- Bulletin board system
A Bulletin Board System, or BBS, is a
computersystem running software that allows users to connect and login to the system using a terminal program. Originally BBSes were accessed only over a phone line using a modem, but by the early 1990s some BBSes allowed access via a Telnetor packet radioconnection.
Once a user logged in, they could perform functions such as downloading or uploading software and data, reading news, and exchanging messages with other users. Many BBSes also offered on-line games, in which users could compete with each other, and BBSes with multiple phone lines often offered IRC-like
chat rooms, allowing users to meet each other.
In recent years, the term BBS is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to any online forum or message board.
During their heyday from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s, most BBSes were run as a
hobbyfree of charge by the system operator (or " sysop"), while other BBSes charged their users a subscription fee for access, or were operated by a business as a means of supporting their customers. Bulletin Board Systems were in many ways a precursor to the modern form of the World Wide Weband other aspects of the Internet.
Early BBSes were often a local phenomenon, as one had to dial into a BBS with a phone line and would have to pay additional long distance charges for a BBS out of the local area. Thus, many users of a given BBS usually lived in the same area, and activities such as "BBS Meets" or "Get Togethers", where everyone from the board would gather and meet face to face, were common.
As the use of the Internet became more widespread in the mid to late 1990s, BBSes rapidly faded in popularity. Today, Internet forums occupy much of the same social and technological space as BBSes did in their heyday.
A notable precursor to the public Bulletin Board System was
Community Memory, started in 1972 in Berkeley, California, using hardwired terminals located in neighborhoods.
The first public Bulletin Board System was developed by
Ward Christensen. According to an early interview, while he was snowed in during the Great Blizzard of 1978in Chicago, Christensen began preliminary work on the Computerized Bulletin Board System, or CBBS. CBBSwent online on February 16, 1978in Chicago, Illinois. [http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/software/AAA/AAA/CBBS/memories.txt Collection of Memories of writing and running the first BBS by Ward Christensen (Circa 1992)] , "BBSDocumentary.com", retrieved June 30, 2007]
With the original 110 and 300
baudmodems of the late 1970s, BBSes were particularly slow, but speed improved with the introduction of 1200 bit/s modems in the early 1980s, and this led to a substantial increase in popularity.
Most of the
informationwas presented using ordinary text or ANSI art, though some offered graphics, particularly after the rise in popularity of the GIFimage format. Such use of graphicstaxed available channel capacity, which in turn propelled demand for faster modems. Towards the early 1990s, the BBS industry became so popular that it spawned two monthly magazines, " Boardwatch" and " BBS Magazine", which devoted extensive coverage of the software and technology innovations and people behind them, and listings to US and worldwide BBSes. In addition, a major monthly magazine, " Computer Shopper", carried a list of BBSes along with a brief abstract of each of their offerings.
According to the FidoNet Nodelist, BBSes reached their peak usage around 1996, which was the same period that the
World Wide Websuddenly became mainstream. BBSes rapidly declined in popularity thereafter, and were replaced by systems using the Internetfor connectivity.
Before commercial Internet access became common, networks of BBSes provided regional and international
Internet. Elaborate schemes allowed users to download binary files, search gopherspace, and interact with distant programs, all using plain text e-mail. Most BBS networks were not linked in real-time. Instead, each would dial up the next in line, and/or a regional hub, at preset intervals to exchange files and messages.
The largest BBS network was
FidoNet, which is still active today, though much smaller than it was in the 1990s. Many other BBS networks followed the example of Fidonet, using the same standards and the same software. They were called Fidonet Technology Networks (FTNs). They were usually smaller and targeted at selected audiences. Some networks used QWK doors and other non Fido software and standards.
oftware and hardware
Unlike modern websites that are typically hosted by third-party companies in commercial server installations, BBS computers (especially for smaller boards) were typically operated from the SysOp's home, often in a bedroom or closet. As such, access could be unreliable, and in many cases only one user could be on the system at a time. Only larger BBSes with multiple phone lines and either multitasking software or a LAN connecting multiple computers, could have multiple simultaneous users.
The first BBSes used simple homebrew software, which ran on early personal computers such as the
Apple II, Atari, and TRS-80. These were often developed by the SysOp.
A few years later in 1981, IBM introduced the first PC-DOS (
MS-DOS) based personal computer, and due to the overwhelming popularity of these PCs and their clones, MS-DOSsoon became the operating system that the majority of BBS programs were run under. "Fido" BBS was the first notable MS-DOS BBS program, created by Tom Jennings, who later founded FidoNet. There were several successful commercial BBS programs developed for MS-DOS, such as PCBoard BBS, RemoteAccess BBS, and Wildcat! BBS. Some popular freeware BBS programs for MS-DOS included Telegard BBS and Renegade BBS, which both had early origins from leaked WWIV BBS source code. There were several dozen other BBS programs developed over the MS-DOS era, and many were released under the shareware concept, while some were released as freeware.
For SysOps using the
Commodore 64, (introduced in 1982) a popular commercial BBS program was Blue Board. Like other Commodore 64 BBSes, it supported PETSCII(Commodore colorized ASCII). PETSCII was also supported by the nationwide online service Quantum Link, later known as AOL.
Most BBSes remained text-based, rather than using a
Graphical User Interface(GUI) design. A BBS GUI called Remote Imaging Protocol(RIP) was promoted by Telegrafix in the early to mid 1990s but it never became widespread. There were several GUI-based BBS's on the Apple Macintoshplatform, including TeleFinderand FirstClass, but these remained widely used only in the Mac market.
The most popular form of online graphics was
ANSI artwhich allowed replacing letters with IBM Extended ASCII blocks and symbols, allowed changing colors on demand, and could even include sound. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, most BBSes used ANSI to make elaborate welcome screens, and colorized menus and ANSI support was a sought-after feature in client programs.
In the early 1990s a small number of BBSes were running on the
Commodore Amigamodels 500, 1200, 2000, and 3000, (using external hard drives), and the Amiga 4000(which had a built-in hard drive). Popular BBS software for the Amiga were ABBS, Amiexpress, Infinity and Tempest.
MS-DOS continued to be the most popular Operating System for BBS use up until the mid-1990s, and in the early years most multi-node BBSes were running under a DOS based multitasker such as
DesqView. By 1995 many of the MS-DOS based BBSes had switched over to OS/2, NT 4.0, Windows 95, or even Linux using DOSEmu.
By the late 1990s the most of the remaining BBSes evolved to include Internet hosting capabilities, either by using modern BBS software such as
Synchronet, EleBBS or Wildcat! BBSusing the Telnetprotocol rather than dialup, or by using legacy MS-DOS based BBS software with a FOSSILto Telnet redirector such as NetFoss.
Content and access
Some general purpose Bulletin Board Systems had special levels of access that were given to those who paid extra money or knew the sysop personally. Some of these BBSes that charged money usually had something special to offer their users such as large user bases,
Warez, pornography, chattingor internetaccess.
Pay BBSes such as The WELL and Echo NYC (now Internet forums rather than dial-up), ExecPC, and
MindVox(which folded in 1996) were admired for their tightly-knit communities and quality discussion forums. However many "free" BBSes maintained close knit communities and some even had annual or bi-annual events where users would travel great distances to meet face-to-face with their on-line friends.
Some BBSes, called "elite boards" or "Warez boards", were exclusively used for distributing illegally copied software. These BBSes often had multiple modems and phone lines, allowing several users to upload and download files at once. Most elite BBSes used some form of new user verification, where new users would have to apply for membership and attempt to prove that they weren't a law enforcement officer or a "
lamer." The largest elite boards accepted users by invitation only.
Another common type of board was the "support BBS" run by a manufacturer of computer products or software. These boards were dedicated to supporting users of the company's products with question & answer forums, news and updates, and downloads. Most of them were not a free call. Today, these services have moved to the web.
BBSing survives as a niche hobby for those who enjoy running BBSes and those users who remember BBSing as an enjoyable pastime. Most BBSes are now accessible over
telnetand typically offer free
Some BBSes are Web-enabled and have a Web-based user interface, allowing people who have never used a BBS before to use one easily via their favorite web browser. For those more nostalgic for the true BBS experience, one can use NetSerial (Windows) or
DOSBox(Windows/*nix) to redirect DOS COM port software to telnet, allowing them to connect to Telnet BBSes using 1980s and 1990s era modem terminal emulation software, like Telix, Terminate, Qmodemand Procomm Plus.Modern 32-bit terminal emulators such as mTelnet and SyncTerm include native telnet support.
The website "
textfiles.com" serves as a collection point of historical data involving the history of the BBS. The owner of this site produced , a program on DVDthat features interviews with well-known people (mostly from the United States) from the "hey-day BBS" era.
Much of the "
Shareware" movement was started via user distribution of software through BBSes. A notable example was Phil Katz's PKARC (and later PKZIP, using the same ".zip" algorithmthat WinZipand other popular archivers now use); also other concepts of software distribution like freeware, postcardwarelike JPEGviewand donationwarelike Red Ryder (software)for the Macintosh first appeared on BBS sites. Doom from id Softwareand many Apogee games were distributed as shareware. The Internet has largely erased the distinction of shareware - most users now download the software directly from the developer's web site rather than receiving it from another BBS user 'sharing' it. Today shareware is commonly used to mean electronically-distributed software from a small developer.
Many commercial BBS software companies that continue to support their old BBS software products switched to the shareware model or made it entirely free. Some companies were able to make the move to the Internet and provide commercial products with BBS capabilities.
A classic BBS had:
* One or more
* One or more phone lines
* A BBS software package
sysop- system operator
* Most modern BBSes allow
telnetaccess over the Internet using a telnet server and a virtual FOSSILdriver.
The BBS software usually provides:
* Menu Systems
* One or more message bases
* File areas
* Voting Booths
* Statistics on Message Posters, Top Uploaders / Downloaders
Online games (usually single player or only a single active player at a given time)
* A doorway to third-party online games
* Usage auditing capabilities
* Multi-user chat (more common in multi-line BBSes)
* Internet email (more common in later Internet-connected BBSes)
* Networked message boards setup by the SysOp
* A "yell for sysop" feature that would make the BBS computer emit an audible noise so that if the SysOp was near the computer and chose to respond, he or she could join a remote user in text-to-text chat.
List of BBS software
List of notable BBSes
ANSI art, ANSI escape code, ASCII art, Computer art sceneand
* Terminal software
* [http://archives.thebbs.org/ The BBS Archives]
* [http://telnetbbsguide.com/ The BBS Corner Telnet Guide]
* [http://www.bbsdocumentary.com/ The BBS Documentary] - [http://www.archive.org/details/bbs_documentary/ (Video Collection)]
* [http://www.bbshistory.org/ The BBS History Library]
* [http://bbslist.textfiles.com/ The TEXTFILES.COM Historical BBS List]
* [http://www.frappr.com/bbses Frappr.com: Flash map of current BBSes]
*dmoz|Computers/Bulletin_Board_Systems/|Bulletin Board Systems
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См. также в других словарях:
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