Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus


Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी टर्मिनस), (formerly Victoria Terminus) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and historic railway station in Mumbai which serves as the headquarters of the Central Railways. Situated in the Bori Bunder area of Mumbai, it was built as a new railway station on the location of the Bori Bunder Station[1] in 1887 to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. In 1996 its name was changed to the present name in honour of the Maratha warrior Shivaji. Its abbreviations CST or VT are popularly used by locals to refer to the station and it is also known by its abbreviation CSTM or Bombay VT. It is the busiest railway station in India,[2] and serves both as a terminal for long distance trains terminating in Mumbai as well as the Mumbai Suburban Railway.


Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
छत्रपती शिवाजी टर्मिनस

Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly Victoria Terminus
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus is located in Mumbai
Location within Mumbai
General information
Architectural style Indo-Saracenic
Town or city Mumbai, Maharashtra
Country India
Coordinates 18°56′24″N 72°50′07″E / 18.9400°N 72.8353°E / 18.9400; 72.8353
Construction started 1878[3]
Completed 1888[3]
Cost INR16,14,000
Design and construction
Client Bombay Presidency
Architect Frederick William Stevens, Axel Haig
Engineer Frederick William Stevens
Official name: Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus
Type: Cultural
Criteria: ii, iv
Designated: 2004 (28th session)
Reference #: 945
State Party:  India
Region: Asia-Pacific


'Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
छत्रपती शिवाजी टर्मिनस'
Indian Railway Station
Location
Coordinates 18°56′24″N 72°50′07″E / 18.9400°N 72.8353°E / 18.9400; 72.8353Coordinates: 18°56′24″N 72°50′07″E / 18.9400°N 72.8353°E / 18.9400; 72.8353
Street Dr. Dadabhai Naoroji Road
City Mumbai
District Mumbai City District
State Maharashtra
Elevation MSL +
Station Info & Facilities
Station type Junction Station
Structure Standard (on ground station)
Station status Functioning
Other name(s) CST, Mumbai CST, Victoria Terminus, VT
Connections Bus stand, Taxicab stand, Mumbai Suburban Railway
Operation
Code CSTM
Division(s) Mumbai
Zone(s) Central Railways (headquarters)
History
Opened 1887[3]

Contents

History

The site on which this station is situated, Bori Bunder, is of great historical importance and is associated with the origins of Mumbai as a city. The city derives its name from the goddess Mumba Devi, and the earliest temple dedicated to her is believed to have stood at the site of the Victoria Terminus. The original shrine was demolished in 1317 by Mubarak Shah and reconstructed. This was demolished by the Portuguese in 1760.

The station was designed by the consulting British architect Frederick William Stevens(1848-1900). Work began in 1878. He received INR1,614,000 (US$32,731.92) as payment for his services.[3] Stevens earned the commission to construct the station after a masterpiece watercolour sketch by draughtsman Axel Haig.[3] The final design bears some resemblance to the St Pancras railway station in London.[3][4] GG Scott's plans for Berlin's parliament building had been published four years before, and also has marked similarities to the station's design.[5]

It took ten years to complete[4] and was named "Victoria Terminus" in honour of the Queen and Empress Victoria; it was opened on the date of her Golden Jubilee in 1887.[4][6] It cost £260,000 when it was finished in 1888, the highest for any building of that era in Bombay.[7] This famous architectural landmark in Gothic style was built as the headquarters of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. Since then, the station came to be known as Bombay VT.

Originally intended only to house the main station and the administrative offices of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, a number of ancillary buildings have been added subsequently, all designed so as to harmonise with the main structure. A new station to handle main line traffic was erected in 1929. The original building is still in use to handle suburban traffic and is used by over three million commuters daily. It is also the administrative headquarters of the Central Railway.

In 1996, the Minister of Railways, Suresh Kalmadi, changed the name of the station to Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus[8][9] in honour of the great Maratha king Chhatrapati Shivaji.

In 2008, the station was featured prominently in the Academy Award winning film, Slumdog Millionaire. In 1956, the station was also featured in the film C.I.D. during the song 'Yei Hai Bombay Meri Jaan'.

Terrorist attacks in 2008

On 26 November 2008, two terrorists entered the passenger hall of the CST, opened fire and threw grenades at people. The terrorists were armed with AK-47 rifles.

Kasab in the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus during the 2008 Mumbai attacks.

One of the terrorists, Ajmal Kasab, was later caught alive by the police and identified by eyewitnesses. The attacks began around 21:30 when the two men entered the passenger hall and opened fire,[10][11] The attackers killed 58 people and injured 104 others,[11], including a police officer, Tukaram Omble; their assault ending at about 22:45.[10]. The CCTV captured the attack, and the evidence was used to identify and indict Kasab.

The structure

Facade of CST.
Facade of CST.

The station building was designed in the High Victorian Gothic style of architecture. The building exhibits a fusion of influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Indian architecture. The skyline, turrets, pointed arches, and eccentric ground plan are close to traditional Indian palace architecture. Externally, the wood carving, tiles, ornamental iron and brass railings, grills for the ticket offices, the balustrades for the grand staircases and other ornaments were the work of students at the Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art. The station stands as an example of 19th century railway architectural marvels for its advanced structural and technical solutions.

The VT was constructed using high level of engineering both in terms of railway engineering and civil engineering. It is one of the first and is considered as one of the finest products of the use of industrial revolution technology merged with revival of the Gothic Revival style In India . The centrally domed office structure has a 330 feet long platform connected to a 1,200 feet long train shed, and its outline provides the skeleton plan for building. VT's dome of dovetailed ribs, built without centering, was considered as a novel achievement of the era. The interior of the building was conceived as a series of large rooms with high ceilings. It is a utilitarian building and has had various changes required by the users, not always sympathetic. It has a C-shaped plan which is symmetrical on an east-west axis. All the sides of the building are given equal value in the design. It is crowned by a high central dome, which acts as the focal point. The dome is an octagonal ribbed structure with a colossal female figure symbolizing Progress, holding a torch pointing upwards in her right hand and a spoked wheel in her left hand. The side wings enclose the courtyard, which opens on to the street. The wings are anchored by monumental turrets at each of their four corners, which balance and frame the central dome. The façades present the appearance of well proportioned rows of windows and arches. The ornamentation in the form of statuary, bas-reliefs, and friezes is exuberant yet well controlled. The columns of the entrance gates are crowned by figures of a lion (representing Great Britain) and a tiger (representing India). The main structure is built from a blend of India sandstone and limestone, while high-quality Italian marble was used for the key decorative elements. The main interiors are also decorated: the ground floor of the North Wing, known as the Star Chamber, which is still used as the booking office, is embellished with Italian marble and polished Indian blue stone. The stone arches are covered with carved foliage and grotesques.[12]

Internally, the ceiling of the booking hall was originally painted blue, gold and strong red on a ground of rich blue with gold stars. Its walls were lined with glazed tiles made by Maw & Co of Britain.[13] Outside, there are statues representing Commerce, Agriculture, Engineering and Science, with a statue representing Progress on the central dome of the station.[13] A statue of Queen Victoria beneath the central dome has been removed.[13]

Rumours persist that the design for Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus in Mumbai, India was originally designated for Flinders Street Station. However, no convincing evidence, other than architectural similarities to other buildings in their respective cities, has been produced to support the rumour.

Plans are underway to upgrade Mumbai CST (along with Pune Jn. and Nagpur Jn.) by means of a public-private partnership.

Long distance trains Departing from Mumbai CST

Trains that start from Mumbai CST to North India/North East India/Aurangabad (Via Nasik/Manmad/Bhusawal)

  • Mumbai CST-Varanasi Mahanagri Express Train No:11093/11094
  • Mumbai CST-Howrha Geetanjali SuperFastExpress Train No:12860/12859
  • Mumbai CST-Lucknow Puspak Super Fast Express Train No:12533/12534
  • Mumbai CST-Nagpur Sewagram Superfast Express Train No.12139/12140
  • Mumbai CST-Gondia Vidarbha Super Fast Express Train No:12105/12106
  • Mumbai CST-Firozpur Punjab mail Express Train No:12137/12138
  • Mumbai CST-Amravati Super Fast Express Train No:12111/12112
  • Mumbai CST-Howrha Junction Howrha mail Express Train No:12809/12810
  • Mumbai CST-Howrha Kolkatta mail (Via Allahabad) Express Train No:12322/12321
  • Mumbai CST-Rajendranagar SuperFastExpress Train No:12141/12142
  • Mumbai CST-Jabalpur Garib rath SuperFastExpress Train No:12188/12189
  • Mumbai CST-Asansol SuperFastExpress Train No:12362/12361
  • Mumbai CST-Howrha SuperFastExpress Train No:12870/12869
  • Mumbai CST-Nanded Tapovan Express Train No:17618/17617
  • Mumbai CST-Aurangabad Jansatabdi Express Train No:12071/12072
  • Mumbai CST-Nagpur Nandigram Express via Auranagbad, Nanded Train No:11404/11402
  • Mumbai CST-Manmad Panchavati Express Train No:12109/12110
  • Mumbai CST-Secundrabad Devgiri Express via Auranagbad, Nanded Train No:17057/17058
  • Mumbai CST-Nanded Tapovan Express Train No:17618/17617
  • Mumbai CST-Nagpur Duranto Express Train No:12289/12290
  • Mumbai CST-Howrha Duranto Express Train No:12261/12262

Trains that start from Mumbai CST to South India (Via Pune/Kolahapur/Hyderabad/Chennai/Banglore)

  • Mumbai CST-Pune Indrayani Express Train No:12525/12526
  • Mumbai CST-Pune Intercity Express Train No:12127/12128
  • Mumbai CST-Pune Deccan Express Train No:11007/11008
  • Mumbai CST-Pune Pragati Express Train No:12125/12126
  • Mumbai CST-Pune Sinhgad Express Train No:11009/11010
  • Mumbai CST-Pune Deccan Queen Express Train No:12123/12124
  • Mumbai CST-Kolhapur Koyna Express Train No:11029/11030
  • Mumbai CST-Kolhapur Shayadri Express Train No:11023/11024
  • Mumbai CST-Kolhapur Mahalaxmi Express Train No:11011/11012
  • Mumbai CST-Bangalore City Udyan Express Train No:16529/16530
  • Mumbai CST-Trivandram Express Train No:16331/16332
  • Mumbai CST-Hyderabad Express Train No:17031/17032
  • Mumbai CST-Chennai Express Train No:11041/11042
  • Mumbai CST-Bhubaneswar Konark Express Train No:11019/11020
  • Mumbai CST-Kanyakumari Express Train No:16381/16382
  • Mumbai CST-Latur Express Train No:12527/12528
  • Mumbai CST-Hyderabad Hussainsagar Express Train No:12701/12702
  • Mumbai CST-Solapur Siddheswar Express Train No:12115/12116
  • Mumbai CST-Shiridi/Bijapur Fast passenger Train No:51033/51034
  • Mumbai CST-Chennai Mail Train No:11027/11028
  • Mumbai CST-Nagarcoil Express Via Tirupati Train No:16351/16352
  • Mumbai CST-Pandarpur Fast passenger Train No:51027/51028
  • Mumbai CST-Nagarcoil Express Via Tirupati Train No:16351/16352

Trains that start from Mumbai CST to South India (Via Konkan Railways)

  • Mumbai CST-Madgaon Jansatabdi Express Train No:12051/12052
  • Mumbai CST-Madgaon Mandovi Express Train No:10103/10104
  • Mumbai CST-Madgaon Konkan Kanya Express Train No:10111/10112
  • Mumbai CST-Mangalore Express Train No:12133/12134

Suburban Network

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
छत्रपती शिवाजी टर्मिनस
Mumbai Suburban Railway station
Station statistics
Address Dr Dadabhai Naoroji Rd, Dhobi Talao, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Coordinates 18°56′24″N 72°50′07″E / 18.9400°N 72.8353°E / 18.9400; 72.8353Coordinates: 18°56′24″N 72°50′07″E / 18.9400°N 72.8353°E / 18.9400; 72.8353
Lines Central Line, Harbour Line
Structure Standard on-ground station
Other information
Code ST
Owned by Ministry of Railways, Indian Railways
Fare zone Central Railways

The network of suburban trains (locally known as locals, short for local trains) radiating out from this station is instrumental in keeping Mumbai running. The station serves long-distance trains as well as two of the suburban lines-the Central Line and the Harbour line. It is the westernmost terminus of Central Railway. On the Central Line the trains terminate at Kurla, Ghatkopar, Thane, Dombivli, Kalyan, Ambarnath, Badlapur, Karjat, Khopoli, Asangaon, Titwala, and Kasara. While on the Harbour Line, the trains terminate at Bandra, Andheri, Mankhurd, Vashi, Belapur and Panvel.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
Next station south:
Terminus
Mumbai Suburban Railway : Central Line Next station north:
Masjid Bunder
Stop No: 1 KM from starting: ? Platforms: ?
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
Next station south:
Terminus
Mumbai Suburban Railway : Harbour Line Next station north:
Masjid Bunder
Stop No: 1 KM from starting: ? Platforms: ?

In Modern Culture

The station has been the location of filming the Jai Ho song in Slumdog Millionaire[14]; a future James Bond film [15]; Ra.One[16] etc.

Panorama

Victoria Terminus, Mumbai.jpg

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Aruṇa Ṭikekara, Aroon Tikekar (2006). The cloister's pale: a biography of the University of Mumbai. Popular Prakashan. pp. 357. ISBN 8179912930. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=dz9wl5vvKCAC&dq=. Page 64
  2. ^ http://www.rediff.com/business/slide-show/slide-show-1-indias-impressive-railway-stations/20111013.htm
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Chhatrapati Shivaji Station". World Heritage Site. www.worldheritagesite.org. http://www.worldheritagesite.org/sites/chhatrapatishivaji.html. Retrieved 2008-12-03. 
  4. ^ a b c "Advisory Body Evaluation: Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (India)" (pdf). UNESCO - World heritage - documents associated with listing. UNESCO. 2004. http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/945rev.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-03. 
  5. ^ Bombay Gothic by Christopher W London 2002 India Book House PVT Ltd ISBN 81-7508-329-8
  6. ^ Image
  7. ^ Bombay Gothic by Christopher W London 2002 India Book House PVT Ltd ISBN 81-7508-329-8
  8. ^ "Suresh Kalmadi - Work Profile". http://www.sureshkalmadi.org/work-profile/minister-rail/. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  9. ^ "Suresh Kalmadi - In Conversation". http://www.sureshkalmadi.org/in-conversation/. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  10. ^ a b "3 witnesses identify Kasab, court takes on record CCTV footage". The Economic Times (India). 17 June 2009. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/PoliticsNation/3-witnesses-identify-Kasab-court-takes-on-record-CCTV-footage/articleshow/4665196.cms. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  11. ^ a b "Photographer recalls Mumbai attacks". The News International. 16 June 2009. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=22785. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  12. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/945rev.pdf
  13. ^ a b c W, Christopher (2002). Bombay Gothic. London. ISBN 81-7508-329-8. 
  14. ^ Outlook Publishing (6 October 2008). Outlook. Outlook Publishing. pp. 69–. http://books.google.com/books?id=VTEEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA69. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  15. ^ "Bond in India, Bachchan in Hollywood and Pitbull in Mumbai". Mumbai Boss. September 9, 2011. http://mumbaiboss.com/2011/09/09/bond-in-india-bachchan-in-hollywood-and-pitbull-in-mumbai/. Retrieved 2011-11-07. 
  16. ^ "3,500 VFX shots in RA.One". Mahiram. undated. http://www.mahiram.com/2011/09/28/3500-vfx-shots-in-ra-one/. Retrieved 2011-11-07. 

External links


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