Lateral Pressure Theory


Lateral Pressure Theory

Lateral pressure theory is a concept in international relations that describes the effects of growth (typically economic/industrial) on a state's relations with other states. The theory, first formulated in 1975 by Robert North and Nazli Choucri, in their book "Nations in Conflict", suggests that as states advance economically, they must acquire new resources to meet growing demand and sustain growth. The pursuit of such resources is a potential source of conflict between the expanding state and other states. Because resources are limited, the situation is a zero-sum game in which one nation's gain is another's loss. Also, since powerful states have better access to resources, states compete for power and influence beyond the original scope of the conflict. The development of Japan and its subsequent involvement in World War II is an historical example of lateral pressure contributing to conflict. More recently, neoconservative theorists have predicted that China's rapid economic advancement will jeopardize Sino-American relations; however, liberal theorists maintain that relations between states are not always based on competition, emphasizing the ability of economic interdependence, international institutions, and the spread of democratic ideas to encourage cooperation and make violent conflict less desirable. Additionally, expanded forms of lateral pressure theory have been cited to describe environmental issues such as deforestation.

References

*Choucri, Nazli and Robert C. North. 1993. "Growth, Development, and Environmental Sustainability: Profile and Paradox." In Nazli Choucri, ed., "Global Accord: Environmental Challenges and International Responses", Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
*Choucri, Nazli and Robert C. North. 1975. "Nations in Conflict: National Growth and Industrial Violence", San Francisco: Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-0773-X
* Goldstein, Joshua S. and Jon C. Pevehouse (2006) "International Relations, 7th Ed.", Pearson Longman ISBN 0-321-35474-5
*Lofdahl, Corey L. 2002. "Environmental Impacts of Globalization and Trade: A Systems Study". Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-12245-6


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Lateral earth pressure — is the pressure that soil exerts in the horizontal plane. The common applications of lateral earth pressure theory are for the design of ground engineering structures such as retaining walls, basements, tunnels, and to determine the friction on… …   Wikipedia

  • Lateral communication — means communication between and amongst all given entities at a particular level of an organization.For example:* a coordinated flock of birds or a shoal of fish all maintain their relative positions, or alter direction simultaneously due to… …   Wikipedia

  • Pressure — This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. For other uses, see Pressure (disambiguation). Pressure as exerted by particle collisions inside a closed container …   Wikipedia

  • Decision field theory — (DFT), is a dynamic cognitive approach to human decision making. It is a cognitive model that describes how people make decisions rather than a rational model that prescribes what people should do. It is also a dynamic model of decision making… …   Wikipedia

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis — This article is about progressive Motor Neuron Disease (MND) affecting both the upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons. For MND affecting either but not necessarily both, see Motor neurone disease. ALS redirects here. For other uses, see ALS …   Wikipedia

  • Rankine theory — Rankine s theory, developed in 1857 [Rankine, W. (1857) On the stability of loose earth. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 147.] , is a stress field solution that predicts active and passive earth pressure. It… …   Wikipedia

  • Expanding Earth theory — The Expanding Earth theory is an attempt to explain the position and movement of continents (continental drift) on the surface of the Earth. The expanded earth theory (and plate tectonics) incorporates the appearance of new crustal material at… …   Wikipedia

  • Melanin theory — is a pseudoscientific theory, founded in the distortion of the known physical properties of melanin, a natural polymer and organic semiconductor.[1] In humans, melanin is the primary determinant of skin color. People whose ancestors lived for… …   Wikipedia

  • Out of India theory — Indo European topics Indo European languages (list) Albanian · Armenian · Baltic Celtic  …   Wikipedia

  • Mohr–Coulomb theory — Continuum mechanics …   Wikipedia