 Prism (geometry)

For other uses, see Prism (disambiguation).
Set of uniform prisms
(A hexagonal prism is shown)Type uniform polyhedron Faces 2+n total:
2 {n}
n {4}Edges 3n Vertices 2n Schläfli symbol {p}x{} or t{2, n} CoxeterDynkin diagram Vertex configuration 4.4.n Symmetry group D_{nh}, [n,2], (*22n), order 2n Dual polyhedron bipyramids Properties convex, semiregular vertextransitive
ngonal prism net (n = 9 here)In geometry, a prism is a polyhedron with an nsided polygonal base, a translated copy (not in the same plane as the first), and n other faces (necessarily all parallelograms) joining corresponding sides of the two bases. All crosssections parallel to the base faces are the same. Prisms are named for their base, so a prism with a pentagonal base is called a pentagonal prism. The prisms are a subclass of the prismatoids.
Contents
General, right and uniform prisms
A right prism is a prism in which the joining edges and faces are perpendicular to the base faces. This applies if the joining faces are rectangular. If the joining edges and faces are not perpendicular to the base faces, it is called an oblique prism.
Some texts may apply the term rectangular prism or square prism to both a right rectangularsided prism and a right squaresided prism. The term uniform prism can be used for a right prism with square sides, since such prisms are in the set of uniform polyhedra.
An nprism, having regular polygon ends and rectangular sides, approaches a cylindrical solid as n approaches infinity.
Right prisms with regular bases and equal edge lengths form one of the two infinite series of semiregular polyhedra, the other series being the antiprisms.
The dual of a right prism is a bipyramid.
A parallelepiped is a prism of which the base is a parallelogram, or equivalently a polyhedron with 6 faces which are all parallelograms.
A right rectangular prism is also called a cuboid, or informally a rectangular box. A right square prism is simply a square box, and may also be called a square cuboid.
An equilateral square prism is not a cube.
Volume
The volume of a prism is the product of the area of the base and the distance between the two base faces, or the height (in the case of a nonright prism, note that this means the perpendicular distance).
The volume is therefore:
where B is the base area and h is the height. The volume of a prism whose base is a regular nsided polygon with side length s is therefore:
Surface area
The surface area of a right prism is , where B is the area of the base, h the height, and P the base perimeter.
The surface area of a right prism whose base is a regular nsided polygon with side length S and height h is therefore:
Symmetry
The symmetry group of a right nsided prism with regular base is D_{nh} of order 4n, except in the case of a cube, which has the larger symmetry group O_{h} of order 47, which has three versions of D_{4h} as subgroups. The rotation group is D_{n} of order 2n, except in the case of a cube, which has the larger symmetry group O of order 24, which has three versions of D_{4} as subgroups.
The symmetry group D_{nh} contains inversion iff n is even.
Prismatic polytope
A prismatic polytope is a dimensional generalization of a prism. An ndimensional prismatic polytope is constructed from two (n − 1)dimensional polytopes, translated into the next dimension.
The prismatic npolytope elements are doubled from the (n − 1)polytope elements and then creating new elements from the next lower element.
Take an npolytope with f_{i} iface elements (i = 0, ,..., n). Its (n + 1)polytope prism will have 2f_{i} + f_{i−1} iface elements. (With f_{−1} = 0, f_{n} = 1.)
By dimension:
 Take a polygon with n vertices, n edges. Its prism has 2n vertices, 3n edges, and 2 + n faces.
 Take a polyhedron with v vertices, e edges, and f faces. Its prism has 2v vertices, 2e + v edges, 2f + e faces, and 2 + f cells.
 Take a polychoron with v vertices, e edges, f faces and c cells. Its prism has 2v vertices, 2e + v edges, 2f + e faces, and 2c + f cells, and 2 + c hypercells.
Uniform prismatic polytope
A regular npolytope represented by Schläfli symbol {p, q, ..., t} can form a uniform prismatic (n + 1)polytope represented by a Cartesian product of two Schläfli symbols: {p, q, ..., t}x{}.
By dimension:
 A 0polytopic prism is a line segment, represented by an empty Schläfli symbol {}.
 A 1polytopic prism is a rectangle, made from 2 translated line segments. It is represented as the product Schläfli symbol {}x{}. If it is square, symmetry can be reduced it: {}x{} = {4}.
 A polygonal prism is a 3dimensional prism made from two translated polygons connected by rectangles. A regular polygon {p} can construct a uniform ngonal prism represented by the product {p}x{}. If p = 4, with square sides symmetry it becomes a cube: {2}x{} = {4, 3}.
 Example: Pentagonal prism, {5}x{}, two parallel pentagons connected by 5 rectangular sides.
 A polyhedral prism is a 4dimensional prism made from two translated polyhedra connected by 3dimensional prism cells. A regular polyhedron {p, q} can construct the uniform polychoric prism, represented by the product {p, q}x{}. If the polyhedron is a cube, and the sides are cubes, it becomes a tesseract: {4, 3}x{} = {4, 3, 3}.
 Example: Dodecahedral prism, {5, 3}x{}, two parallel dodecahedra connected by 12 pentagonal prism sides.
 ...
Higher order prismatic polytopes also exist as Cartesian products of any two polytopes. The dimension of a polytope is the product of the dimensions of the elements. The first example of these exist in 4dimensional space are called duoprisms as the product of two polygons. Regular duoprisms are represented as {p}×{q}.
See also
External links
 Weisstein, Eric W., "Prism" from MathWorld.
 Olshevsky, George, Prismatic polytope at Glossary for Hyperspace.
 Nonconvex Prisms and Antiprisms
 Surface Area MATHguide
 Volume MATHguide
 Paper models of prisms and antiprisms Free nets of prisms and antiprisms
 Paper models of prisms and antiprisms Using nets generated by Stella.
 Stella: Polyhedron Navigator: Software used to create the 3D and 4D images on this page.
Polyhedron navigator Platonic solids (regular) Archimedean solids
(Semiregular/Uniform)Catalan solids
(Dual semiregular)triakis tetrahedron · rhombic dodecahedron · triakis octahedron · tetrakis cube · deltoidal icositetrahedron · disdyakis dodecahedron · pentagonal icositetrahedron · rhombic triacontahedron · triakis icosahedron · pentakis dodecahedron · deltoidal hexecontahedron · disdyakis triacontahedron · pentagonal hexecontahedronDihedral regular Dihedral uniform prisms · antiprismsDuals of dihedral uniform Dihedral others Degenerate polyhedra are in italics.Categories: Prismatoid polyhedra
 Uniform polyhedra
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