Shingle Oak


Shingle Oak

Taxobox
name = Shingle Oak


image_width = 240px
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Fagales
familia = Fagaceae
genus = "Quercus"
sectio = "Lobatae"
species = "Q. imbricaria"
binomial = "Quercus imbricaria"
binomial_authority = Michx.

Shingle Oak ("Quercus imbricaria") is a deciduous tree in the red oak group of oaks. It is native primarily to the Midwestern and Upper South regions of North America, from southern New York west to southern Wisconsin and eastern Kansas, and south to central Alabama and Arkansas. It is most commonly found growing in uplands with good drainage, less often along lowland streams, at 100-700 m altitude.

It is a medium-sized tree growing to 20 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter (rarely 1.4 m). It is distinguished from most other oaks by its leaves, which are shaped like laurel leaves, 8-20 cm long and 1.5-7.5 cm broad with an entire margin; they are bright green above, paler and somewhat downy beneath. The fruit is an acorn, 9-18 mm long and wide with a shallow cup; they are mature about 18 months after pollination. They are an important food for squirrels and some birds.

Description

A tree usually fifty to sixty feet high, maximum height one hundred, with broad pyramidal head when young, becoming in old age broad-topped and open. Rare in the east, abundant in the lower Ohio valley and middle of Mississippi valley. Reaches its largest size in southern Illinois and Indiana.

* Bark: Light brown, scaly; on young stems light brown, smooth. Branchlets slender, dark green and shining at first, later become light brown, finally dark brown.
* Wood: Pale reddish brown, sapwood lighter; heavy, hard coarse-grained, checks badly in drying; used for shingles and sometimes in construction. Sp. gr., 0.7529; weight of cu. ft., 46.92 lbs.
* Winter buds: Light brown, ovate, acute, one-eight inch long.
* Leaves: Alternate, oblong or obovate, four to six inches long, one to two inches wide, wedge-shaped or rounded at base, acute or rounded at apex, sometimes entire or with undulated margins, sometimes more or less three-lobed. They come out of the bud involute, bright red, covered with rusty down above and white tomentum below. When full grown are dark green, smooth and shining above, pale green or pale brown, downy below; midribs stout yellow, grooved above, primary veins slender. In autumn they become dark red above, pale beneath, midribs darken, then the leaf. Petioles stout, hairy, flattened, grooved. Stipules about one-half inch long, caducous.
* Flowers: May, when leaves are half grown. Staminate flowers borne on tomentose aments two to three inches long. Bracts linear-lanceoate. Calyx pale yellow, downy, four-lobed; stamens four to five; anthers yellow. Pistillate flowers borne on slender tomentose peduncles. Involucral scales are downy, about as long as the calyx lobes; stigmas short, reflexed, greenish-yellow.
* Acorns: Ripen in autumn of second year; stalked, solitary or in pairs; nut almost spherical, one-half to two-thirds inch long; cup embraces one-half to two-thirds nut, is cup-shaped covered with light red brown, downy scales, rounded or acute at apex. Kernel very bitter.cite book
last =Keeler
first =Harriet L.
title =Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them
publisher =Charles Scriber's Sons
date =1900
location =New York
pages =372-374
]

Cultivation and uses

In the past, the wood was important for making shingles, from which the name derives.

Hybrids

*"Q. × leana" Nutt. ("Q. velutina" x "Q. imbricaria") (Lea's Hybrid Oak), a naturally occurring hybrid of the Black Oak and Shingle Oak, growing to 20 m, a native of south-eastern North America, also found in a few European collections.

References

* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233501047 "Flora of North America": "Quercus imbricaria"]
* [http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/species/frame/quim.htm "Quercus imbricaria" images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Shingle oak — Shingle Shin gle, n. [OE. shingle, shindle, fr. L. scindula, scandula; cf. scindere to cleave, to split, E. shed, v. t., Gr. ???, ???, shingle, ??? to slit.] 1. A piece of wood sawed or rived thin and small, with one end thinner than the other,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Shingle oak — Oak Oak ([=o]k), n. [OE. oke, ok, ak, AS. [=a]c; akin to D. eik, G. eiche, OHG. eih, Icel. eik, Sw. ek, Dan. eeg.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Bot.) Any tree or shrub of the genus {Quercus}. The oaks have alternate leaves, often variously lobed, and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • shingle oak — malksninis ąžuolas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Bukinių šeimos dekoratyvinis, medieninis augalas (Quercus imbricaria), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Quercus imbricaria angl. shingle oak šaltinis Valstybinės lietuvių… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • shingle oak — noun small deciduous tree of eastern and central United States having leaves that shine like laurel; wood is used in western states for shingles • Syn: ↑laurel oak, ↑Quercus imbricaria • Hypernyms: ↑oak, ↑oak tree * * * noun Etymology …   Useful english dictionary

  • shingle oak — an oak, Quercus imbricaria, yielding a wood used for shingles, clapboards, etc. [1805 15, Amer.] * * * …   Universalium

  • Shingle — Shin gle, n. [OE. shingle, shindle, fr. L. scindula, scandula; cf. scindere to cleave, to split, E. shed, v. t., Gr. ???, ???, shingle, ??? to slit.] 1. A piece of wood sawed or rived thin and small, with one end thinner than the other, used in… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Oak — ([=o]k), n. [OE. oke, ok, ak, AS. [=a]c; akin to D. eik, G. eiche, OHG. eih, Icel. eik, Sw. ek, Dan. eeg.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Bot.) Any tree or shrub of the genus {Quercus}. The oaks have alternate leaves, often variously lobed, and staminate… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Oak apple — Oak Oak ([=o]k), n. [OE. oke, ok, ak, AS. [=a]c; akin to D. eik, G. eiche, OHG. eih, Icel. eik, Sw. ek, Dan. eeg.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Bot.) Any tree or shrub of the genus {Quercus}. The oaks have alternate leaves, often variously lobed, and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Oak beauty — Oak Oak ([=o]k), n. [OE. oke, ok, ak, AS. [=a]c; akin to D. eik, G. eiche, OHG. eih, Icel. eik, Sw. ek, Dan. eeg.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Bot.) Any tree or shrub of the genus {Quercus}. The oaks have alternate leaves, often variously lobed, and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Oak gall — Oak Oak ([=o]k), n. [OE. oke, ok, ak, AS. [=a]c; akin to D. eik, G. eiche, OHG. eih, Icel. eik, Sw. ek, Dan. eeg.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Bot.) Any tree or shrub of the genus {Quercus}. The oaks have alternate leaves, often variously lobed, and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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