Krešimir III of Croatia


Krešimir III of Croatia

Krešimir III was a King of Croatia in 1000–1030 from the Trpimirović dynasty. He was the middle son of former King Stjepan Držislav.

Reign

After Croatia's King Stjepan Držislav died in 997, his brother Svetoslav Suronja has become King of Croatia. Together with brother Gojslav he has revolted against Svetoslav Suronja . Because Croatian king has been ally of Byzantine Empire during war with First Bulgarian Empire revolters has asked Bulgarian help. Answer on that demand has been Bulgarian invasion of 998 during which emperor Samuil has taken Croatian Dalmatia and great parts of Bosnia [Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja] . After end of military operations Bulgarian emperor has given this territory to Gojslav and Krešimir III. During last two years (999-1000) of Croatian civil war this two revolters have with Bulgarian help defeated Svetoslav Suronja which has gone to Venetia exile in year 1000. Answering that political change Venetian Doge Pietro II Orseolo has started military intervention in Dalmatia in which he will defeat Croatia.

Krešimir III and Gojslav have spent their reign attempting to restore rule over the Dalmatian cities that were now under Venetian control. This brought upon them a conflict with Croatia former protector, the Republic of Venice, in 1018. Peace was concluded upon the diplomatic intervention of Byzantine Emperor Basil II which has confirmed Gojslav and Krešimir III like Byzantine vassal kings of Croatia after defeat of First Bulgarian Empire.

Gojslav death and end of reign

All good things done between 1000 - 1020 have been undone with Krešimir killing of Gojslav in 1020. This act has created church outcry so pope has send Mainard like church representative for investigation of Gojslav death. Only after Krešimir III and 12 Croatian župan has taken oath that he has not killed his brother pope has returned royal power to Krešimir III [...audivit de Cressimiro Chroatorum principe quod dolo necari fecisset Goislavum fratrem suum misso apocrisario Mainardo...] . . That event has ulmost destroyed Krešimir power in Croatia.

Using hostile position of Pope, Venice, Byzantine empire and Hungary toward fratricide king in 1027 Stjepan (son of Svetoslav Suronja), invades the Croatian Kingdom from Hungary and separates Slavonia, which will become Banate of Slavonia under the Svetoslavić dynasty. This banate will still been part of Croatia but only de jure. Full unification with Croatia will happen only when Dmitar Zvonimir member of Svetoslavić dynasty will become Croatian king in 1074.

Footnotes

ee also

* Croato-Bulgarian Wars
* Trpimirović dynasty
* History of Croatia

Sources

* "Intervju - ДИНАСТИЈЕ и владари јужнословенских народа". Special Edition 12, 16 June 1989.


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