- Julian Tuwim
Julian Tuwim (the
surnamecomes from the Hebrew "טובים," "tovim"," "good"; September 13, 1894– December 27, 1953) one of the greatest Polish poets, he was born in Łódź, Congress Poland, Russian Empireand educated in Łódź and Warsaw(he studied lawand philosophyat Warsaw University). In 1919 Tuwim co-founded the " Skamander" group of experimental poetswith Antoni Słonimskiand Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz. He was a major figure in Polish literature, known also for his contribution to children's literature. Before the Second World War he was also known for his lyrics.
Life and work
Initially Tuwim’s poetry, even more than that of the other "Skamandrites," represented a decisive break with turn-of-the-century mannerism and decadent language; and an expression of vitality, optimism, and praise of urban life; introduction of everyday life in a city, with its triviality and vulgarism, to poetry. In his poems Tuwim often used “regular” language as well as dialogue. Characteristic for this period are collections "Czyhanie na Boga [Lurking for God] " (1918), "Sokrates tańczący [Dancing Socrates] " (1920), "Siódma jesień [The Seventh Autumn] " (1922), and "Wierszy tom czwarty [Poems. the Volume Four] " (1923).
In his later collections — "Słowa we krwi" (Words in Blood, 1926), "Rzecz Czarnoleska" (A
CzarnolasThing, 1929), "Biblia cygańska" (A Gypsy Bible, 1933) and "Treść gorejąca" (Burning Matter, 1933) — Tuwim becomes restless and bitter, and writes with fervor and vehemence of the emptiness of urban existence. He also draws more from romantic and classicist traditions, while perfecting his form and style, and becoming a virtuosoof word and language.From the very beginning and throughout his artistic career, Tuwim was satirically inclined. He supplied sketches and monologues to numerous cabarets. In his poetry and columns, he derided obscurantismand bureaucracyas well as militaristic and nationalistic trends in politics. His best satiric poem is regarded to be the burlesque, "The Ball at the Opera" ("Bal w operze"," 1936).
In 1918 Tuwim co-founded the cabaret, "Picador," and he worked as writer or artistic director with many other cabarets such as "Czarny kot [Black Cat] " 1917–1919, "Qui pro Quo" 1919–1932, "Banda [Gang] " and "Stara Banda [Old Gang] " 1932–1935 and finally "Cyrulik Warszawski [Barber of Warsaw] " 1935–1939. Since 1924 Tuwim was staff writer of "Wiadomości Literackie [Literary News] " where he wrote weekly column "Camera Obscura" as well as for satiric magazines: "Cyrulik Warszawski [Barber of Warsaw] " and "Szpilki [Pins] ".
World War II and after
In 1939, at the beginning of
World War IIand Nazi Germany's occupation of Poland, Tuwim emigrated first through Romaniato France, and after France’s capitulation, to Brazil, by way of Portugal, and finally to the USA, where he settled in 1942. During that time he wrote "Kwiaty Polskie [Polish Flowers] ", an outstanding epic poem in which he remembers with nostalgia, his early childhood in Łódź. In April 1944 he published a manifesto, entitled "My, Żydzi polscy" ("We, Polish Jews").
Tuwim returned to Poland after the war, in 1946, but he was not able to create under the communism system. Under pressure he had produced a few meaningless texts (poems) to pacify the regime. Some of his late moving poems, which he kept to himself, were found among his belongings after the poet's death.
He spent World War II in exile - in Romania, France, Portugal and Brazil, from where he travelled to New York in 1942. In 1939-41 he collaborated with the émigré weekly "Wiadomosci Polskie", but broke off the collaboration due to differences in views on the attitude towards the Soviet Union. In 1942-46 he worked with the monthly "Nowa Polska" published in London, and with leftist Polish-American newspapers. Affiliated to the leftists in the Polish section of the International Workers Organization from 1942. He was a member of the Association of Writers From Poland (a member of the board in 1943).
Tuwim’s other works include a collection of poems for children "Lokomotywa [Locomotive] " (1938, tr. 1940)—Julian Tuwim and
Jan Brzechwaare the two most famous authors of children's poetry in Polish — and well-regarded translations of Pushkinand other Russian poets. Russian Soviet poet Yelizaveta Tarakhovskayatranslated most of Tuwim's children's poetry into Russian.
Although Tuwim is well known and admired for writing poetry for children and satiric works, he also wrote many serious works. His poem "Do prostego człowieka [The Common Man] ", first published in
October 7, 1929in "Robotnik [Workman] ", had started a storm of personal attacks on Tuwim, mostly from antisemitic followers of Polish right wingcriticizing Tuwim’s pacifistic views.
* "Czyhanie na Boga" ("Lurking for God", 1918)
* "Sokrates tańczący" ("Dancing Socrates", 1920)
* "Siódma jesień" ("The Seventh Autumn", 1921)
* "Wierszy tom czwarty" (1923)
* "Czary i czarty polskie" ("Sorcery and Deuces of Poland", 1924)
* "Wypisy czarnoksięskie" ("The Reader of Sorcery", 1924)
* "A to pan zna?" ("And do you know it?", 1925)
* "Czarna msza" (1925)
* "Tysiąc dziwów prawdziwych" (1925)
* "Słowa we krwi" (1926)
* "Tajemnice amuletów i talizmanów" (1926)
* "Strofy o późnym lecie"
* "Rzecz czarnoleska" (1929)
* "Jeździec miedziany" (1932)
* "Biblia cygańska i inne wiersze" (1932)
* "Jarmark rymów" (1934)
* "Polski słownik pijacki i antologia bachiczna" (1935)
* "Treść gorejąca" (1936)
* "Bal w Operze" (1936, published 1946)
* "Kwiaty polskie" (1940-1946, published 1949)
* "Pegaz dęba, czyli panoptikum poetyckie" (1950)
* "Piórem i piórkiem" (1951)
Songs to Tuwim's Poems
Karol Szymanowski- "Słopiewnie" for voice and piano, op. 46bis (1921)
Witold Lutosławski- "Piosenki dziecinne" (Children's Songs) (1952); "Spóźniony słowik" (The overdule nightigale, 1947), "O Panu Tralalińskim" ( About Mr. Tralalinski, 1947), for voice and piano (also arr. for orchestra)
Krzysztof Meyer- "Quartettino" for voice, flute, cello and piano (1966); "Symphony No. 2" (1967); "Spiewy polskie" (Polish Songs) for voice and orchestra (1974)
David Bruce (composer)- "Piosenki" for soprano, baritone and ensemble (2006) - setting of 11 songs. [http://www.davidbruce.net/works/piosenki.asp Piosenki at David Bruce's website]
* Mortkowicz-Olczakowa, Hanna (1961). "Bunt wspomnień." Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy.
List of Poles
List of Polish poets
* [http://oldpoetry.com/author/Julian%20Tuwim English translations of Julian Tuwim’s poetry]
** " [http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/28469-Julian-Tuwim-Polish-Flowers Polish Flowers] " ("Kwiaty polskie", translated by Frank Fox)
** " [http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/28470-Julian-Tuwim-The-Common-Man The Common Man] " ("Do prostego człowieka", 1929)
** " [http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/28471-Julian-Tuwim-The-Dancing-Socrates The Dancing Socrates] " ("Sokrates tańczący", translated by
** " [http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/28472-Julian-Tuwim-The-Locomotive The Locomotive] " ("Lokomotywa", translated by
** " [http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/98921-Julian-Tuwim-The-Saturday-Night-Song The Saturday Night Song] "
** " [http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/118918-Julian-Tuwim-Grass Grass] "
* [http://www.poema.art.pl/site/sub_199.html Julian Tuwim's poems in Poema.art.pl]
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Look at other dictionaries:
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Tuwim — Julian Tuwim Julian Tuwim (* 13. September 1894 in Łódź, Polen; † 27. Dezember 1953 in Zakopane, Polen) war ein polnischer Lyriker. Inhaltsverzeichnis … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Tuwim, Julian — ▪ Polish poet born September 13, 1894 , Łódz, Poland, Russian Empire [now in Poland] died December 27, 1953, Zakopane lyric poet who was one of the leaders of the 20th century group of Polish poets called Skamander. Closely associated … Universalium
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Tuwim, Julian — (1894 1953) Polish writer. Born in Lodz, he studied at the Unversity of Warsaw. He wrote poems, satires and musical comedies … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
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