- Kuang (surname)
Kwong (zh-tspw|t=鄺|s=邝|w=k'uang|p=kuàng) is a Chinese
family nameoriginated from central China. Today, it is the surname of over 5 million individuals, across the southern part of China and in the ethnic Chinese communities in Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Philippines, United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Fiji, Thailand, Cuba, Burmaand Reunion Island.
Kwong clan ancestral ritual motto (鄺姓宗祠通用對聯, "kùang xìng zōngcí tōngyòng duìlían", "k'uang sheng tsungch'h t'ungyung tuiliehn") is "源同一脈；衍以三宗.", or in English, "One origin, evolved into three ancestries."This motto reflects the unique familial history of the Kwongs, as the Kwong, the Lei, and the Fong families all evolved from a common ancestor.
Kwong clan ancestral seven-word motto (鄺姓宗祠七言通用聯, "kùang xìng zōngcí qīyán tōngyòng lían", "k'uang sheng tsungch'h ch'ihyan t'ungyung liehn"):
"Official dies in Haihsüeh Hall; Warrior dies in defense of the fort.""海雪堂遺臣死節； 土木堡兵部殉忠."
The motto commemorates two of the greatest
Ming dynastyofficials in the family. The first line records Kwong Lu's suicide in Haihsüeh Hall in the face of invading Manchurian rebels, and memorializes his loyalty to the country and the emperor. And the second line tells Kwong Ye's death in the defense of a southern Ming city against Mongol invasion, and reminds people of the exemplar's loyalty and valor.
The Kwong (鄺) clan originated from central China, specifically the modern province of
Henan. To this day the there are still a few Kwongs living in Henan, China. There is an entire village of Kwongs near Xiangcheng City, Henan. Recent Kwong immigrants from central China have the pinyin romanization Kuang on their passports.Since the Han Dynastythe Kwong family had a prominent role in the Han aristocracy, several high generals and commissioners were from the Kwong clan, the last Kwong aristocracy ended with the end of the Ming Dynasty. There were no officials from the Kwong clan in the Manchu (Qing) dynasty, which is why this once prominent family is now almost completely forgotten and most of the Kwongs in the People's Republic of Chinaare living in extremely poor conditions.Since the collapse of the Han dynastyand the start of an era of political unrest, during the Three Kingdomsperiod in 220 CE, several members of the Kwong clan migrated south in pursuit of a brighter future for their descendants in more fertile and peaceful lands.
Early dispersion in Canton province
According to the Chinese classical text "Sheng Yuan" (姓苑), "Many in Canton's Nanhai County bears the Kwong surname."
The fourth son of I-P'ing, Kwong Chun (鄺諄) had three sons. Ordered by their father to disperse and spread the family name, the second son of Chun, I-sheng (鄺一聲) migrated to Kukang in
Xinhuicounty, Canton where he became the ancestor of the Hsinhui, K'aip'ing, and T'aishan lineage of the Kwong family (新會、開平、台山). Zhun's third son, Yi-chün (一俊), returned to the original home of the Kwong family in Canton, located in Tach'en, Nanhai County (南海大鎮鄉).
Dispersion in T'aishan County, Canton
During the reign of Emperor Ch'un-yu of the Sung Dynasty, Kwong Hsing (鄺興, style name "Kung-piao" 字公表), the fourth generation ancestor of the Kwong clan in Canton province, migrated from K'aip'ing county's P'an village to Ch'ung-yün Village in Hsinning County's San-pa town (新寧縣沖雲堡忠心村), now known as Ch'ung-yün village in T'aishan County's San-pa town (台山市三八鎮沖雲管理區忠心村), and became the ancestor of the Kwong clan in T'aishan county, the largest clan today in Mainland China. Since the founding of Hui-hsing's T'aishan-based ancestral branch, over 30 generations of Kwongs have taken root in Ch'ung-yün village, with a total of 13,835 individuals dispersed in 12 towns and 154 natural villages sharing the surname in T'aishan alone according to municipal statistics.
Originally originated from Mainland China, there are over 5 million Kwongs today, dispersed mostly in China and in the ethnic Chinese communities in Hong Kong, Singapore, Philippines, United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Fiji, Thailand, Cuba, and Burma and Indonesia ( not more than ten ).In the United States, 0.001% of the population has the last name Kwong.
Kwong Chun (鄺諄), Kwong I-p'ing's fourth son, won the imperial examinations in AD 1142. In 1146, he received his commission and in 1152, is appointed the administrative governor of "Anching" in "Lin-an" (臨安京城), a Sung dynasty capital. In 1168, he was named "T'aizu t'aipao" (太子太保), the advisor to the crown prince; the "kuanglu-tafu" (光祿大夫), the imperial inspector of the emperor's dining; and the rank of nobility and peerage and remained the governor of Lin-an for 60 years. Chun's wives, "He" and "Feng", were named noble women (一品夫人) at the same time. In AD 1217, the Mongol army invaded the
Song dynastyand Kwong Chun ventured north to Yünching to lead the defense against the Mongols. In AD 1218, Chun resigns from the court and moves his entire clan back to "Heyüan" county, "Huichou" in Canton province. He died in AD 1219 of exhaustion. His eldest son, Kwong I-yüan, remained in Huichou to guard Chun's grave until his death.
Kwong I-sheng (鄺一聲), was the third generation ancestor of the Canton clan of the Kwong surname and the third son of Kwong Chun. Born October 2, 1155, he won the imperial examinations at age 26 and during his thirty years of government service, was named the chief imperial doctor (朝奉大夫)，Director of Sentencing and Punishments (刑部主政)，Chancellor of the Imperial college(國子監祭酒), Administrative Director (尚寶司署), Governor of Palace Security (欽差提督), Administrative Director of the Judiciary 刑部尚書，and the Advisor to the Crown Prince (太子太保). He died July 8, 1246, leaving behind two sons, K'uei (奎，style name "Kung-shao" 字公昭) who became the ancestor of the Kwong clan in K'aiping county's P'an village (潘村), and "H'sing" (興, style name "Kung-piao" 字公表).
Kwong Lu (鄺露, style name 字湛若 and psedo-name 號海雪) （1604-1650), of Hainan County, Canton, was a Ming dynasty literati, specializing in poetry, literature, and calligraphy. In 1634, seventh year of Ming Tsungchen's reign (崇禎七年), he offended the magistrate of Hainan County and was exiled to
Guangxiprovince where he became the scribe for five clans, the Shen, Lan, Hu, Hou, and P'an (岑、藍、胡、侯、槃). He later became employed by "Yün-shan" (雲鄲娘), a female warrior of the Yao tribe (瑤族), an ethnic Chinese tribe, and became familiar with the cultural anthropology, geography, and agriculture of the Yao peoples. He later authored "Ch'e-ya" (赤雅), now considered an authoritative book of the ethnic minority cultures and geography of the Kuanghsi region. He was later employed by King Tang in the Southern Ming period (南明唐王) where he was sent as an emissary to Canton by Emperor Yungli (永歷帝). When the Manchurian armies conquered the Ming empire, Kwong Lu committed suicide while embracing a traditional Chinese zither, weapon, and a classical text.
Kwong Yeh (鄺埜, style name Meng-chih 字孟質), of I-chang County,
Hunan（湖南宜章)，was a Ming dynasty literati, winning the imperial examination in the reign of Emperor Yungle (永樂) and was appointed a position in the Imperial Defense department (兵部右侍郎). Yeh's father, "Tzufu" (鄺子輔), was an Anfu county magistrate (安福縣令) and later the chief educational minister of Chüjung County (句容縣教諭). According to the classic "Ming Annals: Story of K'uang Yeh" (明史·鄺埜傳), Tzufu was known as a remarkable educator and parent, shaping Meng-chih to become a studious, righteous, incorrupt, serious person exhibiting the utmost filial-piety towards his parents. When he was appointed the magistrate of Shan-tso county, Yeh became overcome with solitude from his parents, and decided to employ his father as the county examinations official. When Tzufu was notified of this, he became angry, telling his son that as a magistrate, he should not appoint an elder as an employee, due to improper observation of filial piety, remarking that "A son cannot control or complain about a father's work." On another occasion, Meng-chih sent some robes made of a rough cloth to Tzufu, and Tzufu repudiated Yeh, telling him that, "Why then do you insult me by sending me such clothes?" When Yeh learned of his father's reaction he broke into tears, accepting his father's scolding.
Kwong Jih-kuang (鄺曰廣), a Ming literati and a native of
P'anyüCounty, Canton province, was an administrator of the Ming capital, Hsiangyang. In Ming Emperor Tsungchen's reign, Mongol bandits surrounded the city, Jih-kuang defended the city and was murdered under a bandit's sword, alongside his wife, concubine, two sons and two daughters. Hiram Fong* (鄺友良), native of Taishan county, Canton, was a 20th century American politician. A true Horatio Algerlegend, Fong was born into an impoverished family in Kalihi, Hawai'i on Oct. 1, 1907, as Yau Leong Fong. As a youth, Fong attended public schools, and held a variety of jobs to support his family, by selling beans and newspapers, shining shoes, and caddying golf for a quarter for nine holes. He later attended the University of Hawai'i, where he was the editor for the Ka Leoand Ka Palapala, the yearbook, and was a ROTC cadet, which paid 30 cents a day, "that paid for my lunch," recounted Fong. In 1930, Fong graduated with honors from UH in three years and attended Harvard Law School in 1932, later working as a deputy city attorney in Honolulu from 1935-1938. In 1938, Fong won election to the Territorial House of Representatives at the age of 31 and was chosen the House Speaker. His service in the Territorial House halted with the start of World War IIin 1942 however, when he was called into action, serving as the judge advocate with the 7th Fighter Command of the Seventh Air Force, earning the rank of major and later retiring as a colonel in the U.S. Air Force Reserve. After his World War II service, Fong returned to his Territorial Legislature seat, finishing his term as the Vice President of the Territorial Constitutional Conventionin 1950. In 1959, after a successful build-up of one of Hawai'i largest insurance financial empires, he ran for one of the two new US Senate seats for the state, becoming the only Republican to ever represent Hawai'i in the Senate, and the first and only Asian American to serve in the United States. Fong held the seat until Jan. 2, 1977, when he retired from politics as the ranking Republican on six committees from agriculture to retirement. He returned to his finance empire in 1976, serving as chairman of Finance Enterprises, Ltd. He died due to kidney failure on August 18, 2004 and is interred in Nuuanu Memorial Park and Mortuary. Peter Kwong, or The Most Reverend Dr Peter Kong-Kit Kwong (鄺廣傑), is the archbishop of the Anglican province of Hong Kong and served as the first Chinese primate of the Anglican communion until 2006, when he was successed by The Most Reverend Dr Paul Kwong.
Li-jen Kwong (鄺麗貞), is the first female mayor of Tai-tung, Taiwan, Republic of China. Wife of former Tai-tung Mayor Wu Jun-li, Li-jen Kwong represents the
Kuomintang, the Chinese Nationalist Party. Paul Kwong, or The Most Reverend Dr Paul Kwong (鄺保祿) is the Primate of Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui Hong Kong Island Diocese． Matt Fong* (鄺傑靈), is the adopted son of former Democratic Secretary of State March Fong Euof California. He is a 1975 graduate of the United States Air Force Academyin 1975 and the Southwestern University School of Law in Los Angeles in 1985, serving as a Lieutenant Colonel in the Air Force. Fong was the Vice Chairman of the state Board of Equalizationfrom 1990 to 1994 and as State Treasurer until 1998. In the U.S. Senate election, 1998, he challenged sitting California Senator Barbara Boxerunsuccessfully. Since then, he has returned to the practice of law and was appointed by President George W. Bush as the chairman of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Advisory Board.
* Note: Due to the Taishan dialect which pronounces Kwong as "Fong", the name was transliterated to Fong in the English language.
Larry "King" Kwongwas a right-winger who made it into the New York Rangers' line-up for one season in 1947-48, the first Chinese-Canadian to play in the NHL. He was a successful amateur and minor pro player who also played a year in the United Kingdom. Born in Vernon, B.C., first played with such well known western clubs as the Trail Smoke Eaters, Nanaimo Clippers and Red Deer Wheelers. In 1946-47, he came east and registered 37 points in 47 games for the New York Rovers of the EHL in 1946-47. Following his appearance with the Rangers, Kwong played with the Rovers' EHL franchise before moving on to the team the organization had entered in the Quebec Senior League. Content in the QSHL, Kwong spent the next seven years with the league's Valleyfield Braves. He topped the 20-goal mark six times and led the Braves to the league championship in 1951. That year he was presented the Vimy Trophy as the most valuable player in the league. Kwong retired in 1958 after spending a year with the Nottingham Panthers of the British League. Cally Kwong(鄺美雲) won Miss Hong Kong 1982 and subsequently entered the Chinese entertainment industry as an actress and successful musician, producing many hits in the eighties. She is also notable for her interest in traditional Chinese opera and instruments. Kylie Kwong(born 1968 in Australia) is a prominent Australian television chef, author, television presenterand restaurateur. Chi-Kin Kwong, or 鄺志堅, (1958 - ) is a member of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong, representing the non-geographical labour functional constituency, and a member of the Bar of England and Hong Kong.
His Honour, the Honourable
Norman Lim Kwong CM AOE(born Calgary, Alberta, 1929) is the 16th Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Alberta, Canada and a former Canadian Football Leagueplayer. He was the first Chinese-Canadian player in the CFL and was known in his playing days as the 'Chinese Clipper'.
Variations of the surname, Kwong, also remain common. These include different spellings of the English term, and versions from other countries and cultures. In the overseas communities, those with the spelling Kwong trace their origins to families who have immigrated overseas before the 1970s when Mainland China reformed its romanization system, adjusting the surname spelling to Kuàng. Hong Kong residents continue to use the spelling Kwong along with most overseas Chinese communities, especially those that immigrated before the 1970s.
Alternatively, since the majority of Kwongs trace their origins to
Taishan, a coastal county in Canton province, many Kwongs pronounce the name Fong, in accordance with the pronunciation of the local dialect.
Soo Yuen Benevolent Association"
In addition, at the beginning of the 20th century, when many new Chinese immigrants were entering the U.S., those filling out ships' manifests sometimes spelled it in a variety of ways, including Kuàng, Kuang, Kong, Kwang, Kwong, and Fong.In Australia, the surname can be spelled as Quong.
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