- Liberal international relations theory
Liberalism holds that state preferences, rather than state capabilities, are the primary determinant of state behavior. Unlike "realism" where the state is seen as a unitary actor, "liberalism" allows for plurality in state actions. Thus, preferences will vary from state to state, depending on factors such as
culture, economic systemor government type. Liberalism also holds that interaction between states is not limited to the political ("high politics"), but also economic ("low politics") whether through commercial firms, organizations or individuals. Thus, instead of an anarchic international system, there are plenty of opportunities for cooperation and broader notions of power, such as cultural capital ("for example, the influence of American films leading to the popularity of American culture and creating a market for American exports worldwide"). Another assumption is that "absolute gains" can be made through co-operation and interdependence - thus peace can be achieved.
Many different strands of liberalism have emerged; some include
commercial liberalism, liberal institutionalism, idealism, and regime theory. Two forms of liberalism predominate, liberal institutionalism and idealism:
:The former suggests that with the "right" factors, the international system provides opportunities for cooperation and interaction. Examples include the successful integration of Europe through the
European Unionor regional blocs and economic agreements such as ASEANor the North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA). Ramifications of this view are that if states cannot cooperate, they ought to be curbed, whether through economic sanctionsor military action. For example, before the invasion of Iraqby the United Statesand United Kingdomin 2003, the governments' claims that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destructioncould be seen as claims that Iraq is a "bad" state that needs to be curbed rather than an outright danger to American or European security. Thus, the invasion could be seen as "curbing" a "bad" state under liberal institutionalism. A variant is Neo-liberal institutionalism (USA) which shifts back to a state-centric approach, but allows for pluralism through identifying and recognizing different actors, processes and structures.
:The latter holds a view to promote a more peaceful world order through international organizations or IGOs; for example, through the
International relations theory
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