- Vegetable oil used as fuel
For engines designed to burn #2 diesel fuel, the
viscosityof vegetable oil must be lowered to allow for proper atomizationof fuel, otherwise incomplete combustion and carbon build up will ultimately damage the engine. Many enthusiasts refer to vegetable oil used as fuel as waste vegetable oil (WVO) if it is oil that was discarded from a restaurant or straight vegetable oil (SVO) or pure plant oil (PPO) to distinguish it from biodiesel.
The first known use of vegetable oil as fuel in a diesel engine was a demonstration of an engine built by the
Otto companyand designed to burn mineral oil, which was run on pure peanut oilat the 1900 World's Fair. Late in his career, Rudolf Dieselinvestigated using vegetable oil to fuel engines of his design, and in a 1912 presentation to the British Institute of Mechanical Engineers, he cited a number of efforts in this area and remarked, "The fact that fat oils from vegetable sources can be used may seem insignificant today, but such oils may perhaps become in course of time of the same importance as some natural mineral oils and the tar products are now." [cite journal|last=Knothe|first=Gerhard|title=Historical Perspectives on Vegetable Oil-Based Diesel Fuels|journal=Inform|volume=12|issue=11|year=2001|pages=1103–1107|url=http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/reportsdatabase/reports/gen/20011101_gen-346.pdf]
Periodic petroleum shortages spurred research into vegetable oil as a diesel substitute during the 30s and 40s, and again in the 70s and early 80s when straight vegetable oil enjoyed its highest level of scientific interest. The 1970s also saw the formation of the first commercial enterprise to allow consumers to run straight
vegetable oilin their automobiles, Elsbettof Germany. In the 1990s Bougainville conflict, islanders cut off from oil supplies due to a blockade used coconut oilto fuel their vehicles. [imdb title|title=The Coconut Revolution|id=0479000 (2000) a documentary film]
Academic research into straight vegetable oil fell off sharply in the 80s with falling petroleum prices and greater interest in
biodieselas an option that did not require extensive vehicle modifications.
Application and usability
While engineers and enthusiasts have been experimenting with using vegetable oils as fuel for a diesel engine since at least 1900, it is only recently that the necessary fuel properties and engine parameters for reliable operation have become apparent. A number of peer reviewed studies exists that show reliable long term use of vegetable oil; the German
DeutzF3l912W. [Hawkins, C.S.; Fuls, J.; and F.J.C. Hugo. "Engine Durability Tests with Sunflower Oil in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine." SAE Paper 831357.] and a high speed common railengine fitted to a Mercedes-Benz220 C Class [cite journal
last = Bialkowski
first = M.T.
coauthors = Pekdemir, T.; Reuben, R.; Brautsch, M.; Towers, D. P.; Elsbett, G.
title = Preliminary Approach Towards a CDI System Modification Operating on Neat Rapeseed Oil
journal = Journal of KONES
volume = 12
year = 2005
url = http://www.ilot.edu.pl/2005%201_2%20pdf/04_2005%20NO%201%20-%202%20bialkowski.pdf
issn = 12341 4005
accessdate = 2007-10-24 ]
Most diesel car engines are suitable for the use of SVO, also commonly called
Pure Plant Oil(PPO), with suitable modifications. Principally, the viscosity and surface tension of the SVO/PPO must be reduced by preheating it, typically by using waste heat from the engine or electricity, otherwise poor atomization, incomplete combustion and carbonizationmay result. One common solution is to add a heat exchanger, and an additional fuel tank for "normal" diesel fuel (petrodiesel or biodiesel) and a three way valve to switch between this additional tank and the main tank of SVO/PPO. (This aftermarket modification typically costs about $1200 USD.) [cite news|url=http://www.newsobserver.com/news/story/599471.html|title=Driver ticketed for using biofuel: Vegetable oil sticks him with $1,000 fine|first=Bruce|last=Henderson|publisher=The Charlotte Observer|date= June 11, 2007|accessdate=2007-06-24] The engine is started on diesel, switched over to vegetable oil as soon as it is warmed up and switched back to diesel shortly before being switched off to ensure that no vegetable oil remains in the engine or fuel lines when it is started from cold again. In colder climates it is often necessary to heat the vegetable oil fuel lines and tank as it can become very viscous and even solidify.
Single tank conversions have been developed, largely in Germany, which have been used throughout Europe. These conversions are designed to provide reliable operation with rapeseed oil that meets the German rapeseed oil fuel standard DIN 51605. Modifications to the engines cold start regime assist combustion on start up and during the engine warm up phase. Suitably modified
indirect injection(IDI) engines have proven to be operable with 100% PPO down to temperatures of -10°C. Direct injection(DI) engines generally have to be preheated with a block heateror diesel fired heater. The exception is the VW Tdi ( Turbocharged Direct Injection) engine for which a number of German companies offer single tank conversions. For long term durability it has been found necessary to increase the oil change frequency and to pay increased attention to engine maintenance.
With unmodified engines the unfavorable effects may be reduced by blending, or "cutting", the SVO/PPO with diesel fuel; however, opinions vary as to the
efficacyof this. Some WVO mechanics have found higher rates of wear and failure in fuel pumps and piston rings. [ [http://www.sopac.org/tiki/tiki-index.php?page=Coconut+Oil+Fuel+Research+RMI Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission: "Coconut Oil Fuel Research in the Republic of the Marshall Islands"] ] This can generally be attributed to the use of oils with properties or contaminants that make them unsuitable for use in this type of application, poorly maintained engines, unsuitable engine modifications or operating regimes.Fact|date=August 2008
Many cars powered by
indirect injectionengines supplied by in-line injection pumps, or mechanical Boschinjection pumps are capable of running on pure SVO/PPO in all but winter temperatures. Indirect injection Mercedes-Benzvehicles with in-line injection pumps and cars featuring the PSA XUDengine tend to perform reasonably, especially as the latter is normally equipped with a coolant heated fuel filter. Engine reliability would depend on the condition of the engine. Attention to maintenance of the engine, particularly of the fuel injectors, cooling system and glow plugs will help to provide longevity. Ideally the engine would be converted. [ [http://www.sopac.org/tiki/tiki-index.php?page=Coconut+Oil+Fuel+Research+RMI Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission: "Coconut Oil Fuel Research in the Republic of the Marshall Islands"] ]
The main form of SVO/PPO used in the UK is rapeseed oil (also known as canola oil, primarily in the United States and Canada) which has a freezing point of -10°C. However the use of sunflower oil, which freezes at -17°C, is currently being investigated as a means of improving cold weather starting. Unfortunately oils with lower gelling points tend to be less saturated (leading to a higher
iodine number) and polymerizemore easily in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.
Some Pacific island nations are using
coconut oilas fuel to reduce their expenses and their dependence on imported fuels while helping stabilize the coconut oil market. Coconut oil is only usable where temperatures do not drop below 17 degrees Celsius (62 degrees Fahrenheit), unless two-tank SVO/PPO kits or other tank-heating accessories, etc. are used. Fortunately, the same techniques developed to use, for example, canola and other oils in cold climates can be implemented to make coconut oil usable in temperatures lower than 17 degrees Celsius.
With often minimal modification, most residential furnaces and boilers which are designed to burn No. 2 heating oil can be made to burn either biodiesel or filtered, preheated waste vegetable oil. These are generally not as clean-burning as petroleum fuel oil, but if processed at home, by the consumer, can result in considerable savings. Many restaurants will give away their used cooking oil either free or at minimal cost, and processing to biodiesel is fairly simple and inexpensive. Burning filtered WVO directly is somewhat more problematic, since it is much more viscous, but it can be accomplished with suitable preheating. WVO can thus be an economical heating option for those with the necessary mechanical and experimental aptitude.
Combined heat and power
A number of companies offer compressed ignition engine generators optimized to run on plant oils where the waste engine heat is recovered for heating.
Waste vegetable oil
As of 2000, the United Stateswas producing in excess of 11 billion liters of waste vegetable oil annually, mainly from industrial deep fryers in potatoprocessing plants, snack foodfactories and fast food restaurants. If all those 11 billion liters could be collected and used to replace the energetically equivalent amount of petroleum (an ideal case), almost 1% of US oil consumption could be offset. [ See Greenhouse gas emissions by the United States] However, use of waste vegetable oil as a fuel competes with some already established uses.
Pure vegetable oil (pure plant oil)
Pure plant oil (PPO) (or Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)), in contrast to waste vegetable oil, is not a byproduct of other industries, and thus its prospects for use as fuel are not limited by the capacities of other industries. Production of vegetable oils for use as fuels is theoretically limited only by the agricultural capacity of a given economy.
Taxation of fuel
Taxation on SVO/PPO as a road fuel varies from country to country, and it is possible the revenue departments in many countries are even unaware of its use, or feel it insufficiently significant to legislate. Germany used to have 0% taxation, resulting in it being a leader in most developments of the fuel use. However SVO/PPO as a road fuel began to be taxed at 0,09 €/liter from
1 January 2008in Germany, with incremental rises up to 0,45 €/liter by 2012. However, in Australia it has become illegal to produce any fuel if it is to be sold unless a license to do so is granted by the Federal Government. This is a chargable offence with a fine of up to 15,000 to 20,000 dollars but this bracket may alter circumstantually. Also a jail term may result if offenders are aware of the legallity of selling the fuel.
In the USA
The conversion of an automobile engine to burn vegetable oil is not legal under US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. [cite news|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/S60823DAVIS.html|title=Gas-Price Spike Boosts Alternative-Fuel Convert|first=Erica|last=Davis|publisher=Wall Street Journal Online|accessdate=2007-08-30] The
EPAhas not fined anyone for doing so, but certain laws may have to change — or a certification process may need to be established — before VO conversions become more popular in the US.
There seems to be no clear federal taxation system in the USA. Production of biodiesel in some US regions may require motor fuel taxes to be paid, which are typically used to fund road construction costs. [cite news|url=http://www.newsobserver.com/news/story/599471.html|title=Driver ticketed for using biofuel: Vegetable oil sticks him with $1,000 fine|first=Bruce|last=Henderson|publisher=The Charlotte Observer|date=
June 11, 2007|accessdate=2007-06-24]
The Government of Canada exempted biodiesel from the federal excise tax on diesel in the March 2003 budget. In Ireland a pilot scheme is currently running (as of April 2006) whereby eight suppliers have been approved to sell SVO/PPO for use as a fuel without the payment of excise duty (
Value Added Taxat 21% still applies, SVO from any other source still attracts excise duty at 36.8058 Euro cents per litre plus 21% VAT). Despite its use being common in France, it would appear there has been no legislation to cover this.
In the UK
In the UK, it is legal once duty on the fuel is paid. [cite web|url=http://customs.hmrc.gov.uk/channelsPortalWebApp/channelsPortalWebApp.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=pageExcise_ShowContent&id=HMCE_PROD1_024961&propertyType=document|title=UK Hydrocarbon Oil duty rates|publisher=
HM Revenue & Customs|accessdate=2007-06-24] In the UK, drivers using SVO/PPO have been prosecuted for failure to pay duty to Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs. The rate of taxation on SVO was originally set at a reduced rate of 27.1p per litre, but in late 2005, HMRC started to enforce the full diesel excise rate of 47.1p per litre.
Following a review in late 2006, [cite web|url=http://bloomingfutures.com/uploads/File/HMRC.pdf|title=Review of the definition of Biodiesel in Hydrocarbon Oil Duties Act 1979: Summary of Responses and Findings|month=December | year=2006|author=
HM Revenue & Customs|accessdate=2007-05-04|format=pdf] HM Revenue & Customshas announced changes regarding the administration and collection of excise duty of biofuels and other fuel substitutes (Veg Oil). The changes came into effect on June 30 2007. There is no longer a requirement to register to pay duty on vegetable oil used as road fuel for those who "produce" or use less than 2,500 litres per year. [cite web|url=http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/briefs/excise-duty/brief4307.htm|title=Revenue & Customs Brief 43/07|publisher= HM Revenue & Customs|accessdate=2007-06-24] For those producing over this threshold the biodiesel rate now applies.
HMRC argued that SVOs/PPOs on the market from small producers did not meet the official definition of "biodiesel" in Section 2AA of The Hydrocarbon Oil Duties Act 1979 (HODA), and consequently was merely a "fuel substitute" chargeable at the normal diesel rate. Such a policy seemed to contradict the UK Government's commitments to the
Kyoto Protocoland to many EU directives and had many consequences, including an attempt to make the increase retroactive, with one organization being presented with a £16,000 back tax bill. This change in the rate of excise duty has effectively removed any commercial incentive to use SVO/PPO, regardless of its desirability on environmental grounds; unless waste vegetable oil can be obtained free of charge, the combined price of SVO/PPO and taxation for its use usually exceeds the price of mineral diesel. HMRC's interpretation is being widely challenged by the SVO/PPO industry and the UK pure Plant Oil Association (UKPPOA)] has been formed to represent the interests of people using vegetable oil as fuel and to lobby parliament. [cite web|url=http://www.biomotors.co.uk/fuel-duty.html|publisher=Biomotors.co.uk|accessdate=2007-05-04|title=Fuel-Duty and VAT on Pure Vegetable Oil]
Vegetable oil economy
Food vs fuel
* [http://www.vegoil.us/ National VegOil Board]
* [http://www.vegetablefuel.ca Vegetable Fuel in Canada]
* [http://www.oliomap.com/ Oliomap.com] - Global VegOil / Biodiesel car-conversion and fuel source network map
* [http://www.fillup4free.com/ Fill Up 4 Free] - US database of people with oil to share
* [http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_svo.html Journey to Forever SVO Page]
* [http://wiki.obed.org.uk/index.php?title=Main_Page Open Biofuel Engine Development (OBEDwiki)]
* [http://web.mit.edu/murj/www/v15/v15-Features/v15-f1.pdf UVO at MIT]
* [http://www.bioenergy.nl/Flex/Site/Download.aspx?ID=1843 Bio-oil CHP is booming!]
* [http://www.tfz.bayern.de/sonstiges/16411/mb_2re_umruester_bhkw.pdf List of CHP producers]
* [http://www.bv-pflanzenoele.de/motor_bhkw.html BVP - German PPO fuel association - CHP page]
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