- William Brown (admiral)
Early life and career
Career as a merchant captain
William Brown was born in Foxford, County Mayo, Ireland on
June 22, 1777. His family emigrated to Philadelphia, Pennsylvaniain the United States, about 1786, when William was only nine years old. Catholic Encyclopedia, [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02804a.htm William Brown.] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.] A short time after the arrival, the friend who had invited them out and offered them food and hospitality died of yellow fever, and several days later, William's father also succumbed to the same disease.Ireland, County Mayo, Foxford, [http://foxford.freeservers.com/brown.htm Admiral William Brown.] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.]
One morning while wandering along the banks of the
Delaware River, he met the captain of a ship then moored in port. The captain enquired if he wanted employment and Brown answered yes. The captain then and there engaged him as a cabin boy, thereby setting him on the naval promotion ladder, where he worked his way to the captaincy of a merchant vessel.
Comparatively little is known of Brown's early life, and it has been suggested that he was illegitimate and took his mother's surname, and that his father's surname was actually Gannon. [cite web| url=http://www.irlandeses.org/geraghty040406.htm | title=Was Admiral William Brown Admiral Someone Else? | accessdate=2006-11-02 | last=Geraghty | first=Michael J. | publisher=Society for Irish Latin American Studies]
Service during the Napoleonic Wars
After ten years on the Atlantic, where he developed his skills as a seaman and reached the level of captain, William Brown was press-ganged into a British boat and forced to serve the British crown.
Napoleonic wars, Brown's ship was seized by a French man-of-war, and he was made a prisoner and sent to Lorient. On being transferred to Metz, he succeeded in escaping disguised in a French officer's uniform. He was recaptured, however, and then imprisoned in the fortress of Verdun. From there, in 1809, he escaped in the company of a British colonel named Clutchwell and eventually reached German territory.
Returning to England, he renounced his maritime career and, on
July 29, 1809, he married Elizabeth Chitty, in Kent. Brown left the same year for the Río de la Plataon board "Belmond" and set himself up as a merchant in Montevideo, Uruguay.Irish Migration Studies in Latin America, Dictionary of Irish Latin American Biography, [http://www.irishargentine.org/dilab_brownw.htm William Brown.] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.]
Immigration to Argentina
Brown became part owner of a ship called "Eliza", trading between Montevideo and
Buenos Aires. When "Eliza" met with disaster and ran aground, Brown carried his cargo inland, and having disposed of it profitably, he next crossed the Andesto Chile. He had by now accumulated sufficient capital to enable him to purchase a schooner called "Industria" (Spanish for "Industry"), with which he opened a regular sailing-packet service between Uruguay and Argentina, the first such venture in South America. At this point, the Spanish colonial government stepped in, sensing a threat to its mercantile interests.
Commander-in-Chief of the Argentine Navy
War with Spain
Spanish ships destroyed Brown's schooner, and took drastic effects to nullify Argentina's attempts to defend her coasts against Spanish raiders. As a result of the incident, Argentina resolved to provide ships to protect her coasts and trade, with Brown being commissioned as a Lieutenant Colonel at the service of the Navy and appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Argentine fleet.
Brown resolved to attack the formidable Spanish squadron with his ill-equipped navy of seven ships. On
March 8 1814, Brown took his tiny fleet to sea and within 48 hours was engaged in a furious battle. Land and sea forces saw action at Isla Martín García, a fortified island twenty miles above Buenos Aires, commanding the two rivers Paraná and Uruguay, and known as "the Gibraltarof the River Plate." Brown failed to win possession of the island, and his flagship, the "Hercules", was badly battered and ran aground. Argentine forces attacked vigorously by land and sea on 14 March, and after a stiff contest succeeded in gaining possession of Martín García. The Spanish commander took his ships to Montevideo hotly pursued by Brown, whose naval forces were now increased by the addition of three armed merchant vessels.
The Spanish blockading squadron was now blockaded itself by Brown and his fleet. Montevideo was threatened with starvation. Brown, pretending to retreat, drew the Spanish forces away on
May 14from the protection of the fort guns, and two days afterwards on May 16an engagement took place in the course of which Brown's leg was shattered by a cannon ball. Undeterred he continued to issue orders and direct operations while stretched on the deck of the "Hercules". In a panic the Spanish squadron rushed for shelter to port, but three of their ships were captured. As a direct result of this engagement the Río de la Platawas freed from Spanish control and Montevideo fell to the Argentines.
War with Brazil
Brown did not long remain inactive. Uruguay had been a bone of contention between
Spainand Portugalfor three centuries, and now it played the same role in relations between Argentina and Brazil. On December 14, 1825, war broke out between Argentina and Brazil. The Brazilians initiated operations by blockading Argentina. In this emergency, Argentina, under Brown's guidance, improvised a new naval squadron of which he took command. Before the battle, William Brown said two of his most memorable quotes: "Comrades: confidence in victory, discipline, and three hails to the motherland!" [Spanish: "Camaradas: confianza en la victoria, disciplina y tres vivas a la patria!" See High School of Commerce "Carlos Pellegrini", Buenos Aires University, [http://www.cpel.uba.ar/filargenta/correo/anta0062.htm "Almirante Guillermo Brown."] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.] and, few minutes later, "Open fire, the people are watching us!" [Spanish: "¡Fuego rasante, que el pueblo nos contempla!" See High School of Commerce "Carlos Pellegrini", Buenos Aires University, [http://www.cpel.uba.ar/filargenta/correo/anta0062.htm "Almirante Guillermo Brown."] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.] As a counter move to the blockade of Argentina, he vigorously attacked the Brazilian coast, shattered Brazilian shipping, and at the hard-fought Battle of Juncal( February 24, 1827), with seven ships and eight 1-gun launches he destroyed the entire opposing Brazilian squadron of seventeen ships and took its commander prisoner. On June 11, 1827, the decisive Battle of Los Pozos took place between the Argentine and Brazilian forces in view of Buenos Aires, Argentina having only eleven ships while Brazil had thirty-one warships. After a violent encounter, the Brazilians were routed and peace of a sort followed, with Brown acting as Argentine commissioner when the Treaty of Montevideowas signed on October 4, 1827. [Admiral Brown Society, [http://local.mobhaile.ie/admiralbrownp/AdmiralBrownsLife/tabid/9879/Default.aspx Admiral Brown's Life.] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.]
War with Uruguay
Factional disputes within Uruguay led Argentine leader
Manuel de Rosasto support his friend the deposed Uruguayan president Manuel Oribein the civil war between the "Blancos" and "Colorados". Brown returned to active service and defeated his former officer John Coein three engagements near Montevideo. On 15 August 1842he fought a battle on the River Paraná, defeating a Uruguayan riverine fleet of launches commanded by the future hero of the Italian Risorgimento, Giuseppe Garibaldi. Brown ordered his men to let Garibaldi go: "Let him escape, that "gringo" is a brave man". The Argentine/"Blanco" forces occupied most of Uruguay but could not capture Montevideo, which endured a nine-year siege beginning in February 1843. When access to Paraguaywas blocked in 1845 Britain, Franceand Brazilentered the conflict on the "Colorado" side.
In 1847, Admiral Brown visited his native Foxford accompanied by his daughter.
After the fall of the Rosas regime many naval officers found themselves discharged, but not the Commander of the Navy. Brown remained honoured for his long and loyal service to the nation. Retiring to his villa, "Casa Amarilla" at Barracas, Brown was visited by Grenfell, his opponent in the Brazilian war, who remarked how ungrateful the Republic was to its good servants; the old Admiral replied: "Mr Grenfell, it does not burden me to have been useful to the mother country of my children; I consider the honours and the wealth superfluous when six feet of earth are enough to rest so many difficulties and pains."
March 3, 1857he died and was buried with full military honours. The Argentine government issued a "comuniqué" stating that "with a life of permanent service to the national wars that our motherland has fought since its independence, William Brown symbolized the naval glory of the Argentine Republic". [Spanish: "simboliza las glorias navales de la República Argentina y cuya vida ha estado consagrada constantemente al servicio público en las guerras nacionales que ha sostenido nuestra Patria desde la época de la Independencia." Government of the Buenos Aires Province, Directorate-General of Culture and Education, [http://abc.gov.ar/paginaescuela/0078pp0019/brown.htm "Almirante Guillermo Brown."] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.] During his burial, General Bartolomé Mitrefamously said: "Brown in his lifetime, standing on the quarterdeck of his ship, was worth a fleet to us". [Spanish: "Brown en la vida, de pie sobre la popa de su bajel, valía para nosotros por toda una flota." Government of the Buenos Aires Province, Directorate-General of Culture and Education, [http://abc.gov.ar/paginaescuela/0078pp0019/brown.htm "Almirante Guillermo Brown."] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.] His grave is currently located in the Recoleta cemetery in Buenos Aires.
Commemorative stamps showing William Brown have been issued in 1957 by the Irish government, [See e.g. Siteworx UK Website Design, [http://www.siteworx.co.uk/irishfirstdaycovers/1957t3.jpgAdmiral William Brown.] URL accessed on
October 15, 2006.] and in 1891, 1935, and 1956 by the Argentine government. See list of people on stamps of Irelandand list of people on stamps of Argentina.
Statues and memorials of William Brown's battles are located in both Buenos Aires and Foxford, his birthplace in Ireland. [See e.g. North Atlantic Skyline Blog, [http://www.monasette.com/blog/gallery/argentina/admiral_brown.jpgStatue of Admiral William Brown in Buenos Aires.] URL accessed on
October 15, 2006.] In April-June 2006 the Irish Naval Service patrol boat LÉ "Eithne" travelled to Buenos Aires in the first-ever deployment of an Irish warship in the southern hemisphere, in order to participate in commemorations of the impending sesquicentenary of Brown's death, and to bring back a statue of Brown to be displayed in Dublin. [cite web |url=http://www.military.ie/naval/archive/eithne_diary/dep.htm |title=Voyage diary: L.É. Eithne departs for Buenos Aires, Argentina |accessdate=2006-12-16 |author=Cmdr Mark Mellett |year=2006 |month=February |publisher=Irish Naval Service ] Mr. Bertie Ahern, the Irish " Taoiseach", said on 27 September, 2006on the occasion of unveiling the new statue of Brown on Admiral Brown Way, Sir John Rogerson's Quay, Dublin: "Back in 2001, it was my honour to lay a wreath at the Admiral Brown monument in Buenos Aires and to unveil a plaque commemorating my visit there. I brought away with me a clear sense of just what a significant figure William Brown is in Argentine history as well as a real idea of just how strong the links are, past and present, between our two countries". [See [http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/index.asp?locID=200&docID=2901 report] at the Irish head of government official website. Full name: "speech by the Taoiseach, Mr. Bertie Ahern T.D., at the Unveiling of a Monument to Admiral Brown and the naming of 'Admiral Brown Way', at Sir John Rogersons Quay on Wednesday, 27 September, 2006 at 7.00pm". URL accessed on October 15, 2006.]
Located in "Casa Amarilla", Brown's home in Argentina, the Brownian National Institute was created in 1948 for "research and study the nation's maritime history and naval interests, and cooperate with both the Argentine and Irish governments in the investigation of William Brown's life and military achievements". The centre is based in
Buenos Airescity, with branches throughout the country. [Spanish: "Instituto Nacional Browniano", see official Bahia Blanca Branch website [http://www.browniano.com.ar/ website.] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.]
Also, a substantial number of Argentine watercraft and political entities have been named after him. Examples include:
*The "Almirante Brown" destroyer class, a group of four military ships commissioned between 1983 and 1984 for the federal navy. [Navy of the Argentine Republic, "Destructores Clase "Almirante Brown (Meko 360)", [http://www.ara.mil.ar/poder_naval/buques_superficie/pnav_esp_brown.htm Technical specifications.] URL accessed on
October 15, 2006.]
*The ARA "Almirante Brown", a cruiser in service during
World War II. [Maritime Archeology and History, Navy of the Argentine Republic, [http://www.histarmar.com.ar/Armada%20Argentina/HistoriaCrucerosArgentinos.htm ARA "Almirante Brown".] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.]
*The ARA "Almirante Brown" (D-10), a currently active destroyer.
Almirante Brown Antarctic Base, an Antarctic base located in Paradise Bay. [High School of Commerce "Carlos Pellegrini", Buenos Aires University, [http://www.cpel.uba.ar/filargenta/correo/anta0032.htm "Estación Científica Almirante Brown."] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.]
*The Almirante Brown department in
Chaco Province, in the country's northern region. [Government of the Chaco Province, Analysis and Planning Secretariat, [http://www.chaco.gov.ar/SecretariaDePlanificacion/region/web/index.php?mod=centrooeste "Región Centro Oeste."] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.]
*The Almirante Brown partido in Buenos Aires Province, located at the south of the
Gran Buenos Airesurban area. [Government of the Buenos Aires Province, [http://www.brown.mun.gba.gov.ar/ "Municipalidad de Almirante Brown."] URL accessed on October 15, 2006.]
*The Admiral William Brown National College, a
high schoollocated in Adrogué, Buenos Aires Province. [Spanish: "Colegio Nacional Almirante Guillermo Brown", see [http://www.alumni.net/South_America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires/Adrogue/ report] at "Alumni." URL accessed on October 15, 2006.]
*And four different football clubs:
Club Atlético Almirante Brownlocated in the town of Arrecifes, [Spanish: "Club Atlético Almirante Brown de Arrecifes", see the [http://www.bdfa.com.ar/club.asp?codigo=1033 report] of the Argentine Football Database (BDFA). URL accessed on October 15, 2006.] " Club Almirante Brown" located in Isidro Casanova, [Spanish: "Club Atlético Almirante Brown de Isidro Casanova", see the [http://www.bdfa.com.ar/club.asp?codigo=27 report] of the Argentine Football Database (BDFA). URL accessed on October 15, 2006.] Brown Athletic Club from Adrogué [Spanish: "Club Atlético Brown de Adrogué", see the [http://www.bdfa.com.ar/club.asp?codigo=1087 report] of the Argentine Football Database (BDFA). URL accessed on October 15, 2006.] , and Puerto Madryn-based William Brown Club.
* Aguinis, Marcos, "El combate perpetuo".
Buenos Aires, Editorial Sudamericana, 1971.
* Brown, Guillermo, "Memorias del Almirante Brown".
Buenos Aires, Academia Nacional de Historia, 1957.
* Hudson, Thomas, "Admiral William Brown: the Master of the River Plate".
Buenos Aires, 2004.
Irish military diaspora
* Murray, Edmundo [http://www.irlandeses.org/brownbiblio.htm "William Brown (1777-1857): A Bibliography"] , Society for Irish Latin American Studies.Persondata
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Brown, Guillermo
SHORT DESCRIPTION=sailor, businessman, admiral, "Father of the Argentine Navy"
DATE OF BIRTH=
22 June 1777
PLACE OF BIRTH=
Foxford, County Mayo, Ireland
DATE OF DEATH=
3 March 1857
PLACE OF DEATH=
Buenos Aires, Argentina
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