* [http://archives.cbc.ca/IDC-1-70-2310-13520-11/on_this_day/disasters_tragedies/twt CBC -- Front Page Challenge clip on Tom Thomson's Death]
* [http://www.movingimages.ca/catalogue/Art/darkpines.html " Dark Pines: a documentary investigation into the death of Tom Thomson"] documentary (2005)
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