Hyeonjong of Joseon


Hyeonjong of Joseon

Infobox Korean name
hanja=顯宗
hangul=현종
rr=Hyeonjong
mr=Hynjong
hanjaborn=李棩
hangulborn=이연
rrborn=I Yeon
mrborn=I Yn
hangulja=경직
hanjaja=景直
rrja=Gyeongjik
mrja=Kngjik

King Hyeonjong of Joseon (1641-1674) was the 18th monarch of the Korean Joseon Dynasty, reigning from 1659 to 1674. His reign was mostly marked by heavy conflict among nation's political factions on various issues, especially on funeral issue.

Background

Hyeonjong was born in 1641 as the first son of King Hyojong as Yi Yeon, while his father was still in China as captive of Manchu Qing Dynasty; thus he was born at Shenyang, the Manchu capital before Qing Dynasty officially move its capital to Beijing after defeating Ming Dynasty in 1644. He returned to Korea in 1645 along with his father and became Crown Prince in 1651.

Conflict about Hyojong's funeral

When King Hyojong died in 1659, Hyeonjong succeeded his father as the ruler of Joseon. The first issue during his reign was about his predecessor's funeral; The conservative Westerners faction and the liberal Southerners faction squared off about how long Queen Jaeui, King Injo's second wife, should have to wear funeral garment according to the Confucian form of funeral. The Westerners, headed by Song Si-yeol, contended that she needed to wear the funeral garment for only a year, while the Southerners and their leader Heo Jeok wanted a 3-year period. This conflict arose because there was no previous record about Confucian funeral requirements when somebody's second stepson who actually succeeded the family line dies. The Westerners wanted to follow the custom for a second stepson, while the Southerners thought Hyojong deserved a 3-year funeral since he actually succeeded King Injo in the royal line.

The final decision was up to young King Hyeonjong; He chose to enforce a 1-year period, which would keep the Westerners as the major faction. However, at the same time, Hyeonjong did not remove Heo Jeok from office of Prime Minister, in order to prevent the Westerners from threatening royal authority. The feud between the Southerners and the Westerners was highly intensified by funeral issue; Earlier, after the fall of the Greater Northerners in 1623, the Westerners and the Southerners formed political alliance under the leadership of King Hyojong, but on the funeral issue, both sides were intractable, leading to a greater probability of confrontations.

Hyeonjong at first maintained the balance of two factions by compromising between them with the 1 year period of the Westerners and keeping Southerner Heo Jeok as Prime Minister, and the two factions resumed a peaceful relationship temporarily. However in 1674, when Queen Inseon, Hyojong's wife and Hyeonjong's mother, died, the funeral issue came up again; The Southerners wanted Queen Jaeui to wear the funeral garment for one year while the Westerners preferred a nine month period. This time Hyeonjong listened to the Southerners and selected their method, making the Southerners faction as major political faction over the Westerners. The funeral controversy continued even after Hyeonjong died in 1674, and it was settled by Hyeonjong's successor King Sukjong, who banned all debate about the issue. The controversy even affected the publishment of official history of Hyeonjong's era; at first it was written chiefly by Southerners but later it was revised by Westerner historians.

Achievements

In 1666, during Hyeonjong's reign, Dutchman Hendrick Hamel left Korea and returned to the Netherlands, and wrote a book about Joseon Dynasty and his experience in Korea for fourteen years, which introduced the small kingdom to many Europeans.

Hyeonjong stopped Hyojong's plan of northern conquest, since the Joseon and Qing Dynasties established a friendly relationship and the Qing Dynasty became too large to conquer with tiny military of Joseon Dynasty. However, Hyeonjong continued Hyojong's military expansion and reconstruction of the nation which was devastated from Seven-Year War and two Manchu invasions. He also encouraged Astronomy and printing. He also legally banned the marriage between relatives and also between those who share same surnames. He died in 1674, and was succeeded by his son Sukjong.

Family

*Father: King Hyojong (효종)
*Mother: Queen Inseon of the Jang clan (인선왕후 장씨)
*Consort: Queen Myeongseong of the Kim clan (명성왕후 김씨) [Not to be confused with another Myeongseong, with the same Sino-Korean syllable yet with different hanja, who came from his son Sukjong's second wife's descendant thru her clan (Yeoheung Min)]
*Issue:
# Royal Prince Successor (왕세자)
# Princess Myeongseon (명선공주)
# Princess Myeonghye (명혜공주)
# Princess Myeongan (명안공주)

His full posthumous name

* King Hyeonjong Sohyu Yeongyung Dondeok Suseong Sunmun Sukmu Gyungin Changhyo the Great of Korea
* 현종소휴연경돈덕수성순문숙무경인창효대왕
* 顯宗昭休衍慶敦德綏成純文肅武敬仁彰孝大王

References

ee also

*Rulers of Korea
*History of Korea
*Joseon Dynasty


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