- Shot put
The shot put is an
athletics (track and field)event involving "putting" (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy metal ball (called the shot) as far as possible.
It is common to use the term "shot put" to refer to both the shot itself and to the throwing motion.
Competitions and rules
Competitors take their throw from inside a circle 7 feet (2.135 meters) in diameter, with a toe board approximately 10 cm (4") high at the front of the circle. The distance thrown is measured from the inside of the circumference of the circle to where the shot lands at its nearest disturbance of the soil.
* Upon calling the athletes name, he/she has 60 seconds to begin the throwing movement.
* Athlete can enter the ring from any side.
*The athlete must rest the shot close to the neck and keep it tight to the neck while throwing.
*Athlete is allowed to touch the inside edge of the circle but must not touch the outside of the circle.
* Shot put must land in legal sector in the throwing area.
*Athlete must exit, while in control from the rear half of the circle.
Foul throws occur when an athlete:
*Does not exit from the rear half of the circle.
*Touches the top of the toe board, the top of the iron ring or outside the circle after having entered the circle, before the implement lands.
*Throws a shot which falls outside the throwing sector.
*Allows the shot to drop below his shoulder or outside the vertical plane of his shoulder during the put.
*Does not pause or demonstrate control after entering/exiting the circle.
*Does not begin the throwing movement within 60 seconds of having ones name called.
Each competition has a set number of rounds of throws. Typically there are 3 rounds of preliminaries to determine seats for the final. The competitor with the farthest legal put is declared the winner. In men's competition, the shot weighs 7.26
kilograms (16 pounds). The women's shot weighs 4 kg (8.8 pounds). American high schools usually use 12 pound (5.44 kg) shots for boys and 4 kg shots for girls; these are sometimes used as practice shots as well. The weight of the ball differs depending on the age group. Men over the age of 50 and under 19 internationally use a 6 kg shot (13.2 pounds).
Shot put competitions have been held at the
Summer Olympic Gamessince their inception, and is also included as an event in athletic world championships. The shot put originates from Highland games 'stone put' where Scottish peopleput a rounded cube, stone, or metal form of considerable weight from behind a given line.Fact|date=August 2008
Two putting styles are in current general use by shot put competitors: the glide and the spin.
The origin of the "glide" dates to 1951, when
Parry O'Brienof the United States invented a technique that involves the putter facing backwards, rotating 180 degrees across the circle, and then tossing the shot. With this technique, a right-hand thrower begins facing the rear of the circle and kicks to the front with the left leg while pushing off forcefully with the right. The key is to move quickly across the circle with as little air under the feet as possible, hence the name "glide". As the thrower crosses the circle, the hips twist toward the front, followed by the shoulders and strikes in a putting motion with their arm. The spin was invented in the United States in 1976. From this, in 1976, Brian Oldfieldpopularized the spin technique which involves rotating like a discus thrower and using rotational momentum for power. Oldfeld set the record of 75 feet (22.86 m) in 1975; it was unofficial, however, because he was a professional at a time when the IAAF had an amateur-only policy, but undisputed and over 3 feet better than the official world record at the time. Oldfield's record in the 33 years since has been bettered by only 10 inches. In the spin, a right-handed thrower faces the rear, and begins to spin on the ball of the left foot. The thrower comes around and faces the front of the circle and drives the right foot into the middle of the circle. Finally, the thrower reaches for the front of the circle with the left foot, twists his hips and shoulders like in the glide, and puts the shot.
With all putting styles, the goal is to release the shot with maximum forward velocity at an angle of approximately forty degrees. Currently, most top male shot putters use the spin, but the glide remains popular, especially at the amateur level and among women, since the technique breeds higher consistency for the athlete as opposed to the rotational technique. It is worth noting that the world record by a male putter (
Randy Barnes) was completed with the spin technique, while the close second-best all-time distance ( Ulf Timmermann) was completed with the glide technique. Measuring which technique can provide the most potential is difficult, as many of the best throws recorded with each technique come from athletes under a thick cloud of doping suspicion and violations. In some opinions the decision to glide or spin should be based on the thrower's size and power, with short throwers benefiting from the spin and taller throwers benefiting from the glide, but for many throwers selecting the right technique differs on an individual basis, with almost all throwers first developing the glide technique.
world recordholders are:
Best Year Performance
Men's Season's Best
Women's Season's Best
World record progression shot put men
World record progression shot put women
* [http://www.iaaf.org/ International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF)] – official site
* [http://www.athletix.org/statistics/stats.html World Record progression in athletics]
* [http://www.world-masters-athletics.org/ World Masters Athletics] - official site
* [http://www.mastersathletics.net Masters T&F World Rankings]
* [http://www.alltime-athletics.com Athletics all-time performances]
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См. также в других словарях:
shot-put — «SHOT PUT», noun. an athletic contest in which a person sends a heavy metal ball through the air as far as he can with one push. * * * the ˈshot put [shot put shot puts] noun singular ( … Useful english dictionary
shot put — shot′ put n. 1) spo a field event in which a heavy ball or shot is thrown or put for distance 2) a single throw or put of the shot • Etymology: 1895–1900 shot′ put ter, n. shot′ put ting, n … From formal English to slang
shot put — n. Track & Field 1. a contest in which a heavy metal ball is propelled for distance with an overhand thrust from the shoulder 2. a single put of the shot shot putter n. shot putting n … English World dictionary
shot put — n [singular] a sport in which you throw a heavy metal ball as far as you can >shot putter n ▪ an Olympic shot putter … Dictionary of contemporary English
shot put — ► NOUN ▪ an athletic contest in which a very heavy round ball is thrown as far as possible. DERIVATIVES shot putter noun shot putting noun … English terms dictionary
shot put — N SING: usu the N In athletics, the shot put is a competition in which people throw a heavy metal ball as far as possible. Derived words: shot putter plural N COUNT ...Canadian shot putter Georgette Reed … English dictionary
shot-put — stūmimas statusas T sritis Kūno kultūra ir sportas apibrėžtis Klasikinė sunkiosios atletikos rungtis – štangos stūmimas: štangos kėlimas abiem rankomis ir stūmimas nuo krūtinės aukštyn, kol rankos ištiesiamos per alkūnes. atitikmenys: angl. jerk; … Sporto terminų žodynas
shot-put — stūmimas statusas T sritis Kūno kultūra ir sportas apibrėžtis Lengvosios atletikos rungtis – rutulio stūmimas: 4–7,257 kg rutulio stūmimas į tolį viena ranka. atitikmenys: angl. jerk; shot put vok. Stossen, n rus. толкание; толчок … Sporto terminų žodynas
shot-put — stūmimas statusas T sritis Kūno kultūra ir sportas apibrėžtis Svarsčių užkėlimas abiem rankomis ant krūtinės ir išstūmimas aukštyn ištiesiant rankas ir pritupiant. atitikmenys: angl. jerk; shot put vok. Stossen, n rus. толкание; толчок … Sporto terminų žodynas
shot put — 1. a field event in which a heavy ball or shot is thrown or put for distance. 2. a single throw or put of the shot. [1895 1900] * * * Field event in which a metal ball is heaved for distance. It derives from the ancient event of putting the stone … Universalium