- Airport security repercussions due to the September 11 attacks
Quickly after the events of
September 11, 2001, questions were raised regarding the effectiveness of security at the time, where all 19 hijackers managed to pass checkpoints and board the aircraft. Since the attack, security at many airports worldwide has been escalated, ostensibly to lower the probability of similar events occurring again.
Changes in airport security
Introduction of the TSA
Before September 11, 2001, airport screening was provided by private companies which were contracted with the airline or airport. In November 2001, the
Transportation Security Administrationwas introduced to handle screening at all US airports. Private companies still operate screening, but they must be all TSAapproved. Argenbright Security, a company that provided security for Newark and Washington Dulles, have had problems before in May 2000, because they hired 1,300 untrained security guards including several dozens with criminal records, at Philadelphia International Airport[Paul Zielbauer with John Sullivan, [http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30D17FD3B5C0C708DDDA00894D9404482 "AFTER THE ATTACKS: AIRPORT SECURITY; F.A.A. Announces Stricter Rules; Knives No Longer Allowed"] , " The New York Times", National Desk Late Edition - Final, Section A, Page 5, Column 1, 2001-09-13, Archived links: [http://listserv.dartmouth.edu/scripts/wa.exe?A2=ind0109&L=nisus&D=0&T=0&P=66987] and [http://lists.chambana.net/mailman/archive/newspoetry/2001-September/002721.html] ] . The company, which was on probation at the time of the attack, had its probation extended to October 2005. [ [http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/10/20/inv.airport.security/ "Feds: Airport security firm to admit violation"] , " CNN", 2001-10-21] [Eric Grasser and David Evans, [http://www.aviationtoday.com/reports/screeningprobe.htm "Legal case against Argenbright opens a window into systemic shortcomings"] , "Aviation Today"]
Box-cutter knives were apparently used in the
September 11, 2001 attacks, though such knivesare not usually considered weapons. The hijackers could have very easily carried these type of knives past airport security, since they fit the qualifications to be permitted on U.S. domestic flights: any knife with a blade up to 4 inches long was permitted. Box cutters qualified as "menacing" weapons under Hazardous Materials guidelines but were also considered "trade tools" by some airlines. The dual status of these blades caused much confusion for screeners.Fact|date=May 2008 FAA rules placed into effect on September 13 2001prohibit any type of knife in secured airport areas and planes. From 2006 onwards, all liquids, gels and aerosols must be less than 3 ounces, and must be placed in a clear plastic bag.
Improved security on aircraft
Cockpitdoors on many aircraft are now strengthened and bullet proof, to prevent unauthorized access. Some aircraft are equipped with CCTV cameras, so the pilots can monitor the cabin activity and pilots also have an option to carry a gun, but the pilots must be trained to use it. More air marshals have been placed onto flights to improve security and bottles of drinks that are brought onto aircraft must be purchased within the airport.
Improved security screening
The airport checkpoint screening has been significantly tightened since 2001. Many passengers are patted-down and thoroughly checked with a hand-held metal detector. The security personnel are also better trained to perform this. On September 11, hijackers
Khalid al-Mihdhar, Majed Moqed, Nawaf al-Hazmiand Salem al-Hazmiall set off the metal detector alarm. Despite being checked with a hand-held detector, the screener failed to find the items that caused the alarm. They then all boarded the aircraft. [ [http://chronicle.augusta.com/stories/072304/nat_LA0604-2.shtml Augusta Chronicle, augusta news, augusta weather, augusta sports, augusta golf, augusta georgia ] ] The TSA now test their own screeners, by disguising as passengers and taking in weapons and fake bombs. This is done everydayFact|date=September 2008, and screeners who fail to identify the items are retrained.
On September 11, some hijackers lacked proper ID, yet they were able to board. All passengers generally must now have valid identification, issued by the government in order to fly, although the ID is only visually checked for validity and the name and details are not validated. Airports may check the ID of any suspicious passengers, to ensure that the details on the ID match those on printed boarding card. Under exceptional circumstances, an individual may fly without a valid ID. If approved for flying without an ID, the individual will be subject to a pat-down and wanding. TSA does not have the capability to conduct background checks on passengers at checkpoints.
Criticism of new airport security policies
security expertsand libertarianshave criticized new airport security policies. Bruce Schneierbelieves that the attackers were successful not because of any particular security screening failure, but because using box cutters to hijack planes and then flying them into buildings had simply never been seriously considered before as an attack vector, although training for this kind of attack was occurring at the exact same time that the attack happened, causing confusion and halting any attempts to stop it. A similar attack attempted today would surely meet with more resistance, as passengers are now fully aware of the potential.
Another common criticism is that any terrorist prevented from carrying a knife onto an airplane could easily improvise a weapon by, for example, smashing a glass bottle - or just attack with his or her bare hands.
Evidence of this can be seen in the events of
September 11, 2001itself, as the passengers on the fourth plane resisted the hijackers once their friends and family called in to report what had happened with the previous three planes. The only difference between this plane and the others was public awareness. Before September 11, 2001, curtains were used to partition the first class cabin from the main cabin. Since the hijackers were all in first class, the main cabin was mostly unaware of what was going on until it was too late. Since then, most airlines have eliminated the curtains, as they pose a security risk and had little other purpose than to symbolically divide the cabins.
*Since the destruction of the World Trade Center on
September 11, 2001, airports announced that people bringing people to or bringing them from the airports could no longer pass the security scanners and wait in the terminals. From now on, only people who are planning on traveling the planes can pass through.
In 2003 John Gilmore sued
United Airlines, Southwest Airlinesand U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft, arguing that requiring passengers to show identification before boarding domestic flights is tantamount to an internal passport, and is unconstitutional. [Julia Scheeres, [http://www.wired.com/news/politics/0,1283,57276,00.html "Judge to Hear Air ID Challenge"] , " Wired News", 2003-01-18] [Ryan Singel, [http://www.wired.com/news/politics/0,64599-0.html "Flight ID Fight Revived"] , "Wired News", 2004-08-16] Gilmore initially lost and the case, known as " Gilmore v. Gonzales", and an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Courtwas denied.
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