Santiago de Cali


Santiago de Cali

Infobox City
official_name = Santiago de Cali
nickname = "Branch of Heaven"


imagesize=
image_caption = Plaza Mayor



image_




mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location of the municipality and city of Cali in the Valle del Cauca Department.
subdivision_type = Colombia
subdivision_type = Region
subdivision_type1 = Department
subdivision_name = Pacific Region (Colombia)
subdivision_name1 = Department of Valle del Cauca*
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Jorge Ivan Ospina
established_title = Foundation
established_date = July 25, 1536
|area_total_km2 = 4977.96
population_as_of = 2005
population_total = 2725000
population_footnotes = [http://www.dane.gov.co/files/censo2005/resultados_am_municipios.pdf]
population_metro =5,279,031
population_urban =
population_density_km2 = 4372
population_density_sq_mi =
blank_name = HDI (2008)
blank_info = 0.80 – high
timezone =
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST =
utc_offset_DST =
latd= |latm= |lats= |latNS=
longd= |longm= |longs= |longEW=
elevation_m =
elevation_ft =
website =
[http://www.cali.gov.co/ www.cali.gov.co]
footnotes = *

Santiago de Cali (IPA2|sanˈtjaɰo ð̞e ˈkali), often shortened to Cali, is the main city and capital of the Valle del Cauca, a department in western Colombia, also known as the Pacific Region. With a population of 2,725,000, Santiago de Cali is the third largest city in Colombia. It is a magnet and a catalyst inside Colombia because of its industrial and commercial development, and has one of the fastest growing economies in the country because of its geographical location. Cali was founded on July 25, 1536 by the Spanish conqueror Sebastián de Belalcázar.

The first part of the name Santiago de Cali honours Saint James the apostle ("Santiago" in Spanish) whose feast day is celebrated on July 25. There are several possibilities for the origin of the word "Cali". Some attribute it to a mispronunciation of the word "Lili", the name of a local tribe. Others believe that the word "Cali" has Quechua origin, and it was brought by the Yanaconas Indians that came from Quito serving Sebastián de Belalcázar. This theory is reinforced by the fact that near Quito there is an indigenous town named "Cali Cali".

History

Pre-Columbian era and conquest

Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the current region of Cali was inhabited by many indigenous tribes, mostly speakers of Cariban languages. In the region between the Cauca River and the Western Cordillera, the Gorrones were established between the present day Roldanillo and Cali. The biggest town of the Morrones was sited on the River Pescador near the present day towns of Zarzal and Bugalagrande. Although cannibals, the Morrones traded with the Quimbayas who inhabited the north of the Valle del Cauca.

On his way to Cali, Sebastián de Belalcázar first met the Timbas who ran away before the arrival of the Conqueror's men, leaving behind their towns and gold. After the Timbas, towards the north, the Spaniards entered the territory of the chief Jamundí and his tribe, the Jamundíes, between the rivers Pance and Jamundí. These Indians offered a strong resistance to the invaders, fighting with poisonous darts and arrows against the arquebuses and swords of the Spaniards. After taking Jamundíes' town the Spaniards looted the Indian's gold.

Before taking complete control over the region, the Spaniards had to defeat the chief Petecuy, whose tribe inhabited the area between the river Lilí and the Western Cordillera. Petecuy formed a big army with many tribes and fought the Spaniards on Holy Tuesday of 1536.

The Morrones gave up easily to the Spaniards and were divided in encomiendas. The already "mestizo" nature of the Spaniards made the process of mixing with the Amerindians easy. In fact, Belalcázar himself fathered several children born in the Americas from Indian mothers, as did his men.

Cali was important for Belalcázar because it was beyond the Inca empire. After the capture and execution of the Inca Atahualpa at Cajamarca, Francisco Pizarro had sent Belalcázar to take possession of Guayaquil and Quito on his behalf, but Cali, being beyond the Quechua empire, was claimed by Belalcazar as his own territory. After his death, his descendants maintained possession of much of the land until the war of independence against Spain.

Founding and colonial period

The founder of Cali, Sebastián de Belalcázar, came to the American continent in the third voyage made by Columbus in 1498. In 1532, after serving in Darién and Nicaragua, he joined Francisco Pizarro in the conquest of Perú. In 1534 Belalcázar separated from Pizarro's expedition to found the city of Quito, and later in his search of El Dorado he entered the territory of what is now Colombia, founding the cities of Pasto and Popayán.

On July 25 1536, Belalcázar founded Santiago de Cali, first established a few miles north of the present location, near what are now the towns of Vijes and Riofrio. Under the orders of Belalcázar, captain Miguel Muñoz moved the city to its present location in 1537, where the chaplain Brother Santos de Añasco celebrated a mass in the place occupied by the Church La Merced today, and Belalcázar designated Pedro de Ayala as the first municipal authority.

During the "Colonia" (colonial period), Santiago de Cali was part of the gobernación of Popayán, which was part of Quito's Audiencia. Although initially Cali was the capital of Popayán's Gobernación, in 1540 Belalcázar moved this function to Popayán due to better weather.

Until the 18th century most of the territory of what is now Cali was occupied by haciendas (plantations), and the city was only a small town near the Cali River. In 1793, Cali had 6,548 inhabitants, 1,106 of whom were slaves. The haciendas were the property of the dominant noble class with many slaves dedicated mostly to stockbreeding and raising sugar cane crops. Many of these haciendas became neighborhoods of the present city like Cañaveralejo, Chipichape, Pasoancho, Arroyohondo, Cañasgordas, Limonar, and Meléndez.

Cali was strategically positioned for trade, centrally located in relation to the mining regions of Antioquia, Chocó, and Popayán. In the colonial period, the first trail for mules and horses between Cali and Buenaventura was completed.

Independence

On 3 July 1810 Santiago de Cali refused to recognize the Council of Regency of Spain and established its own junta. This local uprising predates the national one in Bogotá by 17 days. [Mendoza Neira, Plinio, ed. "Cali: La sultana del Valle" (Librería Colombiana Camacho Roldán, 1962).] The Governor of Popayán, Miguel Tacón y Rosique, organized an army to control the uprising. The people from Cali called for help to the "Junta Suprema" in Bogotá, which sent a contingent under colonel Antonio Baraya to support the independence cause. For mutual defense, Cali also formed, with Anserma, Cartago, Toro, Buga and Caloto, the "Friend Cities of the Cauca Valley", which declared independence from the Governorate of Popayán on 1 February 1811, although they continued to recognize the absent Ferdinand VII as their head of state. On the 28 March 1811 in the battle of Bajo Palacé the Army of Baraya defeated the royalist army with the help of Atanasio Girardot. [Zawadzky C., Alfonso, "Comentario al libro" Las Ciudades Confederadas del Valle del Cauca en 1811. Bogota, Editorial Librería Voluntad, S.A., 1943.]

In the following years there were many battles between royalists and local militia. After having been released from captivity by Napoleon, Ferdinand VII sent a large army under the command of the "Pacificador" (Pacifier) Pablo Morillo who restored royalist rule in the area by 1816.

In 1819 after Simón Bolívar defeated the bulk of the royalist army in the Battle of Boyacá, there were new uprisings in the Valle del Cauca and the Criollos took control permanently. In 1822 Bolívar arrived in Cali. The city was an important military outpost and the region contributed many men to the war of independence that liberated the nations in the south.

Modernism

In the 20th century Santiago de Cali, capital of the Cauca state, was a very quiet community with no more than 20,000 inahabitants. The urban center of the city were in the neighborhoods of Empedrado or Altozano, which were surrounded by La Merced and San Antonio neighborhoods.

The city was surrounded by mango plantations, pastures and communal lands that were transferred from the Spanish Crown to the impoverished class. From the market gardens on these lends the city was supplied in food resources. The economy was based mainly on livestock, sugar cane, beef, "panela", a sugar derivative, cheese and the gold mines from the Pacific; there were also a small growing industrialization sector of the economy.

Around 1890 a private company, Company of Public Works of Cauca, built the "Plaza de mercado" (market plaza). This originates the development of a commercial area and from this becomes the transformation of the Plaza Mayor or plaza de Caycedo. In 1921, the market was sold to the Cali municipality, very close to the 9th street, were located the princial station of the "tranvia" of Cali, this system linked the city with urban areas.

Recent History

In the year 1971 Santiago de Cali hosted the Pan American Games, an event which is considered by many as the height of the city's golden age as a model of civic orderliness: after it Cali was named the Sports Capital of Colombia. That same year, the government of Cali inaugurated what is now the second largest building in the Republic of Colombia. "La Torre de Cali", or The Cali Tower, has an hotel, offices and apartment complexes. It stands at 42 floors above the city, making it the 2nd largest building in Colombia, followed by the Colpatria Tower building, which stands in the capital of the republic, Bogotá.

On August 7th, 1956, at around 1 a.m., seven Colombian army trucks filled with 42 tons of dynamite exploded near the train station, destroying around eight city blocks and leaving a toll of thousands of dead and wounded. [ [http://www.museonacional.gov.co/cali.html] Cali, la explosión de 1956: catástrofe histórica ] [ [http://www.elpais.com.co/paisonline/notas/Agosto072006/cali3.html] El País - Cali recuerda la explosión del 7 de agosto ]

Geography and climate

Location

Cali is located on the Cauca Valley to the west of the Cauca River and to the east of the Western Mountain Range near the hills known as Farallones de Cali. The city rests approximately 1,000 meters (3,280 ft.) above sea level and its topography is fairly flat. Approximately 100 km west of Cali lies the port city of Buenaventura on the Colombian Pacific coast; to the northeast are the industrial town of Yumbo and the city of Palmira, where Cali's international airport, the Alfonso Bonilla Aragón (CLO), is located; the colonial city of Popayán is two hours south by car in the Cauca department.

Geography

Santiago de Cali is located on a valley. The city is totally bordered by mountains to the West, Los farallones are the most greaters close the city. The Eastern part of the city is bordered by the Cauca river, North and South both are extended plains, in the first one you can find the industrial city of Yumbo part of Cali's metropolitan area, to the south you can find Jamundi, also a metropolitan area. The city is mainly plain, but there are zones mostly at West that are Mountainous, there are also some elevations practically inside the city; like San Antonio and La loma de la Cruz, both are tourist sites.There are Several rivers that descend from the Western Mountain Range and empty into the Cauca River those rivers pass through the metropolitan area of Cali. In the western part of the city the Aguacatal River flows into the Cali River, which continues on to the Cauca River. In the south the rivers Cañaveralejo, Lilí, and Meléndez flow into the CVC south channel which also empties into the Cauca River. Farther south, the banks of the Pance River are a popular place for recreation and leisure.

Climate

The local climate is semi-tropical as the Western Mountain Range screens the flow of humidity from the Pacific coast towards the interior of the country. In the afternoons Cali enjoys a fresh cross breeze that originates in the west and blows east. The Western Mountain Range rises from an average of 2,000 meters above sea level in the northern part of the city to approximately 4,000 meters to the south. Because of this variation in altitude, the weather in the northwest portion of the city is drier than in the southwest. The average annual precipitation varies between 900 mm to 1,800 mm depending on the metropolitan zone for a citywide average of approximately 1,000 mm. Cali's average temperature is 24°C (74°F) with an average low temperature of 19°C (66°F) and a high of 30°C (86°F).

Due to its proximity to the equator there are no major seasonal variations. However, locals refer to the dry season as the city's "summer" period and call the rainy season "winter." There are typically two rainy seasons: from April to May and from October to November. Regardless, rain can be expected to fall at any point during the year nourishing the city's permanent green and lush vegetation.

Tourism

Historical tourism

Santiago de Cali offers historical areas with cultural variety and other attractions. In downtown Cali, you can find many historical churches like La Merced and La Ermita. Cali contains a well preserved Historical center, the most important zone is La plaza de Caycedo, considered the center of the city, which is a square surrounded by many historical and modern buildings like El edificio Otero, La Catedral and El Palacio de Justicia; This plaza is very close to other touristic places, like The Saint Francis church (in Spanish, "Iglesia de San Francisco"), the municipal theater and La Merced church. The city is also very rich in monuments, parks, squares and museums, the most emblematic sculptures are Cristo Rey with 42 meters, located upon a mountain range; Sebastian de Belalcazar, founder of the city and Las tres Cruces, a place of pilgrimage during the days of the Holy Week.

Regular tourism

There is a variety of nightclubs and restaurants. In the city you can find whole districts dedicated to tourism, for example Granada, one of the most traditional districts in Cali, full of gourmet restaurants, fashion stores and boutiques. Another spot to visit is "La sexta" is the 6th street .All type of nightclubs are there, also restaurants and hotels; is usually called as "zona rosa" or pink zone, and is located in the north very close to Chipichape mall.

Main touristic centers:

*Parque del perro: Located in the "San Fernando" neighborhood, this is one of the most popular zones in the city, full of restaurants and bars.

*Sebastian de Belalcazar's monument: Is the most visited and popular monument in the city, here you can find regional foods like "Mazorca asada," a roasted corn.

*Cali River: One of the most peaceful zones in the city, the river is located in the west and is surrounded by restaurants, hotels and museums like "La Tertulia," an art museum.

*Cristo Rey: A religious monument located on a hill that offers the best view of the city.

About shopping malls there are six big shopping centers in Cali, and they are divided zones:

South: "Unicentro, Palmetto plaza , Jardín Plaza and Cosmocentro"

North: "Chipichape, Unico and Centenario"

Today there are under construction two other large shopping centers, both located in the southern side of the city.The first one, named, Premier el Limonar, will be located in "El Limonar" neighborhood, in front of the 5th street. The other one will be located in San Fernando close to Imbanaco clinic. It will be called Centro comercial San Fernando, and it is being built the location that used to be a social club. Both malls will have a Carrefour store.

Medical Tourism

According to recent Lonely Planet guides of Colombia, Cali has recently become famous for being a prime destination for people seeking cheap cosmetic surgery. There have been no significant reports of problems in this area, but Lonely Planet advises proper research before pursuing such an idea.

Transportation

Masivo Integrado de Occidente (MIO)

* Cali has started building a mass transit system, M.I.O is based on the transportation model consisting of the use of articulated buses. The layout is 243 kilometers long distributed in trunk, pre-trunk and complementary corridors. This system is greatly needed to organize transportation in the City. It should start operating in November 15th, 2008.

List of the Trunk or principal corridors:

*Calle 5
*Carrera 15
*Calles 13 y 15
*Avenida de las Américas
*Avenida 3N
*Carrera 1
*Transversal 25
*Carrera 29 y Autopista Oriental
*Calle 70

For information about El MIO, in the ofial web site of metrocali; www.metrocali.gov.co (Spanish).

Alfonso Bonilla Aragón International Airport

Cali is served by Alfonso Bonilla Aragón International Airport, also known as Palmaseca International Airport, is located in the City of Palmira and serves Santiago de Cali and its suburbs. It is Colombia's second largest airport in terms of passengers transporting 2,171,551 in 2006 and is the 4th in cargo. Alfonso Bonilla Aragón is located in a long, narrow valley that runs from north to south, and is surrounded by mountains up to 14,000 feet (4,000 m) high.

Economy

Cali and the department (province) of Valle del Cauca conform one of the principal commercial centers in Colombia. The city is a national and international point of exchange. Cali has a privileged geographical location due to its proximity to Buenaventura port city which is the Colombian main port in the Pacific. The city’s economy is marked by its history which is reflected in the many sugar plantations of the area, which are part of the legacy of the "haciendas" culture (estates culture).

Since 1940, Valle del Cauca's PIB has grown at twice the average rate of the country, according to DANE statistics. In 1997 the regional PIB growth rate slowed, not even reaching 1%. In 1999 countrywide recession affected specially the regional economy, and PIB decreased -4% annually. Since then the economy has behaved erratically.

Industrial development is remarkable for a regional economy; the north of the city is the most industrialized district. The city of Yumbo, located on the northern limit of the city is a major industrial hub for many corporations, like Colombia's beverage producer Postobón S.A. and Bavaria brewery.

Economy 2006-2007

Today the city's economy is rising at a faster pace. The construction industry is the perfect example of such a rising as there are many residential developments booming all over the city. Moreover, commercial development is also on the rise; nowadays there are many commercial-centers or "malls" and shopping centers at the construction stage, and most of the ones already built are expanding or remodeling their existing locations.

Politics

Cali is governed by a mayor who is elected for a three-year term. Under the mayor, there are several administrative departments and secretaries.

The city council's members are elected by citywide circumscription for four year terms.The first elected mayor was Carlos Holmes Trujillo of the Liberal Party.

2007 Elections

The 2007 elections, which took place on October 28 2007, to replace Ramiro Reyes as mayor of Santiago de Cali, were very tight. Here is a list of the candidates who are running for "Alcalde del Santiago de Cali", or the mayor of Santiago de Cali:

Jorge Ivan OspinaKiko LloredaBruno DiazDiego Luis hurtadoJorge Portocarrero

Here are the current results as of October 28 2007 5:13 pm (Cali, Colombia):

As of 7:05 pm (Cali, Colombia) on October 28 2007, are the following FINAL results:

SUCCESSION OF RAMIRO TAFUR REYES: JORGE IVAN OSPINA

Education

Universities

*Universidad del Valle. The most important higher education institution is the Universidad del Valle (Valle State University), or Univalle, which was founded in 1945; with more than 20,000 students distributed in its schools and departments, Univalle offers a very wide variety of academic programs (with the exception of law). It stands out because of developments in the areas of scientific and applied technological research.

* Universidad Autonoma de Occidente. Founded in 1975, this private institution has more than 7 400 students.

* Pontifica Universidad Javeriana. Founded in 1970, is a private institution with more than 5 200 stundents. Has a mayor library with more than 36 000 books printed.
* Universidad ICESI.Founded in 1979, is a private institution that offers undergraduates programs, specialization and masters. Has more than 2 950 students and a library with more than 30 000 books.
* Universidad de San Buenaventura.
* Universidad Libre

La Manzana del Saber

Is today the most important educational project in cali, is located in south cali. There is already a Science Museum and a public library, the project is going to build a new museum called "Abrakadabra" and a investigation center. The project is in construction phase, the demolition of a whole block of the city will be undertaken to build the complex.

"You can find more information about this project at www.cali.gov.co. (Spanish)"

Arts and culture

Cultural centers

*Casa de la cultura Proartes. Since 1871 this house has been a great influence in the culture in cali. The building was restored on 1991 and it contains exhibition saloons, scenarios and a cinema.

*Centro cultural de Cali. Since 1997 it is considered the cultural center in the city and headquarters of the Municipal secretaries of truism and culture.

Museums

*Museo Arqueológico La Merced: It is an archeological museum that shows pre hispanic ceramics from southwest Colombia. "Carrera 4ª #6-59."

*Museo Religioso y Colonial de San Francísco: Works from 1940 in charge of the Franciscan community. Exposes Religious art. "Calle 9 #5-59."

Feria de Cali (Cali Fair)

"La Feria de Cali" is the main cultural event in the city. It is a fair that has been celebrated since 1957. The fair is celebrated from December 25th to December 30th. The fair is know also as the "Feria de la Caña" (sugar cane fair) and "Feria de la salsa" (Salsa fair). People enjoy many activities like an opening cabalgata (parade of horseback riders), tascas, salsa concerts, bullfights, parades, athletic activities and competitions and cultural exhibitions.

Cali is also known as the "Capital de la Salsa" given the city's infatuation with that type of Afro-Caribbean music. In early July there is the Summer Salsa Festival which lasts for one week. It usually includes concerts by the world's great remaining salsa bands as well as dance shows and "melomano" competitions in which salsa connoisseurs try to out do each other by digging deep into the archives of salsa music and related sounds to find and reveal long lost tunes.

Information about it in www.feriadecali.com (Spanish)

Rio Cali race

Cali has two main athletic events, a mid-year half marathon [http://www.maratoncali.com] and a December 10k race called Carrera del Río Cali.

ports

Colombia's sports capital city

The city of Santiago de Cali is recognized as the sports capital of Colombia. It is the first Colombian city to have hosted the Pan American Games 1971 Pan Am Games, and because this region has won the National Olympic Games more than any other region in Colombia. The city also counts with one of the most developed sport infrastructures in the country, many sporting events have taken place in the city.

Cali has two soccer stadiums; Estadio Olímpico Pascual Guerrero and Estadio del Deportivo Cali. Estadio Olímpico Pascual Guerrero is currently home of both Deportivo Cali and America de Cali, since Estadio Deportivo Cali is still under construction. Deportivo Cali is the only soccer team owner of a stadium in Colombia since all of the other soccer stadiums are owned by the government, other important scenario in the city is "El pueblo Arena" is a covered arena center use for all type of events, the main use is basketball.

Infrastructure

Cali's infrastructure has permitted it to host several major international sports competitions such as the 1971 Pan American Games, numerous Games of the Pacific, the 1999 World’s Roller Hockey Championships, women’s basketball and swimming events, Pan American Speed-Track Cycling Championships, and most recently the World’s Roller Speed Skating Championships.

*Olímpic stadium Pascual Guerrero
*El Pueblo Arena
*Polideportivo de El Vallado
*Unidad Deportiva Panamericana
*Velódromo Alcides Nieto Patiño
*Gimnasio Evangelista Mora
*Patinódromo Los Diputados
*Estadio del Deportivo Cali

Futbol (soccer)

* Santiago de Cali is home of two of the greatest football clubs in the country, these clubs are Deportivo Cali and America de Cali.
* Many well-known Colombian football players have been born in Cali:
** Giovanny Hernandez, currently plays for Atletico Junior in Barranquilla.
**Jairo Patiño currently plays for Banfield of Argentina.
** Hugo Rodallega was born in El Carmelo, Valle del Cauca, near Cali. He has played for Deportivo Cali, Monterrey, Atlas and Necaxa of Mexico.
** Mario Yepes played for teams such as Deportivo Cali, and Tulua, both in Valle del Cauca. He currently plays for Paris Saint-Germain, a major football club in France.
**Faryd Aly Mondragon, a famous goalkeeper for both the national team of Colombia, and FC Koln for Germany. He has had a rich history in football, playing for teams such as Galatasary in Turkey.
**Oscar Cordoba currently plays for Deportivo Cali. He is a goalkeeper who has certainly made Colombian history with his impeccable saves. He has played for several Turkish teams. He also played a lot of years in Boca Juniors of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
**Angelo Balanta currently plays for Q.P.R. in England.

Basketball and Bullfighting

* Though there is no current basketball team that calls Santiago de Cali home, basketball is the second-most played sport in the city. Basketball is a preferred sport at the city center location "La Carrera del Cholado". Football (soccer) still surpasses basketball in sport popularity.
* Bullfighting is staged during the Cali Fair which is held in December. It is anticipated by many citizens in Cali, as well as all Colombia. The bullfighting ring is called La Plaza de Toros de Cañaveralejo, located southwest of Cali.

Crime

Crime is a serious problem in Cali. As of 2006, there were 1,540 intentional homicides in the city and 1,726 overall when including the metropolitan area. The rates for the city and metropolitan area were 62 and 63 per 100,000 respectively. [cite web|url=http://www.derechoshumanos.gov.co/observatorio/departamentos/2007/valle.pdf |title=Diagnóstico Departamental Valle del Cauca |accessdate=2008-04-07 |format=PDF |pages=p. 16 |publisher=Derechos Humanos y DIH |language=Spanish] [cite web|url=http://www.elpais.com.co/paisonline/especiales/dialogos/docs/rafael.ppt |title=Observatorio del Delito Estratega para el control de la violencia urbana |accessdate=2006-07-08 |publisher=Universidad del Valle |language=Spanish]

ister Cities

*flagicon|Spain Palos de la Frontera, Spain

Gallery



References

External links

(The following links are all in Spanish language)
* [http://www.cali.gov.co/ Alcaldia de Santiago de Cali]
* [http://www.valledelcauca.gov.co/ Gobernación del Valle del Cauca]
* [http://www.univalle.edu.co/ Universidad del Valle]
* [http://www.usc.edu.co/ Universidad Santiago de Cali]
* [http://www.usb.edu.co/ Universidad San Buenaventura]
* [http://www.uao.edu.co/ Universidad Autónoma de Occidente]
* [http://www.icesi.edu.co/ Universidad ICESI]
* [http://www.puj.edu.co/ Pontificia Universidad Javeriana - Cali]
* [http://www.elpais.com.co/ El País newspaper]
* [http://www.diariooccidente.com.co/ Occidente free newspaper]
* [http://www.dane.gov.co/files/censo2005/resultados_am_municipios.pdf (PDF) - 2005 Census data]
* [http://www.caliviejo.net/]
* [http://www.lasucursaldelcielo.com/ La Sucursal del Cielo]
* [http://www.mundoandino.com/Colombia/Santiago-de-Cali/ Mundo Andino - Cali]


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