- Battle of Elchingen
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of Elchingen
War of the Third Coalition
caption=The battlefield in front of the monastery of Elchingen
October 14, 1805
Elchingen, present-day Germany
combatant1=flagicon|France French Empire
commander2=Graf Johann von Riesch
casualties1=800 killed or wounded
casualties2=2,000 killed or wounded
The Battle of Elchingen (
October 14, 1805) saw French forces under Marshal Michel Neyblock Feldmarschall-Leutenant (FML or Major-General) Johann Riesch's Austrian forces, leading to the final encirclement and surrender of Austrian forces in the Ulm Campaign.
Battle of Haslach-Jungingenon October 11, a much smaller French force led by Major-General Pierre Dupont blocked the Austrian army of General Karl Mack von Lieberichfrom escaping eastward along the north bank of the Danube.
During the next day, several French corps marched west on the south side of the Danube. Napoleon still hoped to encircle Mack's forces south of the river. He seemed unaware of the possibility that the Austrians could get away on the north bank. On
October 13, Napoleon heard from Marshal Michel Neythat only Dupont's division and some cavalry occupied the north bank in force. He ordered Ney and Marshal Joachim Muratto shift their forces to the north side of the river the next day.
An 8,000-man Austrian corps led by Reisch occupied high ground on the north bank near the villages of Ober- and Unter-Elchingen. Deployed on the heights were 14 battalions of the Kaiser Nr. 1, Archduke Ludwig Nr. 8, Riese Nr. 15 and Erbach Nr. 42 Infantry Regiments. In close support were 11 squadrons of cavalry from the Archduke Franz Nr. 2 Cuirassiers, Hohenzollern Nr. 8 Cuirassiers and Rosenberg Nr. 6 Light Horse, plus 12 cannon.
Ney's VI Corps included the infantry divisions of Dupont and Maj-Gens Louis Loison and Mahler. Dupont was already north of the Danube with Brigadier-General Tilly's corps cavalry. Ney planned to have Loison's men attack across a partly dismantled bridge directly south of Riesch's position. As soon as the bridge was secure, Murat would send cavalry across to help. Meanwhile, Mahler would cross further east and then sweep west along the north bank.
Loison commanded the 6th Light, and the 39th, 69th and 76th Line Infantry Regiments under Brig-Gens
Eugene-Casimir Villatteand François Roguet. Mahler led three battalions of the 25th Light, and 2 battalions each of the 27th, 50th and 59th Line Infantry Regiments under Brig-Gen Labasse. Brig-Gen Colbert's cavalry brigade included the 3rd Hussar and 10th Chasseur Regiments.
At 8:00 am, Ney sent the elite companies of Villatte's brigade across the bridge where they overpowered the bridge guard. French engineers quickly repaired the span so that when Riesch sent two battalions to interfere, they were driven back by a growing body of French reinforcements.
Villatte's brigade assaulted the main Austrian position supported by Colbert's cavalry. The 6th Light rapidly captured the Elchingen Abbey and most of Ober-Elchingen. The 39th Line was driven back by Austrian cavalry, but Loison brought up Roguet's brigade to help.
Threatened by Mahler from the east and Dupont from the northeast, Riesch began pulling back. The 69th Line helped roll Riesch's men back into the Grosser Forest. Murat sent more cavalry into the contest. Colonel Charles Lefèbvre-Desnoëttes's 18th Dragoons broke an Austrian square after it was softened up by musketry from the 76th Line. Colonel Auguste Caulaincourt's 19th Dragoons also joined the pursuit. A final cavalry charge by the Austrians was checked by Roguet's brigade, then counter-charged by Colbert's horsemen.
The French admitted losing 56 officers and 737 men killed or wounded. They captured 4,000 Austrians and 4 cannon. Austrian killed and wounded may have been as high as 2,000. In the aftermath, the French pursuit overran a large portion of Mack's artillery park.
Mack was now trapped in Ulm. Riesch's survivors retreated to Ulm where they surrendered along with the bulk of Mack's forces in the
Battle of Ulmon October 20. However, large portions of the Austrian army remained outside Napoleon's net. In several clashes through October 18, Murat's pursuit mopped up Lieut-Gen Werneck's command and other units. Only FMLs Archduke Ferdinand, Friedrich Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Karl Schwarzenberg and some cavalry escaped.
* Chandler, David. "The Campaigns of Napoleon" Macmillan, 1979.
* Chandler, David. Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars" Macmillan, 1979.
* Smith, Digby. "The Napoleonic Wars Data Book" Greenhill, 1998.
* Young, Peter, "Ney: The Bravest of the Brave," Chandler, David (ed.). "Napoleon's Marshals" Macmillan, 1987.
* [http://www.napoleonicminiatureswargame.com/elchingen.html Elchingen October 14 1805: Action Report]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Battle of Ulm — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Ulm caption= The Capitulation of Ulm by Charles Thevenin. Oil on canvas. partof=the Ulm Campaign date=October 16 19, 1805 place=Ulm, Württemberg, present day Germany result=Decisive French victory, an… … Wikipedia
Elchingen — Infobox Ort in Deutschland Wappen = kein lat deg = 48 |lat min = 27 |lat sec = 06 lon deg = 10 |lon min = 05 |lon sec = 52 Lageplan = Bundesland = Bayern Regierungsbezirk = Schwaben Landkreis = Neu Ulm Höhe = 465 Fläche = 24.87 Einwohner = 9213… … Wikipedia
Battle of Haslach-Jungingen — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Haslach Jungingen partof=the War of the Third Coalition date=October 11, 1805 place=Haslach, present day Germany result=French victory combatant1=flagicon|France First French Empire… … Wikipedia
Ney, Michel, Duc D'elchingen, Prince De La Moskowa — ▪ French duke Introduction born Jan. 10, 1769, Sarrelouis, Fr. died Dec. 7, 1815, Paris one of the best known of Napoleon s marshals (from 1804), who pledged his allegiance to the restored Bourbon monarchy when Napoleon abdicated in 1814. Upon… … Universalium
Ney, Michel, duke d'Elchingen — born Jan. 10, 1769, Sarrelouis, France died Dec. 7, 1815, Paris French army officer, the best known of Napoleon s marshals. He distinguished himself in the French Revolutionary Wars and rose to general in 1799. A supporter of Napoleon, he was… … Universalium
Waterloo, Battle of — (June 18, 1815) Final defeat of Napoleon and French forces in the Napoleonic Wars. The battle was fought near Waterloo village, south of Brussels, during the Hundred Days of Napoleon s restoration, by Napoleon s 72,000 troops against the duke of… … Universalium
Quatre Bras order of battle — The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Quatre Bras on 16 June 1815. The numbers following each unit is the approximate strength of that unit.Anglo allied ArmyField Marshal Arthur Wellesley, Duke of WellingtonI CorpsWilliam,… … Wikipedia
Order of battle of the French invasion of Russia — This is the order of battle of the French invasion of Russia. Grande Armée On June 24, 1812, the Grande Armée of 690,000 men, the largest army assembled up to that point in European history, crossed the river Neman and headed towards Moscow. The… … Wikipedia
Prince de La Moskowa — The titles of Duc d Elchingen and Prince de La Moskowa were created by Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, for the Marshal of France Michel Ney. Both were victory titles; Ney was created duc d Elchingen in 1808, after the Battle of Elchingen, and… … Wikipedia
Prince de la Moskowa — The titles of Duc d Elchingen and Prince de la Moskowa were created by Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, for the Marshal of France Michel Ney. Both were victory titles; Ney was created duc d Elchingen in 1808, after the Battle of Elchingen, and… … Wikipedia