Zwiefalten Abbey


Zwiefalten Abbey

Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Reichsabtei Zwiefalten"
conventional_long_name = Zwiefalten Abbey
common_name = Zwiefalten
continent = Europe
region = Central Europe
country = Germany
era = Middle Ages
status = Abbey
empire = Holy Roman Empire
government_type = Theocracy
year_start = 1750
year_end = 1802
event_pre = Founded
date_pre = 1089
event_start = Raised to "Reichsabtei"
date_start =
event_end = Secularised and dissolved
date_end = November 25, 1802
event_post = Collapse of HRE
date_post = July 12, 1806
p1 = Duchy of Württemberg
image_p1 =
s1 = Duchy of Württemberg
image_s1 =




image_map_caption = Zwiefalten Abbey, shown with the River Danube running across the frame, 9°30′E running vertically, 48°N at the bottom of the frame and 48°30′N at the top.
capital = Zwiefalten
latd=48 |latm=14 |latNS=N |longd=9 |longm=28 |longEW=E
common_languages = Swabian German; Latin
religion = Roman Catholic
leader1 = William of Hirsau
year_leader1 = Founder
leader2 = Noker von Zwiefalten
year_leader2 = "ca" 1065–90 (First abbot)
leader3 = Christoph Rassler
year_leader3 = 1658–75
leader4 = Augustin Stegmüller
year_leader4 = 18th century
title_leader = Abbot

Zwiefalten Abbey (in German Kloster Zwiefalten, Abtei Zwiefalten or after 1750, Reichsabtei Zwiefalten) was a Benedictine monastery situated at Zwiefalten near Reutlingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.

History

The monastery was founded in 1089 at the time of the Investiture Controversy by Counts Gero and Kuno of Achalm, advised by Bishop Adalbero of Würzburg and Abbot William of Hirsau. The first monks were also from Hirsau Abbey, home of the Hirsau Reforms (under the influence of the Cluniac reforms), which strongly influenced the new foundation.

Although Pope Urban VI granted special privileges to it, Zwiefalten Abbey was nevertheless the private monastery of the Counts of Achalm, later succeeded by the Counts of Württemberg.

The abbey was plundered in 1525 during the Peasants' War.

In 1750 the abbey was granted the status of "Reichsabtei", which meant that it had the status of an independent power subject only to the Imperial Crown and was free of the rule of Württemberg.

On 25 November 1802, however, it was secularised and dissolved and became a lunatic asylum and later psychiatric hospital, which it is today, as well as the site of the Württemberg Psychiatry Museum.

Buildings

The present buildings were constructed in German Baroque style from 1739–47 under the direction of Johann Michael Fischer (1692–1766) of Munich, who began overseeing the work in 1741. The interior, considered a model of Baroque design, is filled with ornate chapels and gilded balustrades, dominated by the high altar, which combines a Gothic statue of the Virgin Mary dating from 1430 with Baroque additions (dating from about 1750) by Johann Joseph Christian (1706–77). The elaborate frescoes are by Franz Joseph Spiegler (1691–1757) ["Germany: A Phaidon Cultural Guide", pp. 775-6. Oxford: Phaidon, 1985. ISBN 0-7148-2354-6] .

References

Gallery


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