- Whig Junto
The Whig Junto proper consisted of John Somers, later Baron Somers; Charles Montagu, later Earl of Halifax; Thomas Wharton, later Marquess of Wharton; and Edward Russell, later Earl of Orford. They came to prominence due to the favour of the opportunistic "éminence grise",
Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland, and during the reign of Queen Anne, Sunderland's son, the 3rd Earl, would join their ranks. Other figures prominent around the edges of the Junto include Sir John Trenchard and Thomas Tollemache.
Somers, Wharton, Russell and Montagu were elected to the House of Commons in 1689 and were granted minor office. Their effectiveness in the Commons brought them Sunderland's attention. The Junto began to dominate the ministry from the time of the resignation of the Tory Secretary of State Lord Nottingham in 1693, communicating to the King and Sunderland through the intermediary of the Whig Secretary of State, the Duke of Shrewsbury. However as the members of the Junto entered the Lords — Somers was made Lord Keeper in 1693 and was promoted to a barony four years later; Wharton succeeded his father as Lord Wharton in 1696 and Russell was created Earl of Orford in 1697 — their hold on the Commons weakened and by 1700 the Junto was largely out of power. In 1701, Somers, Orford and Halifax were impeached but survived the attack and late in the year seemed set to return to power in order to help the king rally support for the
War of the Spanish Succession.
William's death in March of 1702 delayed their return as Queen Anne, who had high tory sympathies, detested them and refused to include them in the ministry, which was dominated by Tories. At this time, with the elder Sunderland dead, the Junto's connections to his son, who was the son-in-law of the Queen's favorite the Duke of Marlborough, proved useful, as did the Junto's support of the war, in contrast to Tory ambivalence. In 1705 Somers's protege Lord Cowper was made
Lord Keeperand in 1706 Sunderland became a Secretary of State. After the resignation of Harley in 1708, Marlborough and his ally the Lord Treasurer Godolphin became more and more dependent on the Junto, who returned to office with Somers as Lord President, Wharton as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Orford as First Lord of the Admiralty.
The ministry's increasing dependence on the hated Junto Whigs caused the Queen's relationship with the Marlboroughs and Godolphin to sour. In 1710 Godolphin and the Junto Whigs were forced from power. The Junto led opposition to the new ministry's peace policy from the
House of Lords, leading to the creation of new peers to prevent this opposition from voting down the peace treaty.
The Junto came back to power after the accession of George I in
1714but most of the members died early in the new reign - Wharton and Halifax in 1715, Somers the next year, while Orford and Sunderland, the survivors, soon fell out with each other with Orford not holding office after 1717.
First Whig Junto
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
First Whig Junto — The First Whig Junto controlled the government of England from 1694 to 1699.Having slowly increased their presence in government under Lord Danby, the Whig Junto established dominance in 1694 with the appointment of Charles Montagu as Chancellor… … Wikipedia
Junto (disambiguation) — Junto is the Philadelphia club started by Benjamin Franklin.Junto may be: * Whig Junto, British political leaders group * Junto (band)See also: * Junta (disambiguation) … Wikipedia
Whig (British political party) — Whigs Founded 1678 Dissolved 1868 Preceded by Count … Wikipedia
Whig (British political faction) — The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. It is more accurate to describe the original two ideas as loose groupings, or… … Wikipedia
Junto — This is about the Philadelphia club, c. 1730. For other uses, see Junto (disambiguation). The Junto was a club established in 1727 by Benjamin Franklin for mutual improvement in Philadelphia. Also known as the Leather Apron Club , its purpose was … Wikipedia
JUNTO — the name given to a Whig faction in the reign of William III., that for 20 years exercised a great influence in the affairs of the nation, of which Russell, Lord Keeper Somers, and Charles Montague were the leading members … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough — Duke of Marlborough and John Churchill redirect here. For subsequent dukes, see Duke of Marlborough (title). For others of this name, see John Churchill (disambiguation). His Grace The Duke of Marlborough KG, PC … Wikipedia
Anne, Queen of Great Britain — Queen Anne redirects here. For other uses, see Queen Anne (disambiguation). Anne … Wikipedia
Charles Davenant — (1656–1714), English economist, eldest son of Sir William Davenant, the poet, was born in London. Contents 1 Overview 2 Biography 3 Contributions 4 References … Wikipedia
United Kingdom coalition government (1852–1855) — The Coalition Ministry of 1854 as painted by Sir John Gilbert (1855) After the collapse of Lord Derby s minority government, the Whigs and Peelites formed a coalition under the Peelite leader Lord Aberdeen. The government resigned in early 1855… … Wikipedia