- Aftermath of World War I
The fighting in World War I ended when an
armisticetook effect at 11:00 am GMT on November 11, 1918. In the aftermath of World War I the political, cultural, and social order of the world was drastically changed in many places, even outside the areas directly involved in the war. New countries were formed, old ones were abolished, international organizations were established, and many new and old ideas took a firm hold in people's minds.
Blockade of Germany
Throughout armistice the Allies maintained the
naval blockadeof Germany that had begun during the war. As Germany was dependent on imports, it is estimated that 750,000 [http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/wk1/wirtschaft/versorgung/index.html] civilians had lost their lives during the war, and more died from starvation afterwards.
The continuation of the blockade after the fighting ended, as Robert Leckie wrote in "
Delivered From Evil", did much to "torment the Germans… driving them with the fury of despair into the arms of the devil." Terms of the Armistice did allow food to be shipped into Germany, but Allies required that Germany provide the ships. The German government was required to use its gold reserves, being unable to secure a loan from the United States ( [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/] ). Some historians have argued that the slow food shipments in early 1919 was one of the primary causes of World War II; others have advocated the Allies should have been even harder on Germany.
The blockade was not lifted until late June 1919 when the
Treaty of Versailleswas signed by most of the combatant nations.
Treaty of Versailles
After the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the signing of the
Treaty of Versailleson June 28, 1919 officially ended the war. Included in the 450 articles of the treaty were the demands that Germany officially accept responsibility for starting the war and pay heavy economic reparations. Germany itself was not included in the negotiations of the treaty and was forced to sign it (the alternative was continuing the war which would have probably led to a total occupation of Germany), which caused humiliation in the German people as the blame was shifted on them. The treaty was only concerning Germany, other treaties were made for different countries soon after. The treaty also included a clause to create the League of Nations. The US Senate never ratified this treaty and the US did not join the League, despite President Wilson's active campaigning in support of the League. The United States negotiated a separate peace with Germany, finalized in August 1921.
A separate but related event was the great
influenza pandemic. A virulent new strain of the flu first observed in the United States but misleadingly known as " Spanish flu", was accidentally carried to Europe by infected American forces personnel. One in every four Americans had contracted the influenza virus. The disease spread rapidly through both the continental U.S. and Europe, eventually reaching around the globe, partially because many were weakened and exhausted by the famines of the World War. The exact number of deaths is unknown but about 50 million people are estimated to have died from the influenza outbreak worldwide. [ [http://www.nap.edu/books//html/7.html NAP] ] [ [http://www.influenzareport.com/ir/overview.htm Influenza Report] ] In 2005, a study found that, "The 1918 virus strain developed in birds and was similar to the 'bird flu' that today has spurred fears of another worldwide epidemic, yet proved to be a normal treatable virus that did not produce a heavy impact on the world's health [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/10/1005_051005_bird_flu.html]
Geopolitical and economic consequences
There were some general consequences from the creation of a large number of new small states in eastern Europe. Internally these states tended to have substantial ethnic minorities, who looked to a neighbouring state where their ethnicity dominated the state. For example Czechoslovakia had Germans, Poles, Ruthenians and Ukrainians, Slovaks and Hungarians.
Minority Treatiesexpressed an, albeit inadequate, attempt to deal with this problem. One consequence of the massive redrawing of borders and the political changes in the aftermath of war was the large number of European refugees. This led to the creation of the Nansen passport.
Ethnic minorities made the location of the frontiers generally unstable. Where the frontiers have remain unchanged, since 1918, there has often been the expulsion of an ethnic group, such as the
Sudeten Germans. Economic and military cooperation amongst these small states was minimal ensuring that the defeated powers of Germany and the Soviet Union retained a latent capacity to dominate the region. In the immediate aftermath of the war, defeat drove cooperation between Germany and the Soviet Union but ultimately these two powers would compete to dominate eastern Europe.
Perhaps the single most important event precipitated by the privations of World War I was the
Russian Revolution of 1917. A socialistand often explicitly Communist revolutionary waveoccurred in many other European countries from 1917 onwards, notably in Germany and Hungary.
As a result of the
Russian Provisional Governments' failure to cede territory, German and Austrian forces defeated the Russian armies, and the new communist government signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovskin March 1918. In that treaty, Russia renounced all claims to Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland(specifically, the formerly Russian-controlled Congress Polandof 1815) and Ukraine, and it was left to Germany and Austria-Hungary "to determine the future status of these territories in agreement with their population." Later on, Lenin's government renounced also the Partition of Poland treaty, making it possible for Poland to claim its 1772 borders. However, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was rendered obsolete when Germany was defeated later in 1918, leaving the status of much of eastern Europe in an uncertain position.
There was a socialist revolution which led to the brief establishment of a communist political system in Germany, the resignation of the Kaiser and the birth of the democracy of the Weimar Republic.
On 28 June 1919, Germany was "summoned" to sign the Treaty of Versailles. The treaty intentionally placed blame for the entire war upon Germany (a view never accepted by German nationalists but argued by
Fritz Fischerreasonably convincingly). Germany was forced to pay £6.6 billion in reparations (a very large amount for its day which was supposed to take nearly "seventy" years to pay). Germany could mobilise the single strongest army in Europe, which was seen as a threat by Frenchmen ever since the 1870s. Blaming Germany gave justification to diminish it. Germany's army reduced to 100,000 men, without tanks and was not allowed an air force. Germany saw small amounts of territory, given to Denmark, Czechoslovakia, and Belgium,large amounts of territory to France and Poland, in addition to the loss of the colonial Empire. Nazi propaganda would feed on a general nationalist view that the treaty was unfair. The German political class never accepted the Treaty.
Russia, already suffering socially and economically, was torn by a deadly civil war that left more than 5.5 million people dead and large areas of the country devastated.
During the Russian Revolution of 1917 and subsequent Russian Civil War, many non-Russian nations gained brief or longer lasting periods of independence.
Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estoniagained relatively permanent independence, although the Baltic states were annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijanwere established as independent states in the Caucasus region. In 1922 these countries were invaded by Soviet forces, proclaimed as Soviet Republics, and eventually absorbed into the Soviet Union. However, Turkey had by then captured Armenian territory around Artvin, Kars, and Igdir: these territorial losses would become permanent. Romaniawas initially formed from the union of Wallachiaand Moldovaand later gained Bessarabiafrom Russia. After World War I, the Soviet Union was fortunate that Germany had lost the war as it was able to reject the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
With the war having turned decisively against the
Central Powers, the peoples of the new Austro-Hungarian Empirelost faith in their allied countries, and even before the armistice in November, radical nationalismhad already led to several declarations of independence in September and October 1918. Originally the Allies had hoped to maintain Austria-Hungary (although reduced) as a counterbalance to German power in central Europe and had interpreted Woodrow Wilson's 14 points within the framework of a federal Austria-Hungary. However, due to progress of the war and lobbying by separatists from within and outside the Empire the Allied powers slowly began to recognise its nations as distinct entities.
The resolution of borders and governments in south-central Europe in the time after November 1918 was not easy. As the central government had ceased to operate in vast areas, these regions found themselves without a government and many new groups attempted to fill the void. During this same period, the population was facing food shortages and was, for the most part, demoralized by the losses incurred during the war. Various political parties, ranging from ardent nationalists, to social-democrats, to communists attempted to set up governments in the names of the different nationalities. In other areas, existing nation states such as
Romaniaengaged regions that they considered to be theirs. These moves created de-facto governments that complicated life for diplomats, idealists, and the western allies.
The western allies were officially supposed to occupy the old Empire, but rarely had enough troops to do so effectively. They had to deal with local authorities who had their own agenda to fulfill. At the peace conference in Paris the diplomats had to reconcile these authorities with the competing demands of the nationalists who had turned to them for help during the war, the strategic or political desires of the Western allies themselves, and other agendas such as a desire to implement the spirit of the 14 points.
For example, in order to live up to the ideal of self determination laid out in the 14 points, Germans, whether Austrian or German, should be able to decide their own future and government. However, the French especially were concerned that an expanded Germany would be a huge security risk. Further complicating the situation, delegations such as the Czechs and Slovenians made strong claims on some German-speaking territories.
The result was treaties that compromised many ideals, offended many allies, and set up an entirely new order in the area. Many people hoped that the new nation states would allow for a new era of prosperity and peace in the region, free from the bitter quarrelling between nationalities that had marked the preceding fifty years. This hope proved far too optimistic. Changes in territorial configuration after World War I included:
*Establishment of the new republics of Austria and Hungary, disavowing any continuity with the empire and exiling the
Habsburgfamily in perpetuity.
*Borders of newly independent Hungary did not include two-thirds of the lands of the former
Kingdom of Hungary, including large areas where the ethnic Magyars were in a majority. The new republic of Austria maintained control over most of the mostly German-dominated areas, but lost various other German majority lands.
after World War I.legend|#92A2CB|
Bosnia and Herzegovinain 1914]
Bohemia, Moravia, Opava Silesiaand the western part of Duchy of Cieszyn, Slovakiaand Carpathian Rutheniaformed the new Czechoslovakia.
*Galicia, eastern part of
Duchy of Cieszyn, northern County of Orava and northern Spiszwas transferred to Poland.
Triestewere granted to Italy.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia-Slavonia, Dalmatia, Slovenia, and Vojvodinawere joined with Serbiato form the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later Yugoslavia.
Transylvaniaand Bukovinabecame parts of Romania.
These changes were recognized in, but not caused by, the Treaty of Versailles. They were subsequently further elaborated in the
Treaty of Saint-Germainand the Treaty of Trianon.
The new states of eastern Europe nearly all had large national minorities. Millions of Germans found themselves in the newly created countries as minorities. One third of ethnic Hungarians found themselves living outside of Hungary. Many of these national minorities found themselves in bad situations because the modern governments were intent on defining the national character of the countries, often at the expense of the other nationalities.
The interwar years were hard for the
Jews of the region. Most nationalists distrusted them because they were not fully integrated into 'national communities.' In contrast to times under the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Jews were often ostracized and discriminated against. Although anti-semitismhad been widespread during Habsburg rule, Jews faced no official discrimination because they were, for the most part, ardent supporters of the multi-national state and the monarchy. Jews had feared the rise of ardent nationalism and nation states, because they foresaw the difficulties that would arise.
The economic disruption of the war and the end of the Austro-Hungarian
customs unioncreated great hardship in many areas. Although many states were set up as democracies after the war, one by one, with the exception of Czechoslovakia, they reverted to some form of authoritarian rule. Many quarreled amongst themselves but were too weak to compete effectively. Later, when Germany rearmed, the nation states of south- central Europe were unable to resist its attacks, and fell under German domination to a much greater extent than had ever existed in Austria-Hungary.
At the end of the war, the Allies occupied Istanbul and the Ottoman government collapsed. The
Treaty of Sèvres, a plan designed by the Allies to dismember the remaining Ottoman territories, was signed on August 10, 1920 though never ratified by the Sultan.
occupation of Izmirby Greece on May 19, 1919 triggered a nationalist movement to rescind the terms of the treaty. Turkish revolutionariesled by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, a successful Ottoman commander, rejected the terms enforced at Sèvres and under the guise of General Inspector of the Ottoman Army, left Istanbul for Samsunto organise the remaining Ottoman forces to resist the terms of the treaty. On the eastern front, the defeat of the Armenian forces in the Turkish-Armenian Warand signing of the Treaty of Karswith the Soviet Union recovered territory lost to Armenia and Imperial Russia. ru icon [http://www.amsi.ge/istoria/sab/yarsi.html Text of the Treaty of Kars] ]
On the western front, the growing strength of the Turkish nationalist forces led Greece, with the backing of Britain, to invade deep into Anatolia in an attempt to deal a blow to the revolutionaries. At the
Battle of Sakarya, the Greek army was defeated and forced into retreat, leading to the recovery of Izmir and withdrawal of Greece from Asia Minor. With the nationalists empowered, the army marched on to reclaim Istanbul, resulting in the Chanak crisisin which the British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, was forced to resign. After Turkish resistance gained control over Anatolia and Istanbul, the Sèvres treaty was superseded by the Treaty of Lausannewhich formally ended all hostilities and led to the creation of the modern Turkish republic. As a result, Turkey became the only power of World War I to overturn the terms of its defeat, and negotiate with the Allies as an equal. [ [http://countrystudies.us/turkey/13.htm Countrystudies – Turkey] ]
The Lausanne treaty formally acknowledged the new League of Nations mandates in the Middle East, the cession of their territories on the Arabian Peninsula, and British sovereignty over
Cyprus. The League of Nationsgranted France mandates over Syria and Lebanon and granted the United Kingdom mandates over Iraq and Palestine (which comprised two autonomous regions: Palestineand Transjordan). Parts of the Ottoman Empire on the Arabian Peninsulabecame part of what is today Saudi Arabiaand Yemen. The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire became a pivotal milestone in the creation of the modern Middle East, the result of which bore witness to the creation of new conflicts and hostilities in the region. [Fromkin, David. (1989) A Peace to End All Peace: Creating the Modern Middle East 1914-1922 p.565.]
In the United Kingdom, funding the war had a severe economic cost. From being the world's largest overseas investor, it became one of its biggest debtors with interest payments forming around 40% of all government spending.
Inflationmore than doubled between 1914 and its peak in 1920, while the value of the Pound Sterling(consumer expenditure [http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/rp99/rp99-020.pdf] ) fell by 61.2%. Reparations in the form of free German coaldepressed the local industry, precipitating the 1926 General Strike.
British private investments abroad were sold, raising £550 million. However, £250 million new investment also took place during the war. The net financial loss was therefore approximately £300 million; less than two years investment compared to the pre-war average rate and more than replaced by 1928. [A. J. P. Taylor, "English History, 1914–1945" (Oxford University Press, 1976), p. 123.] Material loss was "slight": the most significant being 40% of the British merchant fleet sunk by German U-boats. Most of this was replaced in 1918 and all immediately after the war. [Ibid, p. 122.] The military historian
Correlli Barnetthas argued that "in objective truth the Great War in no way inflicted crippling economic damage on Britain" but that the war "crippled the British "psychologically" but in no other way". [Correlli Barnett, "The Collapse of British Power" (Pan, 2002), p. 424 and p. 426.]
Less concrete changes include the growing assertiveness of Commonwealth nations. Battles such as
Gallipolifor Australia and New Zealand, and Vimy Ridgefor Canada led to increased national pride and a greater reluctance to remain subordinate to Britain, leading to the growth of diplomatic autonomy in the 1920s. These battles were often decorated in propaganda in these nations as symbolic of their power during the war. Traditionally loyal dominions such as Newfoundland were deeply disillusioned by Britain's apparent disregard for their soldiers, eventually leading to the unification of Newfoundland into the Confederation of Canada. Colonies such as India and Nigeriaalso became increasingly assertive because of their participation in the war. The populations in these countries became increasingly aware of their own power and Britain's fragility.
In Ireland the delay in finding a resolution to the
home ruleissue, partly caused by the war, as well as the 1916 Easter Risingand a failed attempt to introduce conscription in Ireland, increased support for separatist radicals, and led indirectly to the outbreak of the Irish War of Independencein 1919.
In the United States, disillusioned by the failure of the war to achieve the high ideals promised by President
Woodrow Wilson, the American people chose isolationismand, after an initial recession enjoyed several years of unbalanced prosperity until the 1929 stock market crash. However, American commercial interests did finance Germany's rebuilding and reparations efforts, at least until the onset of the Great Depression. The close relationships between American and German businesses became an embarrassment following the Nazirise to power in Germany in the early 1930s.
France annexed the Independent Republic of Alsace-Lorraine, the country which had been established in the wake of Kaiser Wilhelm II's abdication, corresponding to the region which had been ceded to the German Empire during the 1870
Franco-Prussian War. At the 1919 Peace Conference, President Clemenceau's aim was to insure that Germany would not seek revenge in the following years. To this purpose, the chief commander of the Allied forces, Field Marshal Ferdinand Foch, had demanded that for the future protection of France the Rhineriver should now form the border between France and Germany. Based on history, he was convinced that Germany would again become a threat, and, on hearing the terms of the Treaty of Versailles that had left Germany substantially intact, he observed with great accuracy that "This is not Peace. It is an Armistice for twenty years."
The destruction brought upon the French territory was to be indemnified by the reparations negotiated at Versailles. This financial imperative dominated France's foreign policy through-out the twenties, leading to the 1923
Occupation of the Ruhrin order to force Germany to pay. However, Germany was unable to pay, and obtained support from the United States. Thus, the Dawes Planwas negotiated after President Raymond Poincaré's occupation of the Ruhr, and then the Young Planin 1929.
Also extremely important in the War was the participation of
French colonial troops, including the Senegalese " tirailleurs", from Indochina, North Africa, and Madagascar. When these soldiers returned to their homelands and continued to be treated as second class citizens, many became the nucleus of pro-independence groups.
Furthermore, under the
state of wardeclared during the hostilities, the French economy had been somewhat centralized in order to be able to shift into a "war economy", leading to a first breach with classical liberalism.
Finally, the socialist's support of the National Union government (including
Alexandre Millerand's nomination as Minister of War) marked a shift towards the SFIO's turn towards social-democracy and participation in "bourgeois governments", although Léon Blummaintained a socialist rhetoric.
After the war, Italy failed to annex
Dalmatia(which had been promised by Britain and France in the Treaty of London to induce Italy to join the war), and had to fight some more years to annex the city of Fiume, which had an Italian population, and this led several Italian politicians to speak of a "mutilated victory".
Indeed, it should not have been difficult to see how, among the Allied Powers, Italy had been the one which benefited the most from the outcome of the war. Whereas Britain and France still faced a Germany which had kept about 80 percent of her industrial and economic potential and thus could attempt a "revanche" in a matter of years, Italy had definitively gotten rid of her century-old enemy: instead of the Austro-Hungarian Empire there were now a number of smaller states, none of which could pose a credible threat, and some of them could even fall within the Italian sphere of influence.
With the annexation of
Friuli, Istria, Trentino-Alto Adige, Trieste, Zara and some Dalmatian islands, Italy had completed her territorial expansion and could now rely on secure borders. Furthermore, Italian sovereignty over Rhodesand the Dodecanesehad been officially recognized, as well as the Italian special interests in Albania. However, a Yugoslavian state was created in order to limit Italian influence and expansion on the Balkans, and thus Italy was quite isolated. The Italian politicians failed to perceive the positive elements of the peace treaties and stressed the negative ones, and so the myth of the "mutilated victory" spread, fueling the Fascistpropaganda and helping Mussoliniseize power.
During the war, Italy had suffered fewer casualties than Britain and much fewer than France, and the social problems she was facing afterward (an inflated war industry to reconvert to civilian production, the large number of crippled people no longer able to sustain themselves, the new role of women) were common to other Allied countries which, however, did not suffer an authoritarian drift. The difference between Italy and the other western allies lies in the more arbitrated economic and social conditions, which made it more difficult for Italy to recover from similar difficulties. Due to similar reasons, most south and east European countries had to face political unrest, dictatorship and fascism in the period between the World Wars.
Republic of Chinawho hoped to retake the Jiaozhou Bayoccupied by Germany between 1898 and 1914 suffered diplomatic failure at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. The Chinese delegation also called for an end to Western imperialistic institutions in China, which was refused. Despite sending thousands of labourers to France during the war, China as an allied and victorious nation was refused the demand for the return of Jiaozhou Bayand the city was instead transferred to Japanese rule. This led to the May Fourth Movement, a profound social and political movement often cited as the birth of Chinese nationalism, which both the Kuomintangand Chinese Communist Partyconsider an important period in their history. Subsequently, China did not sign the treaty, signing a separate peace treaty with Germany in 1921.
Territorial gains and losses
Nations that gained territory after World War I
Yugoslavia(as the successor stateof the Kingdom of Serbia)
Nations that lost territory after World War I
Bolshevist Russia(as the successor state of the Russian Empire)
Weimar Germany(as the successor state of the German Empire)
*Austria (as the successor state of
Cisleithaniaand the Austro-Hungarian Empire)
Hungary(as the successor state of Transleithaniaand the Austro-Hungarian Empire)
Turkey(as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire)
The experiences of the war in the west are commonly assumed to have led to a sort of collective national trauma afterwards for all of the participating countries. The optimism of 1900 was entirely gone and those who fought in the war became what is known as "the
Lost Generation" because they never fully recovered from their experiences. For the next few years, much of Europe mourned privately and publicly; mourning and memorials were erected in thousands of villages and towns. In fact, it is not at all clear that any society was traumatised. Nor that the human losses were heavily mourned. This was the later view in the West, during the 1930s, because by then the Great Depressionand the rise of Nazism made the sacrifices of the First World War seem meaningless. This was not clear in the 1920s. Neither Hitler's Germany nor the Soviet Union displayed any evidence that the First World War was at all traumatic. For Germany, the Soviet Union and all the new states the First World War had been the creation of the old political order and, as such, had little effect on the political elites of these countries.
The real trauma for the British political class was the possibility of any future war. As early as 1923,
Stanley Baldwinhad recognised a new strategic reality that faced Britain in a disarmament speech [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Disarmament_Speech] . Poison gas and the aerial bombing of civilians were new developments of the First World War. The British civilian population had not, for centuries, had any reason to fear invasion. So the new threat of poison gas dropped from enemy bombers excited a grossly exaggerated view of the civilian deaths that would occur on the outbreak of any war. Baldwin expressed this in his statement that The bomber will always get through. The traditional British policy of a balance of power in Europe no longer safeguarded the British home population. Out of this fear came appeasement. It is notable that neither Baldwin nor Neville Chamberlainhad fought in the war but the anti-appeasers Antony Eden, Harold Macmillanand Winston Churchillhad fought. One gruesome reminder of the sacrifices of the generation was the fact that this was one of the first times in warfare whereby more men had died in battles than to disease, which had been the main cause of deaths in most previous wars. The Russo-Japanese Warwas the first war where battle deaths outnumbered disease deaths, but it had been fought on a much smaller scale between just two nations.
This social trauma made itself manifest in many different ways. Some people were revolted by
nationalismand what it had caused; so, they began to work toward a more internationalist world through organizations such as the League of Nations. Pacifismbecame increasingly popular. Others had the opposite reaction, feeling that only military strength could be relied on for protection in a chaotic and inhumane world that did not respect hypothetical notions of civilization. Certainly a sense of disillusionmentand cynicismbecame pronounced. Nihilismgrew in popularity. Many people believed that the war heralded the end of the world as they had known it, including the collapse of capitalismand imperialism. Communistand socialistmovements around the world drew strength from this theory, enjoying a level of popularity they had never known before. These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or particularly harshly affected by the war, such as central Europe, Russia and France.
Artists such as
Otto Dix, George Grosz, Ernst Barlach, and Käthe Kollwitzrepresented their experiences, or those of their society, in blunt paintings and sculpture. Similarly, authors such as Erich Maria Remarquewrote grim novels detailing their experiences. These works had a strong impact on society, causing a great deal of controversy and highlighting conflicting interpretations of the war. In Germany, nationalists including the Nazis believed that much of this work was degenerate and undermined the cohesion of society as well as dishonouring the dead.
Remains of ammunition
Throughout the areas where trenches and fighting lines were located, such as the Champagne region of France, quantities of unexploded shells and other ammunition have remained, some of which remains dangerous, continuing to cause injuries and occasional fatalities in the 21st century. Some are found by farmers ploughing their fields and have been called the
iron harvest. Some of this ammunition contains chemical toxic products such as mustard gas. Cleanup of major battlefields is a continuing task with no end in sight for decades more. Squads remove, defuse or destroy hundreds of tons of unexploded ammunition every year in Belgium and France.
Many towns in the participating countries have
war memorials dedicated to local residents who lost their lives. Examples include:
Australian War Memorial, Canberra, Australia
Liberty Memorial, Kansas City, Missouri, United States
Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial
*The Cenotaph, London, United Kingdom
Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres, Belgium
*Tyne Cot Memorial to the Missing at
*Verdun Memorial Museum
*Vimy Ridge Memorial,
Gallipoli Memorial, Turkey
Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne, Australia
Island of Ireland Peace Park, Messines, Belgium
*National War Memorial (Canada),
*National War Memorial (Newfoundland), St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada
Tombs of the Unknown Soldier
Monument to the Unknown Hero, Belgrade, Serbia
*Amar Jawan Jyoti,
New Delhi, India
*Tomb of the Unknown Soldier,
Arc de Triomphe, Paris, France
*The Tomb of the Unknown Warrior is in
Westminster Abbey, London, UK
Tomb of the Unknowns, Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, United States
*Tomba del milite ignoto, Rome, Italy
Australian War Memorial, Canberra, Australia
New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior, Wellington, New Zealand
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Syntagma Square, Athens, Greece
*Tomb of the Unknown Soldier,
*Tsitsernakaberd Armenian Genocide Memorial,
* "" by
Margaret MacMillan, John Murray ISBN 0-7195-5939-1
* "Peacemaking, 1919" by
Harold NicolsonISBN 1-931541-54-X
Hew Strachaned.: "The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War" is a collection of chapters from various scholars that survey the War.
*"The Wreck of Reparations, being the political background of the Lausanne Agreement, 1932" by Sir
John Wheeler-BennettNew York, H. Fertig, 1972.
The first major television documentary on the history of the war was the
BBC's "The Great War" (1964), made in association with CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation), the Australian Broadcasting Corporationand The Imperial War Museum. The series consists of 26 forty-minute episodes featuring extensive use of archive footage gathered from around the world and eyewitness interviews. Although some of the programme's conclusions have been disputed by historians it still makes compelling and often moving viewing.
List of people associated with World War I
Surviving veterans of World War I
* [http://www.helium.com/tm/215016/outbreak-first-world-foreseen/ The political, economic, social and cultural consequences of World War One]
* [http://www.firstworldwar.com/ FirstWorldWar.com] "A multimedia history of World War I"
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/10/98/world_war_i/198172.stm The war to end all wars on BBC site]
* [http://www.greatwar.nl/ "The Heritage of the Great War"]
* [http://www.1914-1918.net/ The British Army in the Great War]
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