Sanskritgrammatical tradition of IAST|vyākaraṇa is one of the six Vedangadisciplines. It has its roots in late Vedic India, and includes the famous work, IAST|"Aṣṭādhyāyī", of Pāṇini(ca. 4th century BCE).
The impetus for linguistic analysis and grammar in India originates in the need to be able to obtain a strict interpretation for the Vedic texts. The work of the very early Indian grammarians have been lost; for example, the work of
Sakatayana(roughly 8th c. BCE) is known only from cryptic references by Yaska(ca. 6th-5th c. BCE) and Panini. One of the views of Sakatayana that was to prove controversial in coming centuries was that most nouns are etymologically derivable from verbs.
In his monumental work on
etymology, "Nirukta", Yaska supported this claim based on the large number of nouns that were derived from verbs through a derivation process that became known as "krit-pratyaya"; this relates to the nature of the root morphemes.
Yaska also provided the seeds for another debate, whether textual meaning inheres in the word (Yaska's view) or in the sentence (see Panini, and later grammarians such as
Prabhakaraor Bhartrihari). This debate continued into the 14th and 15th c. CE, and is relevant even today perhaps, with the debate on the
Dynamic Turn in Semantics, which says that meaning in language is dynamically created and it may not be possible to compose the meaning from those of the wordscite book
Bimal Krishna Matilal
title = The word and the world: India's contribution to the study of language
publisher = Oxford
year = 1990 Chapter 8 deals with the compositionality vs holistic debate in linguistics. ] .
A few centuries after
Yaska, IAST|Pāṇini's extensive analysis of the processes of phonology, morphology and syntax, the "IAST|Aṣṭadhyāyī", laid down the basis for centuries of commentaries and expositions by following Sanskrit grammarians. IAST|Pāṇini's approach was amazingly formal; his production rules for deriving complex structures and sentences represent modern finite state machines. Indeed many of the developments in Indian Mathematics, especially the place valuenotational system may have originated from IAST|Pāṇinian analysis. Panini's grammar consists of four parts:
phonology(notations for phonemes specified in 14 lines)
* IAST|Aṣṭadhyāyī: morphology (construction rules for complexes)
* IAST|Dhātupāṭha: list of roots (classes of
* IAST|Gaṇapāṭha: lists classes of primitive
Commentators on Panini and some of their views:
* Kātyāyana (linguist and mathematician, c. 300 BCE): that the word-meaning relation is "siddha", i.e. given and non-decomposable, an idea that the Sanskriticist
Ferdinand de Saussurecalled "arbitrary". Word meanings refer to universals that are inherent in the word itself (close to a nominalistposition).
Patanjali(linguist and yoga sutras, c. 200 BCE) - author of Mahabhashya. The notion of "shabdapramânah" - that the evidentiary value of words is inherent in them, and not derived externally. Not to be confused with the founder of the Yogasystem.
Nyayaschool, close to the realist position (as in Plato). Considers the word-meaning relation as created through human convention. Sentence meaning is principally determined by the main noun. uddyotkara, Vachaspati (sound-universals or phonemes)
Mimamsaschool. E.g. sentence meaning relies mostly on the verb (corresponds to the modern notion of linguistic head). Kumarila Bhatta(7th c.), prabhakara(7th c. CE).
Bhartrihari(c. 5th c. CE) that meaning is determined by larger contextual units than the word alone (holism).
Buddhistschool, including Nagarjuna(logic/philosophy, c. 150 CE) Dignaga(semantics and logic, c.5th c. CE), Dharmakirti.
Predecessors referred to in Ashtadhyayi include
Sakatayana, and Gargya.
Early Modern Indian linguists who revived Panini's school include
Bhattoji Dikshitaand Varadaraja.
Preceding Eleven Schools
Panini's "Ashtadhyayi", which is said to have eclipsed all other contemporary schools of grammar, mentions the names of eleven schools of Sanskrit grammar that preceded it.
These schools, most of which are now extinct are
The earliest external historical accounts of Indian grammatical tradition is from Chinese
Buddhistpilgrims to India from the 7th century[ Frits Staal, "A Reader on the Sanskrit Grammarians", Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1972), reprint by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi (1985), ISBN 81-208-0029-X.] .
*I Ching (634-713)
The "Indica" of
Al-Biruni(973-1048), dating to ca. 1030contains detailed descriptions of all branches of Hindu science.
Similar to the Chinese Buddhists,
Tibetan Buddhismaroused interest in India among its followers. Taranatha(born 1573) in his treatise of the history of Buddhism in India (completed around 1608) speaks about Panini and provides some information about grammars, but not in the manner of a person familiar with their content. Gaudiya VaishnavaSanskrit grammar is outlined by Jiva Goswamiin his IAST|Hari-nāmāmṛta-vyākaraṇam. [ [http://www.granthamandira.org/categories.php?cat_id=40 Sri Jiva] - IAST|Hari-nāmāmṛta-vyākaraṇam]
Modern Sanskrit grammarians
Beginning of Western scholarship
Jean Francois Pons
Henry Thomas Colebrooke
August Wilhelm von Schlegel
Wilhelm von Humboldt
Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar
William Dwight Whitney
Jacob Wackernagel, " Altindische Grammatik"
20th century to present
Bimal Krishna Matilal
Paruthiyur Krishna Sastri
Kshetresa Chandra Chattopadhyaya
Sri Sribhuti Krishna Goswami
Sri Pundrik Goswami
*Coward, Harold G., and K. Kunjunni Raja, eds., "The Philosophy of the Grammarians", Volume V of Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, ed. Karl Potter, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.
Schools of Sanskrit grammar
Aindra school of grammar
Sanskrit in the West
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Vyākaraṇa — (devanāgarī: व्याकरण) signifie en sanskrit « séparation », « distinction » ou encore« analyse ». Vyākaraṇa désigne aussi l une des six disciplines annexes du Veda (Vedāṅga) et concerne la grammaire. Sommaire 1… … Wikipédia en Français
Hari-namamrta-vyakarana — fundamental Gaudia Vaishnava grammar by Jiva Goswami. IAST|Hari nāmāmṛta vyākaraṇam (literally, The Grammar of the Nectar of the Names of Hari ) of Jiva is a unique Sanskrit grammar in which all the technical terms in the sutras are names of… … Wikipedia
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bāla-vyākaraṇa — बालव्याकरण … Indonesian dictionary
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dīpa-vyākaraṇa — दीपव्याकरण … Indonesian dictionary
dīpaka-vyākaraṇa — दीपकव्याकरण … Indonesian dictionary
gárbha-vyākaraṇa — गर्भव्याकरण … Indonesian dictionary